References and notes
3 Beasley, R (1998). Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. The Lancet; 351(9111): 1225-32.
4 Mukherjee, M, Stoddart, A, Gupta, RP, Nwaru, BI, Farr, A, Heaven, M, Fitzsimmons, D,
Bandyopadhyay, A, Aftab, C, Simpson, CR, Lyons, RA, Fischbacher, C, Dibben, C, Shields, MD,
Phillips, CJ, Strachan, DP, Davies, GA, McKinstry, B and Sheikh, A (2016). The epidemiology, healthcare and societal burden and costs of asthma in the UK and its member nations: analyses of standalone and linked national databases. BMC Med; 14(1):113.
5 See: www.asthma.org.uk/scotland
6 Arruda, LK, Sole, D, Baena-Cagnani, CE and Naspitz, CK (2005). Risk factors for asthma and atopy. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology; 5:153-9.
7 Institute of Medicine (2000). Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures. Washington: National Academy Press.
8 Castro-Giner, F, Künzli, N, Jacquemin, B, Forsberg, B, de Cid, R, Sunyer, J, Kogevinas, M. (2009). Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Oxidative Stress Genes, and Asthma (ECHRS). Environmental Health Perspectives; 117(12): 1919–1924.
9 Kogevinas M, Zock JP, Jarvis D, et al. (2007). Exposure to substances in the workplace and new-onset asthma: an international prospective population-based study (ECRHS-II). Lancet; 370: 336-41.
10 Turner, SW, Mehta, A, Ayres, JG, Palmer, CN and Mukhopadhyay, S (2013). Determinants of Quality of Life in Children with Asthma Who Live in Scotland. Arch Dis Child; 98:A71
11 Auditor General (2016). NHS in Scotland 2016.
Available from: http://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/report/nhs-in-scotland-2016
12 McLean, S, Hoogendoorn, M, Hoogenveen, RT, Feenstra, TL, Wild, S, Simpson, CR, Mölken, MR and Sheikh A (2016). Projecting the COPD population and costs in England and Scotland: 2011 to 2030. Sci Rep; 1(6):31893.
13 World Health Organisation (2012). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Factsheet No.315. Available from: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs315/en/
14 Clinical Standards for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Services. Edinburgh: NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2010. Available from: www.healthcareimprovementscotland.org/our_work/long_term_conditions/copd_implementation/copd_clinical_standards.aspx
15 Postma, DS, Bush, A and Van Den Berge, M (2015). Risk factors and early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Lancet; 385: 899-909.
16 Aanerud, M, Carsin, AE, Sunyer, J, Dratva, J, Gislason, T, Jarvis, D, DeMarco, R, Raherison, C, Wjst, M, Dharmage, SC, Svanes, C (2015).Interaction between asthma and smoking increases the risk of adult airway obstruction. European Respiratory Journal; 45 (3): 635-643.
17 Nwaru, BI, Simpson, CR, Sheikh, A and Kotz D (2017). External validation of a COPD prediction
model using population-based primary care data: a nested case-control study. Sci Rep; 17(7):
21 Clinical Standards for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Services. Edinburgh: NHS Quality
Improvement Scotland, 2010. Available from:
30 Prior to 2012 a fuller version of the MRC Respiratory Symptoms Questionnaire was included in the 1995-2003 and 2008 and 2010 surveys, alongside questions about wheezing and whistling in the chest that were added to the survey in 1998 as part of the asthma module. To reduce duplication and participant burden, from 2012 onwards the MRC Questionnaire items on wheezing were cut (the questions on phlegm and breathlessness were retained).
Email: Julie Landsberg, Julie Landsberg
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