References and notes
1. World Health Organisation (2018). Fact Sheet Obesity and Overweight. Available at: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html
2. Moody A (2013). Chapter 10: Adult anthropemetric measures, overweight and obesity. In: Craig R, Mindell J (eds). Health Survey for England 2012. Volume 1: Health, social care and lifestyles. Leeds: Health and Social Care Information Centre. Available from: http://content.digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB13218/HSE2012-Ch10-Adult-BMI.pdf
3. Katrina F Brown et al (2018) The fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 2015 http://www.nature.com/articles/s41416-018-0029-6
4. Cherbuin, N, Young, J (2011). Body mass index in midlife and late-life as a risk factor for dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Obesity Reviews;12(5): 426-37.
5. Atti, AR, Pedersen, NL, Fratiglioni, L. Midlife overweight and obesity increase late-life dementia risk: a population-based twin study. Neurology; 76(18): 1568-74.
6. Walach, H. Midlife obesity and dementia: meta-analysis and adjusted forecast of dementia prevalence in the United States and China. Obesity; 21(1): 51-5.
7. Nathan, BM and Moran, A (2008). Metabolic complications of obesity in childhood and adolescence: more than just diabetes. Current Opinion in Endocrinology Diabetes and Obesity; 15(1): 21-29.
8. SIGN (2010). Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Management of Obesity – A National Clinical Guideline. SIGN guideline no. 115. Available from: http://www.sign.ac.uk/assets/sign115.pdf
9. Grant, I, Fischbacher, C, and Whyte, B (2007). Obesity in Scotland – An Epidemiology Briefing. Edinburgh: NHS National Services Scotland/Scottish Public Health Observatory. Available from: https://www.scotpho.org.uk/media/1246/scotpho070925_obesityinscotland_rep.pdf
10. Oude Luttikhuis, H, Baur, L, Jansen, H, Shrewsbury, VA, O'Malley, C, Stolk, RP and Summerbell, CD (2009). Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001872
11. Waters, E, de Silva-Sanigorski, A, Hall, BJ, Brown, T, Campbell, KJ, Gao, Y, Armstrong, R, Prosser, L, Summerbell, CD (2011). Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Issue 12. Art. No.: CD001871.
12. SPICe Briefing – Obesity in Scotland. January 2015. Edinburgh: Scottish Parliament, 2015. Available from: www.scottish.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefingsAndFactSheets/S4/SB_15-01_Obesity_in_Scotland.pdf
13. A Healthier Future – Scotland's Diet and Healthy Weight Delivery Plan. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. 2018. https://www.gov.scot/Resource/0053/00537708.pdf
14. A more active Scotland: Scotland's Physical Activity Delivery Plan. Edinburgh: Scottish Governmnet. 2018. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0053/00537494.pdf
15. See: http://nationalperformance.gov.scot/
16. A Nation with Ambition: The Government's Programme for Scotland 2017-18. Available from: www.gov.scot/Publications/2017/09/8468
17. Keith, SW, Fontaine, KR, Pajewski, NM, Metha,, T and Allison, D (2011). Use of self-reported height and weight biases the body mass index-mortality association. International Journal of Obesity; 35:401‑8.
18. Merrill, RM and Richardson, JS (2009). Validity of Self-Reported Height, Weight and Body Mass Index: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2006. Preventing Chronic Disease; 6(4): 61-10.
19. See: www.gov.scot/scottishhealthsurvey
20. The Frankfort Plane is an imaginary line passing through the external ear canal and across the top of the lower bone of the eye socket, immediately under the eye. Participants' heads are positioned with the Frankfort Plane in a horizontal position when height is measured using a stadiometer as a means of ensuring that, as far as possible, the measurements taken are standardised.
21. These cut-offs differ to those used in the previous surveys. In 1995 and 1998 the normal weight range was defined as 20-25 kg/m2, in 2003 it was changed to 18.5-25 kg/m2. From 2008 onwards the ranges are defined as set out below. This brings the definition in line with WHO recommendations. The impact of the change of definition is very marginal as very few people have a BMI measurement that is exactly 18.5, 25, 30 or 40 kg/m2.
|Underweight||18.5 or under||Less than 18.5|
|Normal weight||Over 18.5 – 25||18.5 to less than 25|
|Overweight||Over 25 – 30||25 to less than 30|
|Obese||Over 30 – 40||30 to less than 40|
|Morbidly obese||Over 40||40+|
22. Bellizzi, MC and Dietz, WH (1999). Workshop on childhood obesity: summary of the discussion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 70: 173-175
23. Daniels, SR, Khoury, PR and Morrison, JA (1997). The utility of body mass index as a measure of body fatness in children and adolescents: Differences by race and gender. Pediatrics: 99: 804-807.
24. Cole, T, Freeman, JV and Preece, MA (1990). Body mass index reference curves for the UK. Archives of Disease in Childhood; 73: 25-29.
25. Cole, T, Freeman, JV and Preece, MA (1998). British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalised likelihood. Statistics in Medicine; 17: 407-429.
26. Reilly, JJ (2002). Assessment of childhood obesity: National reference data or international approach? Obesity Research; 10: 838-840.
27. Reilly, JJ, Wilson, ML, Summerbell, CD, and Wilson, DC (2002). Obesity: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment; evidence based answers to common questions. Archives of Disease in Childhood; 86: 392-395.
28. Jotangia, D, Moody, A, Stamatakis, E and Wardle, H (2005). Obesity Among Children Under 11. London: Department of Health in collaboration with the Health and Social Care Information Centre. Available from: http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/5841/1/dh_065358.pdf
29. Reilly, J, Dorosty, A, and Emmett, P (1999). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in British children: cohort study. British Medical Journal; 319: 1039.
30. Bundred, P, Kitciner, D and Buchan, I (2001). Prevalence of overweight and obese children between 1989 and 1998: population based series of cross sectional studies. British Medical Journal; 322: 1-4.
31. Rudolf, MCJ, Sahota, P, Barth, JH, and Walker, J (2001). Increasing prevalence of obesity in primary school children: cohort study. British Medical Journal; 322: 1094-1095.
32. This method has been developed by ISD Scotland, full details of the procedure are available on request from the Scottish Government Scottish Health Survey Team.
34. Romero-Corral, A. et al (2008). Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. International Journal of Obesity 32: 959–966.
35. Moody A. Adult anthropemetric measures, overweight and obesity. Chapter 10 in Craig R, Mindell J (eds). Health Survey for England 2012. Volume 1: Health, social care and lifestyles. Health and Social Care Information Centre, Leeds, 2013.
36. Lean M, Han T, Morrison C. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ 1995; 311:158-61.
37. Schneider HJ, Friedrich N, Klotsche J et al. The predictive value of different measures of obesity for incident cardiovascular events and mortality. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 201; 95(4):1777-1785.
38. National Institutes of Health. Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health 2001. NIH Publication 01-3670.
39. A high waist circumference of 94 cm for men is equivalent to one of 94.6cm following the interviewer protocol. A very high waist circumference of 102 cm is equivalent to one of 102.75cm. A high waist circumference of 80cm for women is equivalent to one of 82.4cm following the interviewer protocol. A very high waist circumference of 88cm is equivalent to one of 91.35cm.
40. Flegal KM. Waist circumference of healthy men and women in the United States. Int J Obes. 2007;31:1134-9.
41. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Management of Obesity – A National Clinical Guideline. SIGN guideline no. 115. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2010. https://www.sign.ac.uk/assets/sign115.pdf
42. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Management of Obesity – A National Clinical Guideline. SIGN guideline no. 115. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2010. https://www.sign.ac.uk/assets/sign115.pdf
43. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Management of Obesity – A National Clinical Guideline. SIGN guideline no. 115. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2010.https://www.sign.ac.uk/assets/sign115.pdf