References and notes

1 Brown WJ, Bauman AE, Bull FC, Burton NW (2012). Development of Evidence-based Physical
Activity Recommendations for Adults (18-64 years). Report prepared for the Australian Government
Department of Health, August 2012.
Available from:$File/DEB-PAR-Adults-18-64years.pdf

2 Fogelholm M (2010). Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review. Obesity Reviews; 11(3): 202–221.

3 Lee I-M, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN and Katzmarzyk PT (2012). Impact of Physical
Inactivity on the World’s Major Non-Communicable Diseases. Lancet; 380(9838):219-229.

4 See:

5 Burns, H. and Murray, A (2012). Creating Health Through Physical Activity. BJSM; 1-2.

6 Gow AJ, Bastin ME, Muñoz Maniega S, Valdés Hernández MC, Morris Z, Murray C, Royle NA,
Starr JM, Deary IJ and Wardlaw JM (2012). Neuroprotective lifestyles and the ageing brain:
activity, atrophy and white matter integrity. Neurology; 79(17): 1802-8

7 See:

8 Lee I (2007). Dose-Response Relation Between Physical Activity and Fitness. Even a Little Is Good; More Is Better. JAMA; 297(19): 2137–2139.

9 Health and Social Care Delivery Plan. Edinburgh: Scottish Government 2016. Available from:

10 See:

11 Let’s Get Scotland Walking – the National Walking Strategy. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2014. Available from:

12 See:

13 See:

14 See:

15 See:

16 See:

17 See:

18 The questions used in the survey since 1998 are based on the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, a major study of physical activity among the adult population in England carried out in 1990. For further details see: Health Education Authority. Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey. Health Education Authority and Sports Council, London. 1992

19 Bromley C. (2013) Chapter 6: Physical Activity. In Rutherford L, Hinchliffe S and Sharp C (eds.) Scottish Health Survey 2012 – Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available from:

20 The questions on child physical activity included in SHeS since 1998 are based on the 1997 Health Survey for England (HSE) children’s physical activity module.

21 Up to and including 2016, children were asked to provide information on the average duration of sports and exercise activities for a typical day, and were not asked to differentiate between different weekday or weekend days or to provide a specific duration for each separate day. In this report adherence to the physical activity guidelines is calculated using an average of at least 60 minutes per day. From the start of 2017, the amount of activity the child undertook on each day of the week has been collected. The report of the 2017 data, (to be published next year) will present children’s adherence to the physical activity guidelines on two bases: a) an average of at least 60 minutes per day (as in this report) and b) at least 60 minutes on every day.


Email: Julie Landsberg, Julie Landsberg

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House
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