References and notes
1. Gambling Commission (2018) Gambling Particiaption in 2017: behaviour, awareness and attitudes. Available from: http://live-gamblecom.cloud.contensis.com/PDF/survey-data/Gambling-participation-in-2017-behaviour-awareness-and-attitudes.pdf
2. Ofcom (2013). Trends in Advertising Activity – Gambling. (Conducted by Zinc Research & Analytics). Available from: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0026/53387/trends_in_ad_activity_gambling.pdf
4. Griffiths, M (2004). Betting your life on it: Problem gambling has clear health related consequences. British Medical Journal 329(7474): 1055–1056.
5. GamCare (2017) Annual Statistics. Available from: www.gamcare.org.uk/sites/default/files/file_attach/GamCare%20Annual%20Statistics%202016-17%20FINAL.pdf
6. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV); Wynne H.J. (2003). Introducing the Canadian Problem Gambling Screen. Edmonton, Canada: Wynne Resources.
7. Gambling Act 2005. Available at: www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2005/19/pdfs/ukpga_20050019_en.pdf
8. For further information see: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/Acts/acts2005/ukpga_20050019_en_2
9. Griffiths, M.D. (2007). (2007). Gambling Addiction and Its Treatment Within the NHS: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London: British Medical Association. http://www.bma.org.uk/ap.nsf/Content/gamblingaddiction
10. Consultation on proposals for changes to Gaming Machines and Social Responsibility Measures (2017). London: Department for Digital Culture, Media and Sport. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/655969/Consultation_on_proposals_for_changes_to_Gaming_Machines_and_Social_Responsibility_Measures.pdf
11. Gambling Protection and Controls. London: Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2014). Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/307458/Gambling_Protections_and_Controls_.pdf
12. Review of Gaming Machines and Social Responsibility Measures. (2016) London: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Available from: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/562122/Call_for_evidence_-_Review_of_Gaming_Machines_and_Social_Responsibility_Measures.pdf
13. CAP (2014). The CAP Code: The UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising and Direct & Promotional Marketing. Edition 12. London: The Committee of Advertising Practice. Available from: www.asa.org.uk/asset/47EB51E7%2D028D%2D4509%2DAB3C0F4822C9A3C4/
15. Potenza, M. N., Fiellin, D. A., Heninger, G. R., Rounsaville, B. J. and Mazure, C. M. (2002). Gambling. Journal of General Internal Medicine 17: 721–732. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2002.10812.x
16. See: www.gov.scot/scottishhealthsurvey
17. The BGPS 1999 and 2007 used a paper self-completion booklet to collect data. In 2010, computer-assisted self-completion was used which allowed the questionnaire to have a more complex structure as more follow-up questions could be asked. As the Scottish Health Survey used a paper self-completion, the questionnaire structure and format of the 1999 and 2007 studies was followed.
18. Lesieur H.R, Rosenthal M.D. (1991). Pathological gambling: A review of the literature (prepared for the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on DSM-IV Committee on disorders of impulse control not elsewhere classified). Journal of Gambling Studies 7, 1, 5-40.
19. Abbott, M., Volberg., R (2007) The measurement of adult problem and pathological gambling. International Gambling Studies, 6(2); 175-200.
20. This is with the exception of chasing losses which is rated on a scale ranging between 'never' and 'everytime I lost'.
21. Orford J., Wardle H., Griffiths M., Sproston K., Erens B., (2010). PGSI and DSM-IV in the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey: reliability, item response, factor structure and inter-scale agreement. International Gambling Studies 10(1); 31-44.
22. The categorisation and screening of problem and pathological gambling has been reviewed and revised in the recently published DSM V. Main changes made were that the term pathological gambling was replaced with the term 'gambling disorder', that the crime criterion be removed from classification and that the threshold for identifying 'gambling disorders' be dropped from 5 (formerly the threshold for identifying pathological gamblers) to 4. However, the DSM V was not officially released at the time of Scottish Health Survey 2012 fieldwork. Therefore, this chapter uses the standards set by the DSM IV and replicates the scoring methods used in the BGPS series to allow comparisons to be made.
23. Some researchers have recommended that different (lower) thresholds should be used when identifying problem gamblers using the PGSI. However, these recommendations have not been universally accepted and are not currently endorsed by the original developers of the PGSI instrument. Therefore, this chapter uses the thresholds and categorisation recommended by the original developers and replicates the methods used in the BGPS, also allowing comparisons to be made.
24. Goldberg, D and Williams, PA (1988). A User's Guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
25. Wardle, H. (2012). Chapter 9: Gambling. In: Rutherford, L, Hinchcliffe S, Sharp S (eds). The 2011 Scottish Health Survey – Volume 1. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/09/3684/13