Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state

Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state.

List of Figures

Chapter 1

1.1 Scotland's position in the North-East Atlantic ocean

1.2 OSPAR regions

1.3 Charting Progress

1.4 UKMMAS logo

1.5 UKMMAS Structure

1.6 Seas the Opportunity

1.7 Sea areas adopted in this report

Chapter 2

2.1 Bathymetry, specific boundaries and selected geographical features of the seas around Scotland

2.2 The extent and nature of the Admiralty Surveys conducted under the Civil Hydrography Programme (to 31 July 2007)

2.3 Annual average (1971 - 2000) meteorological conditions for Scotland

2.4 Circulation in the offshore and coastal waters around Scotland

2.5 Mean spring tidal range and peak current flow for a mean spring tide for the seas around Scotland

2.6 Water column features on the Scottish continental shelf in winter

2.7 SEPA Tidal Gauge locations and Scottish locations of the UK National Tide Gauge Network

2.8 Location of the current meter mooring in the Tiree Passage between the islands of Coll and Mull

2.9 Monthly temperature anomalies from the Tiree Passage temperature time series

2.10 Winter ( DJFM) NAO and the winter average northward flow through the Tiree Passage

2.11 Annual mean wind speed and annual mean wave height

2.12 Map showing modelled turbidity in coastal waters of Scotland

2.13 Measuring water clarity at the FRS Ecosystem Monitoring site off Stonehaven using a Secchi Disk

2.14 Rock outcrops used to support the Firth of Forth bridges obtained using mullti-beam echo-sounders

2.15 Distribution of seabed sediments around Scotland

2.16 Multi-beam bathymetry detail and the effect on computer model performance

2.17 Spatial distribution of annual PNP

2.18 Time series of annual PNP in each of the Scottish reporting regions

2.19 Time series of annual inputs of oxidised nitrogen and average proportion of annual new primary production

2.20 Time series of annual PNP in the southern North and annual inputs of oxidised nitrogen

Chapter 3

3.1 Discharges of metals to Scottish marine waters, 1990-2004

(a) Cadmium in the Forth and Clyde Catchment Areas, (b) Lead in the Clyde Catchment Area

3.2 Annual totals and three-year rolling average for Classes C and D coastal waters

3.3 Coastal and transitional water bodies as delineated by the Water Framework Directive

3.4 Decision-tree illustrating the criteria for determining the different ecological status classes

3.5 Geometric mean (± standard deviation) of total PCB concentrations in adult male harbour seals from around Scotland and Northern Ireland in 1989 and 2003

3.6 Relationship between total PCBs and total PBDEs in adult male harbour seals from Scotland

3.7 Distribution of copper around the Scottish coast (normalised to lithium)

3.8 Locations of the Fladen Ground and the East Shetland Basin

3.9 Mean Forties oil equivalents and total PAH concentration in the Fladen Ground

3.10 Mean Forties oil equivalents and total PAH concentrations in the East Shetland Basin

3.11 Sampling seabed sediments from the FRV Scotia by FRS as part of the CSEMP programme

3.12 Scottish CSEMP sampling sites

3.13 Microarray data

3.14 Sample of SPRI web page screen

3.15 Total nitrogen loadings from industry, rivers and sewage treatment works to the Scottish marine environment, 1990-2005

3.16 Phosphorus loadings from industry, rivers and sewage treatment works to the Scottish marine environment, 1990-2005

3.17 Red tide on a beach in Skye

3.18 Dounreay fast reactor site in Caithness, north Scotland

3.19 Beach litter at Helensburgh

3.20 Annual average faecal coliform concentration for all samples from the 60 continuously designated EU bathing waters: 2000-2007

3.21 Classification of shellfish production areas

Chapter 4

4.1 Marine Special Areas of Conservation in Scotland

4.2 Coastal Special Protection Areas in Scotland

4.3 Diverse diatoms from Scottish waters (phytoplankton)

4.4 Continuous Plankton Recorder being deployed

4.5 CPR survey routes in Scottish waters in 2006

4.6 Atlantic inflow to the north-western North Sea

4.7 Atlantic Inflow Index from CPR 'A' route samples, 1946-2005

4.8 Abundances of Euchaeta hebes (warm water) and Calanus finmarchicus (cold water) in CPR 'A' route samples from 1946 to 2005

4.9 Chaetomorpha bloom in the Ythan Estuary

4.10 Monthly averaged chlorophyll a values over the annual cycle.

4.11 Monthly average observations of (a) diatoms and (b) dinoflagellates at Stonehaven over 1997-2007

4.12 Some of the commonly occurring species of zooplankton at the Stonehaven ecosystem monitoring site

4.13 The annual totals of zooplankton species abundances found in the 200µm-mesh samples

4.14 The annual totals of estimated biomass (dry weight) found in the 200µm-mesh samples

4.15 Time series of three important elements in the ecosystem productivity, nitrate, chlorophyll (phytoplankton) and copepod abundance

4.16 Maerl

4.17 Tubeworm reefs

4.18 Condition of marine habitats within selected Scottish SACs (1998 to 2004)

4.19 Fucus distichus

4.20 Basking shark

4.21 Mackerel

4.22 Fragile sponge

4.23 Fireworks anemone

4.24 Spiny Lobster

4.25 Deepwater areas around Scotland

4.26 Comparison of variation in macrofaunal species diversity and habitat temperature regime in the Faroe-Shetland Channel

4.27 Wireweed

4.28 Heavily bio-fouled ship hull

4.29 Vectors associated with the introduction of non-native species into British waters

4.30 Puffins feeding on sandeels

4.31 Definition of terms used in the traffic-light method of assessing the health of commercially exploited fish stocks

4.32 The traffic-light method of assessing the health of commercially exploited fish stocks

4.33 Bottlenose dolphin

4.34 Grey seal haul-out site

4.35 Changes in the grey seal pup production in Scotland and the number of common seals counted in Orkney

4.36 Marine turtles records: All species sightings and strandings 1997-2007

4.37 Kittiwake

4.38 Guillemot with a meal of sprat

4.39 Abundance of breeding seabirds in Scotland (1986-2004)

4.40 Breeding success of seabirds in Scotland (1986-2006)

4.41 The percentage change in abundance of selected seabird species between 1986 and 2004

4.42 Researchers catching birds on the Isle of May

Chapter 5

5.1 Estimated location of area of catch (tonnes) of main commercial species by Scottish vessels in 2006

5.2 Value of landings at 2006 prices by Scottish based vessels by species type, 1990 to 2006

5.3 Fixed engine salmon net

5.4 The trend in annual production of Atlantic salmon

5.5 Active seawater fish and shellfish farms in Scotland

5.6 Main genus of toxin - producing phytoplankton monitored in Scottish waters

5.7 Evolution of DSP and PSP toxin events at Vaila Sound

5.8 Area covered by the Shetland Regulating Order

5.9 Brown crabs

5.10 Increasing nitrogen inputs from fish farming 1990-2004 shown by sea area

5.11 Escapes of farmed fish 2002 - 2007

5.12 Areas used by ACOPS to report discharges from vessels or oil and gas installations

5.13 Aberdeen oil base

5.14 Coastal footpath signpost

5.15 Scheduled wrecks and designated sites in Scottish waters

5.16 Multi-beam sonar image of SMS Koln, Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands

5.17 Late Bronze Age logboat recovered in 2006 from the Tay Estuary

5.18 A typical ovoid-shaped patch reef of Serpula vermicularis

5.19 Dense reef rubble resulting from mooring damage

5.20 Beatrice offshore wind demonstrator

Chapter 6

6.1 Locations of FRS coastal temperature monitoring stations and the SAMS Tiree Passage mooring

6.2 Offshore long-term hydrographic sections in Scottish waters

6.3 Variability of temperature and salinity in Scottish waters

6.4 Present rates of relative sea-level change in Scotland

Chapter 7

7.1 Scotland's seas

7.2 Revised representation of the Summary Assessment from Case Study 3.6

7.3 Scotland's diverse seas


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