The Scottish Health Survey 2008

The Scottish Health Survey 2008

7 OBESITY - References and notes

1. Bromley, C., Shelton, N. and Sproston, K. (2005). 2003 Scottish Health Survey: Volume 2 Adults, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.

2. World Health Organisation (2009). WHO Obesity Factsheet. [online] Available from: [Accessed 16/4/2009]

3. Figures for developed countries taken from: OECD (2007). Health at a Glance 2007: Focus on Quality of Care. OECD.

4. Foresight (2008). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices - Project Report (2nd edition). London: Government Office for Science.

5. Grant, I., Fischbacher, C., and Whyte, B. (2007). Obesity in Scotland - An epidemiology briefing. Edinburgh: NHS National Services Scotland/Scottish Public Health Observatory. [online] Available from:

6. Atlantis, E. and Baker, M. (2008). Obesity effects on depression: systematic review of epidemiological studies. International Journal of Obesity.32, 881-891.

7. Jonsson, S., Hedblad, B., and Engstrom, G. et al (2002). Influence of obesity on cardiovascular risk. Twenty-three-year follow-up of 22,025 men from an urban Swedish population . International Journal of Obesity.8, 1046-53.

8. Prospective Studies Collaboration (2009). Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. The Lancet. 373, 1083-96.

9. Walker, A. (2003). The Cost of Doing Nothing: the Economics of Obesity in Scotland. National Obesity Forum.

10. James, W.P. (2008. The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem. Journal of Internal Medicine. 263 (4), 336-52.

11. Healthy Eating, Active Living: An action plan to improve diet, increase physical activity and tackle obesity (2008-2011), Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2008.

12. See: and

13. Scottish Budget Spending Review 2007, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2007. [online] Available from: See also:

14. See: for details about the measurement of this indicator.

15. The HEAT targets derive their name from the four strands in the performance framework: the Health of the population; Efficiency and productivity, resources and workforce; Access to services and waiting times; and Treatment and quality of services

16. Dauphinot, V., Wolff, H., Naudin, F., Gueguen, R., Sermet, C., Gaspoz, J-M. and Kossovsky, M.P. (2009). New obesity body mass index threshold for self-reported data. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.63,128-132

17. For a full review of obesity measures see: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). CG43 Obesity: full guideline, section 2: Identification and Classification. [online] Available from:

18. The Frankfort Plane is an imaginary line passing through the external ear canal and across the top of the lower bone of the eye socket, immediately under the eye. Participants' heads are positioned with the Frankfort Plane in a horizontal position when height is measured using a stadiometer as a means of ensuring that, as far as possible, the measurements taken are standardised.

19. Romero-Corral, A. et al (2008). Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. International Journal of Obesity. 32, 959-966.

20. These cut-offs differ to those used in the previous surveys. In 1995 and 1998 the normal weight range was defined as 20-25 kg/m 2, in 2003 it was changed to 18.5-25 kg/m 2. From 2008 onwards the ranges will be defined as set out below. This brings the definition in line with WHO recommendations. The impact of the change of definition is very marginal as very few people have a BMI measurement that is exactly 18.5, 25, 30 or 40 kg/m 2.


2008 onwards


18.5 or under

Less than 18.5

Normal weight

Over 18.5 - 25

18.5 to less than 25


Over 25 - 30

25 to less than 30


Over 30 - 40

30 to less than 40

Morbidly obese

Over 40


21. World Health Organisation. (2000). The problems of overweight and obesity. In: WHO. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 894. Geneva: WHO. [online] Available from:

22. NHS Consensus Development Conference. (2006). Gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity . Nutrition. 12, 397-402.

23. Daniels, S.R., Khoury, P.R. and Morrison, J.A. (1997). The utility of body mass index as a measure of body fatness in children and adolescents: Differences by race and gender. Pediatrics. 99, 804-807.

24. Lohman, T.G. (1986). Applicability of body-composition techniques and constants for children and youths. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 14, 325-357.

25. Steinbeck, K. (2001). The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood: a review and an opinion. Obesity Review. 2, 117-130.

26. Hammer, L., Kraemer, H. and Wilson, D. et al. (1991). Standardised percentile curves of body mass index for children and adolescents. American Journal of Diseases in Children.145, 259-263.

27. Cole, T., Freeman, J.V. and Preece, M.A. (1990). Body mass index reference curves for the UK. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 73, 25-29.

28. Cole, T., Freeman, J.V. and Preece, M.A. (1998). British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalised likelihood . Statistics in Medicine. 17, 407-429.

29. Rolland-Cachera, M.F. (1999). Defining obesity in childhood. In: Guy-Grand, B. and Ailhaud, G. (eds.) Progress in Obesity Research: 8. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Obesity. London: John Libbey and Co.

30. Europe Overweight and Obesity in Children Task Force. (2000). Overweight and obesity in European children and adolescents. Causes and consequences-prevention and treatment. Brussels: International Life Sciences Institute.

31. Cole, T., Bellizzi, M., Flegal, K. and Dietz, W.H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: an international survey. British Medical Journal.320, 1-6.

32. Chinn, S. and Rona, R.J. (2002). International definitions of overweight and obesity for children: a lasting solution? Annals of Human Biology. 29, 306-313.

33. Jotangia, D., Moody, A., Stamatakis, E., et al. (2005). Obesity among children under 11. London: Department of Health in collaboration with the Health and Social Care Information Centre. [online] Available from:

34. Reilly J, Dorosty A, Emmett, P. (1999). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in British children: cohort study. British Medical Journal.319: 1039.

35. Bundred P, Kitciner D, Buchan I. (2001). Prevalence of overweight and obese children between 1989 and 1998: population based series of cross sectional studies. British Medical Journal.322: 1-4.

36. Rudolf, M.C.J, Sahota, P., Barth, J.H. and Walker J. (2001). Increasing prevalence of obesity in primary school children: cohort study. British Medical Journal. 322, 1094-1095.

37. Reilly, J.J. (2002). Assessment of childhood obesity: National reference data or international approach? Obesity Research. 10, 838-840.

38. Reilly, J.J., Wilson, M.L., Summerbell, C.D. and Wilson, D.C. (2002). Obesity: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment; evidence based answers to common questions. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 86, 392-395.

39. This method has been developed by ISD Scotland, full details of the procedure are available on request from the Scottish Government Health Survey team.

40. Scholes, S. (2008). Chapter 8: Children's BMI, overweight and obesity. In Craig, C. and Shelton, N. (eds.). The Health Survey for England 2007: Volume 1. Leeds: The Information Centre.

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