Publication - Statistics publication

References and notes

1. World Health Organization (2018) Alcohol Fact Sheet. Available from: www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/alcohol

2. Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Act 2012. See: www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2012/4/contents/enacted

3. See: www.gov.scot/Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/minimum-pricing

4. Mathers C, Stevens G and Mascarenhas M (2009). Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available from: www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf

5. World Health Organisation (2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. Available from: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/en/

6. Mathers C, Stevens G and Mascarenhas M (2009). Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available from: www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf

7. NHS Health Scotland (2018). Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy. Available from: http://www.healthscotland.scot/publications/mesas-monitoring-report-2018

8. Anderson, P. and Baumberg, B. (2006) Alcohol in Europe, London: Institute of Alcohol Studies

9. See: https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/vital-events/deaths/alcohol-related-deaths

10. NHS Health Scptland (2018). Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy. Available from: http://www.healthscotland.scot/publications/mesas-monitoring-report-2018

11. NHS Health Scptland (2018). Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy. Available from: http:///uploads/documents/15580-: http://www.healthscotland.scot/publications/mesas-monitoring-report-2018

12. NHS Health Scptland (2018). Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy. Available from: : http://www.healthscotland.scot/publications/mesas-monitoring-report-2018

13. Alcohol-Related Hospital Statistics Scotland 2016/17, Edinburgh: NHS National Services Scotland, Information Services Division, 2017. Available from: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Drugs-and-Alcohol-Misuse/Publications/2017-11-21/2017-11-21-ARHS-Report.pdf

14. Alcohol-Related Hospital Statistics Scotland 2016/17, Edinburgh: NHS National Services Scotland, Information Services Division, 2017. Available from: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Drugs-and-Alcohol-Misuse/Publications/2017-11-21/2017-11-21-ARHS-Report.pdf

15. Beeston C, Robinson M, Craig N and Graham L (2011). Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy. Setting the Scene: Theory of change and baseline picture. Edinburgh: NHS Health Scotland. Available from: www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/15580-MESASsettingTheSceneReport.pdf

16. Katikireddi SV, Whitley E, Lewsey J, Gray L and Leyland AH (2017). Socioeconomic status as an effect modifier of alcohol consumption and harm: analysis of linked cohort data. Lancet Public Health; 2: 267–76.

17. Alcohol-Related Hospital Statistics Scotland 2016/17, Edinburgh: NHS National Services Scotland, Information Services Division, 2017. Available from: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Drugs-and-Alcohol-Misuse/Publications/2017-11-21/2017-11-21-ARHS-Report.pdf

18. Hope A, Curran J, Bell G & Platts A (2014). Unrecognised and under-reported: the impact of alcohol on people other than the drinker in Scotland. Glasgow: Alcohol Focus Scotland. Available from: www.afinetwork.info/docs/unrecognised-under-reported.pdf.

19. Institute of Alcohol Studies (2015). Alcohol's Harm to Others. Available from: http://www.ias.org.uk/uploads/pdf/IAS%20reports/rp18072015.pdf

20. Scottish Prison Service (2015) Young People in Custody Available from: http://www.sps.gov.uk/Corporate/Publications/Publication-3908.aspx

21. Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2016/17: Main Findings Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2017. Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0053/00533870.pdf

22. Sharp C, Marcinkiewicz A and Rutherford L. Attitudes towards alcohol in Scotland: results from the 2014 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey. Edinburgh: NHS Health Scotland, 2014. Available from: http://www.scotcen.org.uk/media/338791/ssa-2013-alcohol-report-final.pdf

23. Framework for Action: Changing Scotland's relationship with alcohol. Final business and regulatory impact assessment for minimum price per unit of alcohol as contained in Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Bill. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2012. Available from: www.gov.scot/Resource/0039/00395549.pdf

24. Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS): Alcohol Report, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2015. Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Research/by-topic/health-community-care/social-research/SALSUS

25. World Health Organization (2016). Growing Up Unequal: Gender and Socioeconomic Differences in Young People's Health and Well-being. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: International Report from the 2013/2014 survey. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/303438/HSBC-No.7-Growing-up-unequal-Full-Report.pdf?ua=1.

26. See: www.gov.scot/Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol

27. The Societal Cost of Alcohol Misuse in Scotland for 2007, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2010. Available from: www.gov.scot/Publications/2009/12/29122804/21

28. Further information on Scotland Performs can be found at: http://nationalperformance.gov.scot/

29. See: www.gov.scot/Topics/Health/Services/Alcohol/safer-drinking

30. Minimum Unit pricing of Alcohol: Consultation Report: Analysis of Responses. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2018. Available: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2018/02/8164

31. Angus C, Holmes J, Pryce R, Meier P and Brennan A (2016). Model-based appraisal of the comparative impact of Minimum Unit Pricing and taxation policies in Scotland: An adaptation of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy model version 3. Sheffield: University of Sheffield. Available from: www.sheffield.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.565373!/file/Scotland_report_2016.pdf

32. NHS Health Scotland (2018). Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy. Available from: www.healthscotland.scot/media/1863/mesas-monitoring-report-2018.pdf

33. See: http://www.healthscotland.scot/health-topics/alcohol/evaluation-of-minimum-unit-pricing/mup-evaluation-overview

34. Fairer Scotland Action Plan. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2017 Available From: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/10/9964/7

35. Bellis MA, Hughes K, Jones L, Morloe M, Nichols J, McCoy E, Webster J and Sumnall H (2015). Holidays, celebrations, and commiserations: measuring drinking during feasting and fasting to improve national and individual estimates of alcohol consumption. BMC Med; 13(1): 113. Available from: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-015-0337-0

36. Torvik FA, Rognmo K and Tambs K (2012). Alcohol use and mental distress as predictors of non-response in a general population health survey: the HUNT study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology; 47(5):805-816. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328681/

37. Gorman E, Leyland AH, McCartney G, White IR, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Graham L and Gray L (2014). Assessing the representativeness of population-sampled health surveys through linkage to administrative data on alcohol-related outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology; 180(9): 941-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4207717/

38. Gorman E, Leyland AH, McCartney G, Katikireddi SV, Rutherford L, Graham L, Robinson M and Gray L (2017). Adjustment for survey non-representativeness using record-linkage: refined estimates of alcohol consumption by deprivation in Scotland. Addiction; 112(7): 1270-1280. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.13797

39. Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy (MESAS) Monitoring Report. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2018. Available from: http://www.healthscotland.scot/publications/mesas-monitoring-report-2018

40. See: www.gov.scot/scottishhealthsurvey

41. Comparing official statistics across the UK. Government Statistical Service, 2016. Available from: https://gss.civilservice.gov.uk/policy-store/comparing-official-statistics-across-the-uk/

42. Reid S (2012). Chapter 3: Alcohol consumption. In: Bromley C, Bradshaw P and Given L. (eds.) The 2008 Scottish Health Survey – Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. 2009. Available from: www.gov.scot/Publications/2009/09/28102003/31

43. For participants aged 16 and 17, details on alcohol consumption were collected as part of a special smoking and drinking self-completion questionnaire. Some aged 18 and 19 also completed the self-completion if the interviewer felt it was appropriate. For all other adult participants, the information was collected as part of the face-to-face interview. The method of estimating consumption follows that originally developed for use in the General Household Survey and is also used in the Health Survey for England. For six types of alcoholic drink (normal strength beer/lager/cider/shandy, strong beer/lager/cider, spirits/liqueurs, fortified wines, wine, and alcoholic soft drinks), participants were asked about how often they had drunk each one in the past twelve months, and how much they had usually drunk on any one day. The amount given to the latter question was converted into units of alcohol, with a unit equal to half a pint of normal strength beer/lager/cider/alcoholic soft drink, a single measure of spirits, one glass of wine, or one small glass of fortified wine. A half pint of strong beer/lager/cider was equal to 1.5 units. The number of units was then multiplied by the frequency to give an estimate of weekly consumption of each type of drink. The frequency multipliers were:

Drinking frequency Multiplying factor
Almost every day 7.0
5 or 6 times a week 5.5
3 or 4 times a week 3.5
Once or twice a week 1.5
Once or twice a month 0.375
One every couple months 0.115
Once or twice a year 0.029

The separate consumption figures for each type of drink were rounded to two decimal places and then added together to give an overall weekly consumption figure.

44. Participants were first asked if they had drunk alcohol in the past seven days. If they had, they were asked on how many days and, if on more than one, whether they had drunk the same amount on each day or more on one day than others. If they had drunk more on one day than others, they were asked how much they drank on that day. If they had drunk the same on several days, they were asked how much they drank on the most recent of those days. If they had drunk on only one day, they were asked how much they had drunk on that day.

45. Babor, T.F., Higgins-Biddle, J.C., Saunders, J.B. and Monteiro, M.G (2001). AUDIT – The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Guidelines for Use in Primary Care, Second Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.

46. AUDIT questionnaire

Questions 0 1 2 3 4
1. How often do you have a drink containing alcohol? Never Monthly or less 2-4 times a month 2-3 times a week 4 or more times a week
2. How many drinks containing alcohol do you have on a typical day when you are drinking? 1 or 2 3 or 4 5 or 6 7 to 9 10 or more
3. How often do you have six or more drinks on one occasion? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily
4. How often during the last year have you found that you were not able to stop drinking once you had started? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily
5. How often during the last year have you failed to do what was normally expected of you because of drinking? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily
6. How often during the last year have you needed a first drink in the morning to get yourself going after a heavy drinking session? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily
7. How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily
8. How often during the last year have you been unable to remember what happened the night before because of your drinking? Never Less than monthly Monthly Weekly Daily or almost daily
9. Have you or someone else been injured because of your drinking? No   Yes, but not in the last year   Yes, during the last year
10. Has a relative, friend, doctor, or other health care worker been concerned about your drinking last year? No   Yes, but not in the last year   Yes, during the last year

47. Babor, T.F., Higgins-Biddle, J.C., Saunders, J.B. and Monteiro, M.G (2001). AUDIT – The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Guidelines for Use in Primary Care, Second Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.

48. Gray L and Leyland AH (2017). Chapter 1: Alcohol Consumption. In: McLean J, Christie S and Gray L (eds.) The Scottish Health Survey 2016 – Volume 1. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2017/10/2970/345709

49. Gray L and Leyland AH (2017). Chapter 1: Alcohol Consumption. In: McLean J, Christie S and Gray L (eds.) The Scottish Health Survey 2016 – Volume 1. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available from: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2017/10/2970/345709


Contact

Julie.Landsberg@gov.scot