Scottish Health Survey 2016 - volume 1: main report

Statistics relating to the health of people living in Scotland.

References and notes

1 International Food Policy Research Institute (2016). Global Nutrition Report 2016: From Promise
to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030
. Available from:

2 Doll, R (1990). An overview of the epidemiological evidence linking diet and cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 49:119-31.

3 Iqbal, R, Anand, S, Ounpuu, S, Islam, S, Zhang, X, Rangarajan, S et al.(2008) Dietary patterns and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries: results of the INTERHEART study. Circulation; 118:1929-37.

4 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Available from:

5 Jung, S, Spiegelman, S, Baglietto, L, Bernstein, L, Boggs, DA, van den Brandt, PA et al. (2013) Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer by Hormone Receptor Status. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst; 105:219-236.

6 Bhupathiraju, S, Tinker, L, Dubowitz, T, Johnson, K, Seguin, R, Manson, J and Hu F (2015). Vegetable Intake and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The FASEB Journal; 29(260).

7 Cooper, AJ, Sharp, SJ, Lentjes, MAH, Luben, RN, Khaw K-T, Wareham, NJ and Forouh, NG (2012). A Prospective Study of the Association Between Quantity and Variety of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care; 35:1293-1300.

8 Bradbury, KE, Appleby, PN and Key, TJ (2014). Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Am J Clin Nutr; 100:394-398.

9 Threapleton, DE, Greenwood, DC, Evans, CEL, Cleghorn, CL, Nykjaer, C, et al. (2013) Dietary fibre intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ: 347(6879).

10 Dangour, AD, Andreeva, VA, Sydenham, E and Uauy, R (2012). Omega 3 fatty acids and cognitive health in older people. The British Journal of Nutrition; 107:152-8.

11 Din, JN, Newby, DE and Flapan, AD (2004). Omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease - fishing for a natural treatment. BMJ; 328(7430):30-5.

12 Rafnsson, SB, Dilis, V, Trichopolou, A (2013). Antioxidant nutrients and age-related cognitive decline: a systematic review of population-based cohort studies. Eur J Nutr; 52:15453-67.

13 Smithells, RW, Sheppard, S, Schorah, CJ, Seller, MJ, Nevin, NC, Harris, R et al (1981). Apparent prevention of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. Arch Dis Child; 56:911-8.

14 Cashman, KD (2007). Diet, nutrition and bone health. J Nutr; 137:507-2512.

15 Moynihan PJ, Kelly, SA (2014). Effect on caries of reducing sugar intake: systematic review to inform WHO guidelines. J Dent Res; 93:8-18.

16 Law, M (2000). Salt, blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. J Cardiovasc Risk; 7:5-8.

17 Sinha, R, Cross, AJ, Graubard, BI, Leitzmann, MF, Schatzkin, A (2009). Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med; 169:562-71.

18 Norat, T, Bingham, S, Ferrari, P, Slimani, N, Jenab, M, Mazuir, M et al (2005). Meat, Fish and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst; 97:906-16.

19 Bray, GA, Popkin, BM (2014). Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar. Diabetes Care; 37:950-6.

20 The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2015). Carbohydrates and Health.
Available from:

21 Luciano, M, Corley, J, Cox, SR, Valdés Hernández, MC, Craig, LCA, Dickie, DA et al (2017)..
Mediterranean-type diet and brain structural change from 73 to 76 years in a Scottish cohort.
Neurology; 88:449-55.

22 Scarborough, P, Bhatnagar, P, Wickramasinghe, KK, Allender, S, Foster, C and Rayner, M (2011). The economic burden of ill health due to diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and obesity in the UK: an update to 2006–07 NHS costs. J Public Health; 33:527-535.

23 Barton, KL, Wrieden, WL (2013). Estimation of food and nutrient intakes from food survey data in Scotland. Food Standards Agency Scotland. Available from:

24 Sheehy, C, McNeill, G, Masson, L, Craig, L, Macdiarmid, J, Holmes, B et al (2008). Survey of sugar intake among children in Scotland. Food Standards Agency Scotland. Available from:

25 Masson, LF, Bromley, C, Macdiarmid, JI, Craig, LCA, Wills, W, Tipping, S, et al (2012). Survey of diet among children in Scotland (2010). Food Standards Agency Scotland. Available from:

26 McNeill, G, Masson, LF, MacDiarmid, JI, Craig, LCA, Wills, WJ, Bromley, C (2017). Socio-economic differences in diet, physical activity and leisure-time screen use among Scottish children in 2006 and 2010: are we closing the gap? Public Health Nutrition; 20:951-8.

27 Food Standards Scotland (2015). Situation Report. The Scottish Diet: It needs to change.
Available from:

28 Recipe for Success: Scotland’s National Food & Drink Policy: Becoming a Good Food Nation, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2014. Available from:

29 Revised Dietary Goals for Scotland, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2013. Available from:

30 See:

31 See:

32 See:

33 A Nation with Ambition: The Government’s Programme for Scotland 2017-18
Available from:

34 Schools (Health Promotion and Nutrition) (Scotland) Act 2007.

35 Healthy eating in schools : a guide to implementing the Nutritional Requirements for Food and Drink in Schools (Scotland) Regulations 2008, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2008. Available from:

36 Beyond the School Gate - Improving Food Choices in the School Community, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2014. Available from:

37 Better eating, better learning – a new context for school food, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2014. Available from:

38 Criteria for the healthcare retail standard, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2015. Available from:

39 Supporting Healthy Choices: A Framework for Voluntary Action. Edinburgh, Scottish Government, 2014. Available from:

40 Budget 2016, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2016. Available from:

41 Soft drinks industry levy consultation document, HM Revenue & Customs. Available from:

42 Draft provisions for Finance Bill 2017. Available from:

43 See:


Email: Julie Landsberg, Julie Landsberg

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House
Regent Road

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