Publication - Statistics

Pesticide usage - arable crops and potato stores 2018: survey results

Published: 13 Nov 2019
Directorate:
Agriculture and Rural Economy Directorate
Part of:
Farming and rural
ISBN:
9781839603099

Information from a survey of pesticide use on arable crops and potato stores in Scotland during 2018.

Pesticide usage - arable crops and potato stores 2018: survey results
2018 Pesticide usage

2018 Pesticide usage

Winter barley

  • An estimated 37,541 hectares of winter barley were grown in Scotland in 2018, a decrease of 22 per cent since 2016.
  • 100 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 11 for types of pesticides used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 430,940 treated hectares
  • 129,495 kilograms of pesticide were applied in total (see summary table)
  • Winter barley received on average 4.2 pesticide sprays (Table 1).  These sprays included 2.5 fungicide applications and 2.2 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 100 per cent and 98 per cent of the crop area respectively), 1.9 applications of growth regulators (applied to 96 per cent) and one application of insecticide (applied to 22 per cent)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 12
  • Where reasons were given (59 per cent), 37 per cent of fungicide use was for disease control/precaution.  Where the disease was specified Rynchosporium was the most commonly reported (seven per cent) followed by mildew (six per cent), Ramularia (four per cent), net blotch (two per cent), rust (one per cent) with ear diseases, eyespot and Fusarium all under one per cent.
  • Reasons for herbicide/desiccant use were given for 62 per cent of the area. Twenty per cent was for general weed control, 11 per cent each for annual broad-leaved weeds and desiccation/harvest aid. The remaining reasons were; annual meadow grass (nine per cent), wild oats (three per cent), annual grass weeds (two per cent), cleavers, docks and chickweed (all one per cent). All other reasons (volunteer rape, couch, mayweed, groundsel, crop destruction volunteer cereals, charlock and sterile brome) were below one per cent.
  • Where specified (61 per cent) all insecticide use was for aphids
  • The most common varieties encountered were KWS Tower (22 per cent) followed by Pearl (12 per cent)
  • The average reported yield was 7.7 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on winter barley:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 181,531 47,352 100 Chlorothalonil (43,297)
Herbicides/desiccants 109,351 45,193 98 Glyphosate (22,722)
Insecticides 8,361 42 22 Lambda-Cyhalothrin (4,037)
Growth regulators 93,360 34,998 96 Chlormequat (32,171)
Molluscicides 3,385 409 7 Metaldehyde (2,044)
Sulphur 297 593 1 N/A
Seed treatments 34,655 908 90 Fluopyram/prothioconazole/tebuconazole (14,059)
All pesticides 430,940 129,495 100

N/A = not applicable

Figure 11: Use of pesticides on winter barley (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 11: Use of pesticides on winter barley (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 12: Timing of pesticide applications on winter barley – 2018

Figure 12: Timing of pesticide applications on winter barley – 2018

Note: there were small amounts (<1%) of herbicide applications on winter barley in August 2017 and 2018 which are not shown on this figure.  Herbicides include desiccants.

Spring barley

  • An estimated 250,476 hectares of spring barley were grown in Scotland in 2018, representing an increase of five per cent since 2016
  • 97 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 13 for types of pesticide used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 1,662,823 treated hectares
  • 376,057 kilograms of pesticide were used in total on the crop (see summary table)
  • The spring barley crop received on average 2.5 pesticide applications (Table 1).  These included 1.8 fungicide applications and 1.7 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 92 per cent and 96 per cent of the crop area respectively) and 1.1 applications of growth regulators (applied to 22 per cent)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 14
  • Reasons were given for 62 per cent of total fungicide use with 48 per cent being for disease control/precaution. Where the disease was specified Rhynchosporium was the most commonly reported (six per cent) followed by Ramularia (four per cent), mildew (two per cent) and net blotch (one per cent). Rust, and leaf spot were reported at below one per cent
  • Reasons were supplied for 67 per cent of herbicide/desiccant use; 28 per cent was for general weed control, 17 per cent for annual broad-leaved weeds, five per cent for wild oats, six per cent desiccation/harvest aid, three per cent annual meadow grass and two per cent chickweed. Annual grass weeds, fumitory and couch were all listed at one per cent and twenty other herbicide reasons were recorded at less than one per cent
  • Reasons were supplied for 51 per cent of total insecticide use. 35 per cent was for aphids, eight per cent was for cereal leaf beetle, four per cent for flea beetle, three per cent for general pests and less than 1 per cent for leaf miners.
  • Concerto was still the most common variety, accounting for 40 per cent of the sample area, although it has dropped from 58 per cent in 2016
  • The average reported yield was 6.0 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on spring barley:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 706,840 175,508 92 Chlorothalonil (204,728)
Herbicides/desiccants 650,309 177,890 96 Metsulfuron-methyl/ thifensulfuron-methyl (94,936)
Insecticides 31,852 160 12 Lambda-cyhalothrin (26,845)
Growth regulators 60,755 18,991 22 Chlormequat (23,677)
Seed treatments 213,068 3,508 85 Imazalil/ipconazole (87,085)
All pesticides 1,662,823 376,057 98  

Figure 13: Use of pesticides on spring barley (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 13: Use of pesticides on spring barley (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 14: Timing of pesticide applications on spring barley – 2018

Figure 14: Timing of pesticide applications on spring barley – 2018

Note: there were small amounts (<0.5%) of herbicide applications on spring barley in September 2017, October, December, February, March and September 2018 which are not shown on this figure. Herbicides include desiccants.

Winter wheat

  • An estimated 94,236 hectares of winter wheat were grown in Scotland in 2018, representing a decrease of 8 per cent since 2016
  • 98 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 15 for types of pesticide used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 1,373,830 treated hectares
  • 406,113 kilograms of pesticide were used in total on the crop (see summary table)
  • The winter wheat crop received on average 5.1 pesticide applications (Table 1).  These included 3.5 fungicide applications and 2.1 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 97 per cent of the crop area for both groups), 1.9 applications of growth regulators (applied to 95 per cent) molluscicides and insecticides received 1.3 and 1.2 applications (applied to 20 and 21 per cent of the area respectively)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 16
  • Reasons were given for 42 per cent of total fungicide use with 22 per cent being for disease control/precaution. Where the disease was specified Septoria was the most commonly reported (10 per cent) followed by mildew (four per cent), rust (three per cent) and ear disease, Fusarium and eyespot all below one per cent.
  • Reasons were supplied for 50 per cent of herbicide/desiccant use; 19 per cent was for general weed control, 11 per cent for annual broad-leaved weeds and seven per cent for annual meadow grass. Four per cent of use was for desiccation/harvest aid.  Two per cent listed wild oats with cleavers, annual grass weeds, sterile brome, brome, volunteer rape, volunteer cereals and fumitory all one per cent. Twelve other reasons for herbicide use were all recorded at below one percent to give two per cent of all reasons given.
  • Reasons were supplied for 40 per cent of total insecticide use. Thirty nine per cent of which was for aphids and one per cent was for general pests
  • Zulu was the most common variety, accounting for 16 per cent of the sample area, followed by KWS Leeds at 13 per cent
  • The average reported yield was 8.7 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on winter wheat:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 719,393 208,218 97 Chlorothalonil (203,311)
Herbicides/ desiccants 278,055 85,108 97 Pendimethalin/picolinafen (31,546)
Insecticides 23,559 119 21 Lambda-cyhalothrin (19,260)
Growth regulators 239,784 104,602 95 Chlormequat (96,171)
Molluscicides 25,501 2,859 20 Metaldehyde (17,968)
Sulphur 1,042 1,668 1 N/A
Seed treatments 86,497 3,539 86 Fludioxonil (34,271)
All pesticides 1,373,830 406,113 98  

N/A = not applicable

Figure 15: Use of pesticides on winter wheat (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 15: Use of pesticides on winter wheat (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 16: Timing of pesticide applications on winter wheat – 2018

Figure 16: Timing of pesticide applications on winter wheat – 2018

Note: there were small amounts (<0.5%) of herbicide applications on winter wheat in September 2018 which are not shown on this figure.  Herbicides include desiccants.

Spring wheat

This crop was not recorded separately in the Agricultural Census.  Based upon the proportions of spring and winter wheat encountered in the survey it was estimated that 5,542 hectares of spring wheat were grown in Scotland in 2018, representing a decrease of 19 per cent since 2016.

  • 100 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 17 for types of pesticides used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 41,577 treated hectares
  • 11,111 kilograms of pesticide were used in total on the crop (see summary table below)
  • The spring wheat crop received on average 2.5 pesticide applications (Table 1).  These included 2.0 fungicide applications and 1.6 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 99 per cent and 100 per cent of the crop area respectively), 1.2 applications of growth regulators (applied to 38 per cent) and 1.0 applications of insecticide (applied to 20 per cent)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 18
  • Reasons were given for 68 per cent of total fungicide use with over 67 per cent being for disease control/precaution.  The only disease specified was mildew at less than 0.5 per cent.
  • Reasons were supplied for 69 per cent of herbicide/desiccant use; 36 per cent was for annual broad-leaved weeds, 20 per cent for desiccation/harvest aid, eight per cent for red shank and two per cent for wild oats.
  • Reasons were supplied for 28 per cent of total insecticide use, all of which was for general pest control
  • The most common variety grown, accounting for 29 per cent of the sample area, was Belepi followed by Granary at 26 per cent
  • The average reported yield was 6.4 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on spring wheat:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 18,381 5,448 99 Chlorothalonil (5,635)
Herbicides/desiccants 14,168 4,233 100 Metsulfuron-methyl/ thifensulfuron-methyl (2,230)
Insecticides 1,113 5 20 Lambda-cyhalothrin (1,064)
Growth regulators 2,902 1,370 38 Chlormequat (1,818)
Seed treatments 5,013 55 90 Fludioxonil (3,226)
All pesticides 41,577 11,111 100  

Figure 17: Use of pesticides on spring wheat (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 17: Use of pesticides on spring wheat (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 18: Timing of pesticide applications on spring wheat – 2018

Figure 18: Timing of pesticide applications on spring wheat – 2018

Note: Herbicides include desiccants.

Winter oats

  • An estimated 8,440 hectares of winter oats were gown in Scotland in 2018, an increase of four per cent since 2016.
  • 99 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 19 for types of pesticides used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 76,286 treated hectares
  • 17,474 kilograms of pesticide were applied in total (see summary table)
  • Winter oats received on average 3.8 pesticide sprays (Table 1).  These sprays included 2.4 fungicide applications and 2.1 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 95 per cent and 96 per cent of the crop area respectively), 1.3 applications of growth regulators (applied to 97 per cent) and 1.2 applications of insecticides (applied to 30 per cent)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 20
  • Where reasons were given (62 per cent of area treated), 30 per cent of fungicide use was for mildew, 14 per cent for disease control/precaution, seven per cent for crown rust, six per cent for rust, two per cent each for Septoria and eyespot and less than one per cent for Fusarium.
  • Reasons for herbicide/desiccant use were given for 59 per cent of the area, 20 per cent was for annual broad-leaved weeds, 13 per cent for general weed control, seven per cent for annual meadow grass, seven per cent for desiccation/harvest aid, three per cent for cleavers and fumitory, two per cent for volunteer beans, one per cent each for groundsel, volunteer rape and annual grass weeds. The remainder was made up of hemp nettle and redshank at less than one per cent each.
  • Where specified (44 per cent) 40 per cent of insecticide use was for aphids and four per cent for general pests
  • The most common variety encountered was Gerald accounting for 50 per cent of the sample area followed by Dalguise at 27 per cent
  • The average reported yield was 6.7 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on winter oats:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 29,056 4,614 95 Fenpropimorph (7,235)
Herbicides/ desiccants 20,299 4,705 96 Diflufenican/flufenacet (4,135)
Insecticides 3,155 16 30 Lambda-cyhalothrin (2,333)
Growth regulators 16,552 7,945 97 Trinexapac-ethyl (7,512)
Molluscicides 291 22 3 Metaldehyde (201)
Seed treatments 6,934 173 82 Fludioxonil (385)
All pesticides 76,286 17,474 99  

Figure 19: Use of pesticides on winter oats (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 19: Use of pesticides on winter oats (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 20: Timing of pesticide applications on winter oats – 2018

Figure 20: Timing of pesticide applications on winter oats – 2018

Note: Herbicides include desiccants.

Spring oats

  • An estimated 23,662 hectares of spring oats were gown in Scotland in 2018, an increase of two per cent since 2016.
  • 94 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 21 for types of pesticides used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 138,929 treated hectares
  • 37,337 kilograms of pesticide were applied in total (see summary table)
  • Spring oats received on average 2.5 pesticide sprays (Table 1).  These sprays included 1.7 fungicide applications and 1.5 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 80 per cent and 92 per cent of the crop area respectively), 1.1 applications of growth regulators (applied to 77 per cent) and one application of insecticides (applied to 34 per cent)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 22
  • Where reasons were given (55 per cent), 31 per cent of fungicide use was for disease control/precaution, 16 per cent for mildew, three per cent for rust, one per cent for ear disease and Septoria with both crown rust and eyespot reported as less than one per cent
  • Reasons for herbicide/desiccant use were given for 57 per cent of the area, 33 per cent for general weed control, 11 per cent was for annual broad-leaved weeds and 9 per cent for desiccation/harvest aid with one per cent each for annual grass weeds, couch, fumitory and cleavers. Volunteer beans, crop destruction and chickweed were all reported at below one per cent
  • Where specified (44 per cent) 32 per cent of insecticide use was for aphids, seven per cent for leaf miners and five per cent for general pests
  • The most common variety encountered was Canyon accounting for 40 per cent of the sample area followed by Conway at 15 per cent
  • The average reported yield was 5.6 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on spring oats:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 42,538 6,546 80 Fenpropimorph (7,651)
Herbicides/desiccants 48,727 15,900 92 Fluroxypyr (9,050)
Insecticides 8,133 33 34 Lambda-cyhalothrin (6,132)
Growth regulators 22,864 14,617 77 Chlormequat (11,822)
Seed treatments 16,666 241 70 Prothioconazole/tebuconazole (6,043)
All pesticides 138,929 37,337 94  

Figure 21: Use of pesticides on spring oats (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 21: Use of pesticides on spring oats (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 22: Timing of pesticide applications on spring oats – 2018

Figure 22: Timing of pesticide applications on spring oats – 2018

Note: there were small amounts (<0.5%) of herbicides/desiccants applied in September 2017 which are not presented in this figure.  Note: Herbicides include desiccants.

Oilseed rape

  • An estimated 32,735 hectares of oilseed rape (winter and spring) were grown in Scotland in 2018, representing an increase of nine per cent since 2016
  • 100 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 23 for types of pesticides used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 301,544 treated hectares
  • 88,480 kilograms of pesticide were used in total on the crop (see summary table)
  • The oilseed rape crop received on average 5.9 pesticide applications (Table 1).  These included 2.8 fungicide applications and 2.6 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 98 and 99 per cent of the crop area respectively), one application of growth regulators (applied to 16 per cent) 1.2 molluscicide applications (applied to 59 per cent) and 1.6 insecticides applications to 65 per cent of the crop area
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 24
  • Reasons were given for 44 per cent of total fungicide use with 20 per cent being for light leaf spot, 13 for Sclerotinia, seven for disease control/precaution, with one each for Phoma leaf spot and Alternaria. Other diseases were listed at below one per cent.
  • Reasons were supplied for 42 per cent of herbicide/desiccant use; nine per cent each for general weed control and desiccation/harvest aid, seven per cent for annual broad-leaved weeds, six for volunteer cereals, three each for annual meadow grass and annual grass weeds with one per cent each for brome, mayweed and sterile brome. Chickweed, thistles, cleavers, wild oats, black grass, couch and speedwell were all recorded at below one per cent.
  • Reasons were supplied for 43 per cent of total insecticide use. Ten per cent of which was for winter stem weevil, nine per cent for seed weevil and eight per cent for pollen beetle, five each for weevils and cabbage stem flea beetle, four for aphids and two for flea beetle. Pod midge was recorded at below one per cent
  • Anastasia was the most common variety, accounting for 20 per cent of the sample area, followed by Mentor at 19 per cent
  • The average reported yield was 3.9 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on oilseed rape:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 109,052 18933 98 Prothioconazole/ tebuconazole (27,435)
Herbicides/desiccants 100,286 64,895 99 Glyphosate (26,942)
Insecticides 33,353 551 65 Lambda-cyhalothrin (14,318)
Growth regulators 5,139 938 16 Mepiquat chloride/ metconazole (5,139)
Molluscicides 23,917 2,439 59 Metaldehyde (15,743)
Sulphur 223 401 <0.5 N/A
Seed treatments 29,574 323 89 Prochloraz/thiram (26,764)
All pesticides 301,544 88,480 100

N/A = not applicable

Figure 23: Use of pesticides on oilseed rape (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 23: Use of pesticides on oilseed rape (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 24: Timing of pesticide applications on oilseed rape – 2018

Figure 24: Timing of pesticide applications on oilseed rape – 2018

Note: Herbicides include desiccants.

Seed potatoes

  • An estimated 12,091 hectares of seed potatoes were grown in Scotland in 2018, representing a decrease of five per cent since 2016
  • 89 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 25 for types of pesticide used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 250,155 treated hectares
  • 89,460 kilograms of pesticide were used in total on the crop (see summary table below)
  • The seed potato crop received on average 10.9 pesticide applications (Table 1).  These included 8.8 fungicide applications and 2.2 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 89 per cent of the crop area for both groups), insecticides and molluscicides received 5.9 and two applications respectively (applied to 86 and 22 per cent of the area respectively)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 26
  • Reasons were given for 34 per cent of total fungicide use, all of which was for blight.
  • Reasons were given for 23 per cent of herbicide/desiccant use; ten per cent was for general weed control, nine per cent for desiccation/harvest aid and two per cent each for both annual broad leaved weeds and annual meadow grass. Annual grass weeds, volunteer cereals, couch and volunteer rape were all recorded at below one per cent.
  • Reasons were supplied for 37 per cent of total insecticide/nematicide use. 35 per cent of which was for aphids and two per cent was for nematodes
  • Maris Piper was the most common variety, accounting for 35 per cent of the sample area, followed by Desiree and Markies at nine per cent each
  • The average reported yield was 44.1 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on seed potatoes:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 122,259 61525 89 Cyazofamid (24,191)
Herbicides/desiccants 44,936 16,970 89 Diquat (16,017)
Insecticides/nematicides 67,388 6,182 86 Lambda-cyhalothrin (29,655)
Molluscicides 5,336 798 22 Metaldehyde (3,137)
Seed treatments 10,235 3,986 83 Pencycuron (4,695)
All pesticides 250,155 89,460 89  

Figure 25: Use of pesticides on seed potatoes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 25: Use of pesticides on seed potatoes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 26: Timing of pesticide applications on seed potatoes – 2018

Figure 26: Timing of pesticide applications on seed potatoes – 2018

Note: Insecticides include nematicides and herbicides include desiccants.

Ware potatoes

  • An estimated 15,268 hectares of ware potatoes were grown in Scotland in 2018, representing an increase of three per cent since 2016
  • 98 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 27 for types of pesticide used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 307,749 treated hectares with 138,304 kilograms of pesticide applied in total (see summary table below)
  • The ware potato crop received on average 12.6 pesticide applications (Table 1).  These included 9.6 fungicide applications and 2.5 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 98 and 96 per cent of the crop area respectively), insecticides and molluscicides received 2.3 applications each (applied to 64 and 47 per cent of the area respectively)
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 28
  • Reasons were given for 38 per cent of total fungicide use, most of which was for blight control and less than 0.5 per cent was for disease precaution
  • Reasons were supplied for 44 per cent of herbicide/desiccant use; 20 per cent was for desiccation/harvest aid, 15 per cent for general weed control, and four per cent for annual broad leaved weeds. Annual meadow grass and couch were both recorded at two per cent with annual grass weeds given for one per cent of use
  • Reasons were supplied for 19 per cent of total insecticide/nematicide use.  Fourteen per cent of which was for aphids, three per cent for caterpillars and two per cent was for nematodes
  • Maris Piper was the most common variety grown for ware, accounting for 41 per cent of the sample area followed by Rooster at eight per cent
  • The average reported yield was 51 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on ware potatoes:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 184,668 105,169 98 Cymoxanil/mancozeb (41,472)
Herbicides/desiccants 68,631 26,232 96 Diquat (23,273)
Insecticides/nematicides 23,297 1,493 64 Lambda-cyhalothrin (11,470)
Growth regulators 323 775 2 Maleic hydrazide (323)
Molluscicides 16,340 2,156 47 Metaldehyde (10,084)
Seed treatments 14,813 3,253 88 Flutolanil (5,105)
All pesticides 308,072 139,079 98  

Figure 27: Use of pesticides on ware potatoes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 27: Use of pesticides on ware potatoes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 28: Timing of pesticide applications on ware potatoes – 2018

Figure 28: Timing of pesticide applications on ware potatoes – 2018

Note: there were small amounts (<1.0%) of herbicides/desiccants applied in September 2017 omitted for ease of reading. Insecticides include nematicides and herbicides include desiccants.

Legumes

The legumes category includes dry harvest peas and field beans.  These crops have been combined as too few holdings were encountered to report the pesticide use for each crop separately

  • An estimated 2,549 hectares of legumes were grown in Scotland in 2018, representing a decrease of 33 per cent since 2016
  • 72 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide (see Figure 29 for types of pesticide used)
  • Pesticides were applied to 7,409 treated hectares
  • 4,423 kilograms of pesticide were used in total on the crop (see summary table below)
  • The legume crop received on average 3.2 pesticide applications (Table 1).  These included 1.7 fungicide applications and 2.2 herbicide/desiccant applications (applied to 30 and 72 per cent of the crop area respectively) and two insecticide applications to 12 per cent of the crop
  • Timings of pesticide applications are shown in Figure 30
  • Reasons were given for 55 per cent of total fungicide use with 31 per cent applied for chocolate spot, 20 per cent for disease control/precaution and four per cent for mildew.
  • Reasons were supplied for 68 per cent of herbicide/desiccant use; 17 per cent was for annual broad-leaved weeds, 13 per cent for desiccation/harvest aid and 12 per cent for annual meadow grass.
  • Reasons were supplied for 59 per cent of total insecticide use, all of which was for control of weevils
  • The most common variety, accounting for 37 per cent of the sample area, was Fuego followed by Honey at 23 per cent
  • The average reported yield was 3.7 t/ha

Summary of pesticide use on legumes:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated Weight of pesticides applied Percentage of crop treated Most used formulations
ha kg % ha
Fungicides 1,807 674 30 Chlorothalonil/cyproconazole (1,205)
Herbicides/desiccants 4,976 3,745 72 Imazamox/pendimethalin (1,412)
Insecticides 626 5 12 Lambda-cyhalothrin (549)
All pesticides 7,409 4,423 72  

Note: 89 per cent of legumes in 2018 had no seed treatment; the seed treatment information for the remaining 11 per cent was unknown

Figure 29: Use of pesticides on legumes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 29: Use of pesticides on legumes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2018

Figure 30: Timing of pesticide applications on legumes – 2018

Figure 30: Timing of pesticide applications on legumes – 2018

Note: October herbicide spray (11%) omitted for ease of reading.  Herbicides include desiccants.


Contact

Email: psu@sasa.gov.scot