Publication - Corporate report

Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state

Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state.

Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state
ANNEX 2 DETAILS OF THE VARIOUS MARINE MONITORING PROGRAMMES AND DATA COLLECTION SURVEYS UNDERTAKEN BY FRS, SEPA, SNH

ANNEX 2 DETAILS OF THE VARIOUS MARINE MONITORING PROGRAMMES AND DATA COLLECTION SURVEYS
UNDERTAKEN BY FRS, SEPA, SNH

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEAS

Topic

Descriptor(s)

Parameter/ data programme

Is info. available?

Is info. reported?

Confidence rating

Data collection frequency

Reporting frequency

Data source / who collects it?

Year(s) for which data available

Regions for which data available (Fig. 1.7 (ch.1))

Weather and Climate

Wind Speed and Air Temperature

FRS Scottish Ocean Climate Status

Yes

Yes

III

Hourly from Met Stations

Collated by FRS in the Scottish Ocean Climate Status Report on a biennial basis.

Met Office and British Atmospheric Data Centre

Average presented for 1961 - 1990 with recent measurements compared to normal. Most recent published data is 2004 and 2005

Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea (Stornoway), Shetland, East Scotland Coast (Aberdeen and Leuchars).

Rainfall

FRS Scottish Ocean Climate Status

Yes

Yes

III

Hourly from Met Stations

Collated by FRS in the Scottish Ocean Climate Status Report on a biennial basis.

Met Office and British Atmospheric Data Centre

Average presented for 1961 - 1990 with recent measurements compared to normal. Most recent published data is 2004 and 2005

Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea (Stornoway), Shetland, East Scotland Coast (Aberdeen and Leuchars).

Hydrometric Network Rain Gauges

Yes - data held in SEPA's HIMS database.

Data on some sites is reported to MET Office.

III

Either event intensity, or every 15 minutes.

SEPA

SEPA

Variable - depends on site

Most of Scotland

Sea

Sea Surface Temperature

Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring

Yes

Yes

III

Weekly - Stonehaven Hourly - Loch Ewe

6 monthly

FRS

Stonehaven: 1997 - present Loch Ewe: 2002 - Present

East Scotland Coast (Stonehaven), and Minches and Malin Sea (Loch Etive).

Inshore Coastal Long Term Monitoring

Yes

Yes

III

Hourly

6 monthly

FRS

Mallaig: 1999 - present Millport: 1953 - present Loch Maddy: 2003 - present Orkney: 1999 - present Shetland: 1999 - present Fair Isle: 2003 - present Ythan: 2005 - present Findon: 1996 - present Cromarty: 2003 - present North Berwick: 2006 - present Torridon: 2006 - present

Clyde, Minches and Malin Sea, North Scotland Coast, Shetland, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast, Forth.

Routine Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Various Drivers ( WFD, OSPAR, UWWTD, DSD)

Yes

No

III

Quarterly

Not reported

SEPA

1970s to present

Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches & Malin, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Salinity

Hydrographic Stations and standard cruise thermosalinograph

Yes

Yes

III

Periodic

Periodic in conjunction with annual cruise programmes e.g. IBTS

FRS; then data transferred to BODC and ICES data centres

Hydrographic Stations: 1960 - present Thermosalinograph: 1987 - present

All regions

Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring

Yes

Yes

III

Weekly

6 monthly

FRS

Stonehaven: 1997 - present Loch Ewe: 2002 - Present

East Scotland Coast (Stonehaven), and Minches & Malin Sea (Loch Etive).

Inshore Coastal Long Term Monitoring

Yes

Yes

III

Weekly

6 monthly

FRS

Loch Maddy: 2003 - present Orkney: 1999 - present Shetland: 1999 - present Fair Isle: 2003 - present Ythan: 2005 - present Torridon: 2006 - present

Minches & Malin Sea, North Scotland Coast, Shetland, East Scotland Coast.

Offshore Ecosystem Monitoring

Yes

Yes

III

3 times per year

Annual

FRS

Faroe-Shetland Channel: 1903 - present Jonsis line (east of Orkney): 1972 - present

Faroe-Shetland Channel, West Shetland and Fladen (Jonsis line)

Routine Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Various Drivers ( WFD, OSPAR, UWWTD, DSD)

Yes

No

III

Quarterly

Not reported (used to normalise winter nutrients)

SEPA

1970s to present

Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches & Malin, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Site Condition Monitoring - lagoons

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2002 - Present

Selected lagoons

Ocean Temperature Profiles

Hydrographic Stations and standard cruise thermosalinograph

Yes

Yes

III

Periodic

Periodic in conjunction with annual cruise programmes e.g. IBTS

FRS Data transferred to BODC and ICES data centres

Hydrographic Stations: 1960 - present Thermosalinograph: 1987 - present

All regions

Offshore Standard Oceanographic Sections

Yes

Yes

III

April/May, Sept/Oct, Dec

Annual

FRS Data transferred to BODC and ICES data centres

Faroe-Shetland Channel: 1903 - present Jonsis line (east of Orkney): 1972 - present

Faroe-Shetland Channel, West Shetland, and Fladen (Jonsis line).

Ocean Currents

Offshore Ecosystem Monitoring

Yes

Yes

III

Hourly

Annual

FRS Data transferred to BODC and ICES data centres

1994 - present

Faroe Shetland Channel

Changes in Sea Level

Coastal and Estuarine Flood Warning

Yes

No

III

Every 15 mins

Not Reported

SEPA

1996-Present

Clyde

Inputs

Freshwater Inputs from Major Rivers

Yes - data held in SEPA's HIMS database

Yes - and used to calculate OSPAR loadings

III

Every 15 minutes, converted to flow via rating curve

SEPA

Variable - depends on site

Most major Scottish rivers

EVIDENCE FOR CLEAN AND SAFE SEAS

Topic

Descriptor(s)

Parameter/ data programme

Is info. available?

Is info. reported?

Confidence rating

Data collection frequency

Reporting frequency

Data source / who collects it?

Year(s) for which data available

Regions for which data available (Fig. 1.7 (ch.1))

Microbiology

Microbial Contamination

Shellfish Microbiological Contamination Monitoring (Shellfish Hygiene Directive Classification based on E. coli)

Yes

Yes

III

Monthly (Maximum of 9 per year)

Annual report to the Food Standards Agency Scotland

FRS and SSQC Ltd

1992 - present

Shellfish production areas: Minches & Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast, West Shetland, East Shetland, Moray Firth.

Sediment Microbiological Quality

FEPA Sewage Sludge Disposal sites Check Monitoring

Yes

Yes

II

Cyclic triennial programme

Annual

FRS (and licensees)

1985 - 1998

Forth (St Abbs Head & Bell Rock) and Clyde (Garroch Head).

Microbiological Quality of Shellfish Flesh (sites achieving Class A or SGW guideline standard)

SEPA Shellfish Growing Waters programme

Yes

Yes

III

Quarterly

Annually

SEPA

1982-present

Clyde, Minches & Malin, North Scotland Coast, West & East Scotland, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Bathing Water Quality

Bathing Waters Monitoring Programme

Yes

Yes

III

20x during the Summer Season (1/4 15/9)

Annually

SEPA

1987-present

Clyde, Minches & Malin, North Scotland Coast, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Eutrophication

CSEMP Determinants

CSEMP Monitoring Programme (Comprehensive Procedure and EU Directive Assessments)

Yes

Yes

III

SEPA - rolling monitoring programme

Every few years. Nutrients data are routinely reported, but other parameters (e.g. chl. & phytoplankto n) not routinely reported

MERMAN/ FRS, SEPA,

2001 - present

Areas designated under the OSPAR Comprehensive Procedure

Winter Nutrient Time Series

Yes

Data submitted to MERMAN & ICES

III

Annual

Annual

FRS

2001 - present

Coastal around Scotland - Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast, West Shetland, East Shetland, Fladen, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast, Forth.

Sea Loch Nutrient 'Hotspot' Monitoring

Nutrients and ratios, chlorophyll, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phytoplankton, macroalgal cover

Yes

Yes 1. OSPAR 2. FRSUKAS archive

III

Winter, spring and summer surveys in 2002, 2004 and 2005. Winter only in 2003

Winter, spring and summer surveys in 2002, 2004 and 2005. Winter only in 2003

FRS and SEPA

2002 - 2006

Sea lochs in Minches & Malin Sea and Hebrides and Voes in East and West Shetland.

Litter

Bathing Waters Directive

Component of aesthetics monitoring.

Yes

Yes

II

During Bathing Waters season.

Annual

SEPA

1996-present

Most coastal areas

Integrated classification

Integrated Water Quality

Estuary & Coastal Waters Classification Scheme (now WFD)

Yes

Yes

III

Annual

Annual

SEPA

1985-2006

Forth & Clyde estuaries & most coastal areas

Contaminants in the environment

Prevalence of Externally Visible Fish Disease and Liver Neoplasia/ Hyperplasia

East coast dab contaminant and disease monitoring programme PAH, Bile metabolites, EROD

Yes

Yes, annually to ICES

II

Annual

Annual

FRS Contaminants Database ICES Database (Fish disease)

2000 - present

North Scotland Coast (Fair Isle), Moray Firth, Forth (St Abbs Head & Bell Rock) and Forties (Marr Bank).

Concentrations of Naturally Occurring Substances and Xenobiotics

Clyde Trend Monitoring: PAHs, CBs, metals in fish liver, Bile metabolites, EROD,

Yes

Yes through FRS Reports and Journals

III

Annual

Biennial

FRS Contaminants database

Garroch Head and Pladda - 1993 - present Four additional Clyde Sites and two reference sites - 1999 - present

Clyde Reference Sites - Minches & Malin Sea (Colonsay and Broad Bay).

Contaminant Concentrations in Sediment

Clyde Trend Monitoring: Hazardous Substances

Yes

Yes through FRS Reports and Journals

III

Annual

Biennial

FRS Contaminants database

Garroch Head and Pladda - 1993 - present Four additional Clyde Sites and two reference sites - 1999 - present

Clyde Reference Sites - Minches & Malin Sea (Colonsay and Broad Bay).

CSEMP Monitoring Programme:

Yes

Yes, annually to OSPAR

II

Annual

Annual

FRSUKAS Archive FRS Contamin

1999 - present

Initially 6 sites covering Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea, Moray

PAHs, CBs, PBDEs, metals

ants Database MERMANICES Database

Firth and East Scotland Coast. Revision includes East & West Shetland and Fladen.

PAHs in Coastal sediments

Yes

Yes

III

Periodic

Periodic

FRS

1997 - 2001

Shetland, North Scotland Coast (Orkney), Moray Firth and Minches and Malin Sea.

Hydrocarbons in Offshore Sediments

Yes

Yes

III

Periodic

Periodic

FRS

1986 - 2002

East Shetland, Fladen

Contaminants in Deep Sea Fish

Deep sea fish Contaminant Monitoring Programme

Yes

Yes

III

Annual

Annual

FRS

2006 - present

Rockall

Imposex

Imposex in Marine Gastropods

Yes

Yes

III

Every 2 - 3 years in Sullom Voe; Every 3 - 5 years at other Scottish sites Annual rolling programme ( SEPA)

Every 2 - 3 years in Sullom Voe; Every 3 - 5 years at other Scottish sites

ICES Database FRS and other e.g. SOTEAG, reports SEPA

Periodic 1987 present

West Shetland (Sullom Voe) Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches and Malin Sea, North Scotland Coast, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Dredge Spoil Quality

FEPA Check Monitoring

Yes

Yes

II

Rolling annual programme

Annually to OSPAR

FRS in conjunction with FEPA Licensees

1990 - present

23 ports currently licensed around Scottish coast including islands

Sediment Chemical Quality

FEPA Sea Disposal Site Check Monitoring

Yes

Yes

II

Rolling annual programme

Annually

FRS

1990 - present

23 sea disposal sites around Scottish coast including islands

FEPA Sewage Sludge Disposal sites Check Monitoring

Yes

Yes

II

Cyclic triennial programme

Annual

FRS (and licensees)

1975 - 1998

Forth (St Abbs Head & Bell Rock) and Clyde (Garroch Head).

Sediments in Biota and Water Column

CSEMP Benthic and Sediment Contaminant Background Monitoring: Waters - EQS Compliance for DSD (now WFD Operational); sediments - DSD standstill monitoring NMMP/ CSEMP (and WFD Surveillance); Biota - DSD standstill monitoring (now WFD Operational), Shellfish Directive and Mussel Watch

Yes

Yes

III

Waters Quarterly; sediments & biota annually

Annually to MERMAN

SEPA

Waters EQS Compliance 1987Present; Sediments 1987-Present; Biota 1982-Present

Clyde, Minches & Malin, North Scotland Coast, West & East Shetland, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Eco- Toxicology for Problem Discharges

Direct Toxicity Assessment of discharges

Yes

Yes

II

Every 2 months

Annually

SEPA

1998-Present

Clyde, North Scotland Coast, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Radioactivity

Radioactivity in the marine environment

Radioactivity monitoring programme for Scotland

Yes

Yes

III

Annual

Annual

SEPA

1996-present

Clyde, Minches & Malin, North Scotland Coast, Forth Estuary, East Scotland Coast

Contaminants in food

Contaminants in seafood

Shellfish Contaminants Monitoring Programme (Shellfish Hygiene) Metals: Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pd. Organics: PAHs, CBs, OCPs

Yes

Yes

III

Following each sampling programme

Following each sampling programme

FRS Contaminants database; FSAS

Broken 2002 2004 2006

Coastal from shellfish production areas and other ad hoc monitoring for the FSAS e.g. following the Jambo grounding

Reference mussel monitoring for hazardous substances; OSPAR Hazardous Substances Strategy PAHs and CBs

Yes

Yes through FRS Reports

III

Monthly

Annual

FRS Contamin- ants database

Loch Etive - 1999 - present Loch Ewe, Bute, Shell Bay and Aberdeen - 2005 - present

Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea and Forth. PBDEs also measured at East Scotland Coast (Aberdeen).

Shellfish Toxins

Toxic Phytoplankton (Focus on Alexandrium spp., Dinophysis spp., Pseudonitzschia spp., Prorocentrum lima and Lingulodinium polyedrum)

Shellfish Contaminants Monitoring Programme (Shellfish Hygiene)

Yes

Yes

II

March to October - weekly November to February - monthly

Annual report published on FSA website

FRS

1994 - 2005

Coastal with a focus on: Minches & Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast, West Shetland, East Shetland.

Concentrations of PSP, DSP, and ASP

Shellfish Contaminants Monitoring Programme (Shellfish Hygiene Directive and subsequent legislation)

Yes

Yes

II

Summer - weekly Winter - fortnightly or monthly

Annual Reports. Since 2001 this programme funded by FSAS from whom reports are available

Pre-1996 - Food Science Laboratory Torry Post 1996 - FRS

Start Dates 1990 - PSP 1992 - DSP 1999 - ASP Programme ended at FRS in 2005

Mainly coastal with a focus on Minches & Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast, West Shetland, East Shetland. Some sites (e.g. offshore scallops) on east coast.

Concentrations of Lipophilic Toxins

Passive Adsorption of Lipophilic Toxins onto Resins and Mussels

Yes

Yes

I

Weekly

EC Annual Reports

FRS

2005 - ongoing for Loch Ewe 2007 - ongoing for Loch Torridon

Minches & Malin Sea (Lochs Ewe and Torridon).

Surveillance of Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins

Yes

Yes

I

Random, 'opportunisti c' sampling

Report to the FSA

FRS

2003

Scottish coastal areas

EVIDENCE FOR HEALTHY AND BIOLOGICALLY DIVERSE SEAS

Topic

Descriptor(s)

Parameter/ data programme

Is info. available?

Is info. reported?

Confidence rating

Data collection frequency

Reporting frequency

Data source / who collects it?

Year(s) for which data available

Regions for which data available (Fig. 1.7 (ch.1))

Ecosystem Functioning and Climate Regulation

Sea Surface Temperature

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

Species as indicators of change

Site Condition Monitoring/Commo n Standards Monitoring of biological communities at selected sites

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2000 - Present

Offshore biological monitoring - Calanus finmarchicusabundance

Yes

Yes

II

Annually (Dec)

Periodic

FRS

1995 - present

Faroe-Shetland Channel

Inshore ecosystem monitoring: phytoplankton community (including toxic species) zooplankton community chlorophyll nutrients temperature salinity

Yes

Yes

II

Weekly

6 monthly

FRS

Stonehaven: 1997 - present Loch Ewe: 2000 - present (phytoplankton) 2002 - present

East Scotland Coast (Stonehaven) and Minches & Malin Sea (Loch Etive)

Phytoplankton community time series (including toxic species)

Yes

Yes

III

Weekly

6 monthly

FRS

Millport: 2005 - present Loch Maddy: 2003 - present Orkney: 2000 - present Shetland: 2000 - present

Clyde (Millport), Minches & Malin Sea (Loch Maddy), North Scotland Coast (Orkney) and West Shetland.

Sandeel stocks

Yes

Yes

III

Annually

Annually

FRS

1997-present

Wee Bankie

1985 - 2007

Shetland

Benthic community studies in relation to temporal trends ( NMMP/ CSEMP)

Yes

Yes

III

Annually

Annually

SEPA

1993-Present

Clyde, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast, Forth

CSEMP Sediment toxicity testing

Yes

Yes

II

Annually

Annually

SEPA

1999-Present

Clyde, Forth, Moray Firth

Species as indicators of pollution e.g. organic

Site Condition Monitoring/Commo n Standards Monitoring at selected locations

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2000 - Present

Benthic community studies in relation to discharges, dredge spoil grounds, sludge dumping sites and marine caged fish farms

Yes

No

III

Every 3 years

Not reported

SEPA

1974-Present

Clyde, Forth, Minches & Malin, East Scotland Coast

Imposex Monitoring ( OSPAR)

Yes

Yes

III

Every 3 years

Annual

SEPA

1989-Present

Clyde, Minches & Malin, West & East Shetland, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast, Forth

Seabed erosion and sediment type change

Site Condition Monitoring/Commo n Standards Monitoring: Particle size analyses of intertidal and subtidal sediments along transects at selected locations

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2000 - Present

Distribution and Quality of Marine Habitats

Observed damage (e.g. trawl/dredge tracks)

Site Condition Monitoring/ Common Standards Monitoring

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2000 - Present

Selected sites

Extent of habitats (area)

Site Condition Monitoring of extent of Serpula vermicularis reef, Modiolus modiolus beds, Seagrass beds, Maerl and Lophelia pertusa

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2000 - Present

Distribution, extent and character of landscapes/ habitats

Site Condition Monitoring/Commo n Standards Monitoring on the extent/density of foxtail stonewort Lamprothamnium papulosum.

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2000 - Present

Site Condition Monitoring/ Common Standards Monitoring on the species abundance/ composition of communities associated with Serpula vermicularis reefs, Modiolus modiolus beds, seagrass beds, maerl, rocky reef, subtidal and interdidal sediments, marine caves and Lophelia pertusa.

Yes

Yes

III

Every six years

SNH

2000 - Present

Species Abundance and Distribution

Benthic Monitoring

UKMMAS Benthic data set

Yes

Yes

II

Annual

Periodic

FRS

2001 - Present

Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches and Malin Sea, Moray Firth, East Coast Scotland

MAFCONS

Yes

Yes

II

Annual

Periodic

FRS

2001 - 2004

East Coast Scotland, Forties, Moray Firth, Fladen, East Shetland, West Shetland, North Scotland Coast, Minches and Malin Seas, Hebrides, Clyde, Irish Sea

Fish stock assessment

Commercial fish and shellfish landings - Amount and Effort

Yes

Yes

II

Variable depending on vessels, markets, area

Annual

Scottish Fisheries Protection Agency ( SFPA) FRS receives copies

1960s - present (1900 - 1960 on paper)

Main fishing areas by ICES Statistical rectangle

Commercial fish and shellfish landings - Biological data

Yes

Yes

II

Variable - monthly or quarterly

Quarterly

FRS

1960s - present (1900 - 1960 on paper)

Main fishing areas - stock dependent

Commercial and Non-commercial Fish and Shellfish Discards (Observer Programme)

Yes

Yes

II

Annual

FRS

1975 - present

Main fishing areas

Commercial and non-commercial fish and shellfish - distribution, abundance and biological data

Yes

Yes

II

By cruise. Variable depending on species. Some biannual, some annual

By cruise

FRS

1970 - present (1900 - 1970 on paper)

Surveys designed to national and international ( ICES) programmes which are related to fish distributions

Assessment of presence and absence of fish species

Yes

No

II

Quarterly/ Biannually

Not Reported

SEPA

1974-Present

Clyde, Forth

Assessment of fish species at cooling water intakes

Yes

Yes

I

Quarterly

Periodically

SEPA

1982-Present

Clyde, Forth

DETAILS OF THE VARIOUS MARINE MONITORING PROGRAMMES AND DATA COLLECTION SURVEYS UNDERTAKEN BY THE WIDER COMMUNITY

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEAS

Topic

Descriptor(s)

Parameter/ data programme

Is info. available?

Is info. reported?

Confidence rating - see end for coding

Collection or reporting frequency

Data source / who collects it?

Year(s) for which data available

Regions for which data available (Fig. 1.7 (ch.1))

Weather and Climate

NAO Winter Index

Yes

CRU, UEA

1821-2007

Difference in pressure between Gibraltar & Reykjavik

Wind Direction

Marine Automatic Weather Station Network

Yes

Yes

III

Collected 3 hourly; reported on BBC Weather Centre Web Site

Met Office

- present

West Shetland, North Scotland Coast (Orkney).

Wind Speed

FRS Scottish Ocean Climate Status

Yes

Yes

III

Collected hourly & reported biennually.

Met Office and British Atmospheric Data Centre

Average presented for 1961 - 1990. Most recent published data is 2004 and 2005

Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea (Stornoway), Shetland, East Scotland Coast (Aberdeen and Leuchars).

Air Temperature

Marine Automatic Weather Station Network

Yes

Yes

III

Collected 3 hourly; reported on BBC Weather Centre Web Site

Met Office

- present

West Shetland, North Scotland Coast (Orkney).

FRS Scottish Ocean Climate Status

Yes

Yes

III

Collected hourly & reported biennually.

Met Office and British Atmospheric Data Centre

Average presented for 1961 - 1990. Most recent published data is 2004 and 2005

Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea (Stornoway), Shetland, East Scotland Coast (Aberdeen and Leuchars).

Rainfall

FRS Scottish Ocean Climate Status

Yes

Yes

III

Collected hourly & reported biennually.

Met Office and British Atmospheric Data Centre

Average presented for 1961 - 1990. Most recent published data is 2004 and 2005

Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea (Stornoway), Shetland, East Scotland Coast (Aberdeen and Leuchars).

Bottom pressure

Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment ( GRACE)

NASA (via POL)

2002 Present

Historical

Yes

Institute of Oceanographic Sciences

1980s

Sea

pH

Yes

ICES Oceanographic Data Centre

1907 - Present

Sea Temperature

Sub-tidal (6-18m) seawater temperature Tiree Passage current meter mooring

Yes

Yes

III

Hourly

SAMS

1981Present

Clyde and Minches & Malin Sea.

Surface (< 10m)

Yes

ICES Oceanographic Data Centre

- Present

Marine Automatic Weather Station Network

Yes

Yes

III

Collected 3 hourly; reported on BBC Weather Centre Web Site

Met Office

- present

Faroe Shetland Channel.

Salinity

Surface (< 10m)

Yes

ICES Oceanographic Data Centre

Yes

POL

Thermo-haline profile (Ellett line and extended Ellett line oceanographic section)

Surface to seabed

3 or 4 times a year

SAMS

1975-1996

Minches & Malin Sea, Hebrides and Rockall.

Circulation

Hindcast model for depth-averaged currents; MAIA monitoring inflows

Periodically updated

POL

1955 - 2007

Tiree Passage current meter mooring

Yes

Yes

III

Hourly

SAMS

1981 Present

Clyde and Minches & Malin Sea

Sediment concentration & transport

Satellite Observing Systems Ltd

Changes in Sea Level and Seabed

Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level and Hindcast model

Yes

Monthly

POL

1955 - Present

UK Tide Gauge

Yes

Daily, with 3 month delay

POL - national tidal and sea level facility

1915 - Present

Waves

Waves

WAVSAT

Yes

Daily

Satellite Observing Systems Ltd, POL

1985 - Present

All

Wave height

University of Aberdeen and Aberdeen City Council

Yes

Yes

II

Continuous

University of Aberdeen

2007 - Present

East Coast Scotland (Aberdeen)

Marine Automatic Weather Station Network

Yes

Yes

III

Collected 3 hourly; reported on BBC Weather Centre Web Site

Met Office

- present

Faroe Shetland Channel

Wave period

Marine Automatic Weather Station Network

Yes

Yes

III

Collected 3 hourly; reported on BBC Weather Centre Web Site

Met Office

- present

Faroe Shetland Channel

Surf

UK Observer Programme

Yes

Yes

II

Collected daily, reported on the BBC Weather Centre Web site

Surf Observer Programme

- present

East Coast Scotland (Aberdeen) and Hebrides (Lewis)

EVIDENCE FOR CLEAN AND SAFE SEAS

Topic

Descriptor(s)

Parameter/ data programme

Is info. available?

Is info. reported?

Confidence rating - see end for coding

Collection or reporting frequency

Data source / who collects it?

Year(s) for which data available

Regions for which data available (Fig. 1.7 (ch.1))

Microbiology

Increase in sites achieving Class A or SGW guideline standard

Shellfish hygiene programme

Yes; raw microbiologi cal results only available to relevant stakeholders

Yes

III

Classificatio n results reported annually.

FSA Scotland

2007

Sites vary on annual basis

Integrin Advanced Biosystems Ltd

Shetland Seafood Quality Control

Eutrophication

CSEMP determinants

CSEMP Monitoring Programme (Comprehensive Procedure and EU Directive Assessments)

Yes

Nutrients data are routinely reported, but other parameters (e.g. chl. & phytoplankto n) not routinely reported

III

Every few years

MERMAN/ FRS, SEPA,

Plankton

Continuous Plankton Recorder

In annual Ecological Status Reports

III

Monthly

SAHFOS

1946 - Present

All

Phytoplankton

Remote sensing of ocean colour

Yes - freely available via NASA websites

No - not routinely

II - problems with Case 2 waters

Weekly / Monthly

Satellite Observing Systems ( NASA/ NOAA)

1998 - Present

All, but resolution limits near coastal areas

Litter

Beach Monitoring

MCS beachwatch survey

Yes

Beachwatch report

Annually

MCS

- Present

Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast and Forth.

Offshore Water Monitoring

CSEMP

Yes

No, 2 years of data reported in Cefas MEMR

III

Not regularly

Cefas

Offshore Waters

KIMO Fishing for Litter

Continuously

KIMO

2005-2008

Landed into harbours in regions - Minches and Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast, East & West Shetland, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast and Forth.

Marine Mammal stranding autopsy reports

UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme ( CSIP)

Zoological Society of London

Concentrations of microplastic litter

Sand and sediment samples

Plymouth University

Contaminants in the environment

Inputs

CAMP, RID

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

II

Annually to OSPAR

Various monitoring authorities/ Defra collates and reports to OSPAR

Yes Accidents, Munitions

Yes

II

Annually

ACOPS

Dumping of waste oil at sea

Satellite Observing Systems

Hydrocarbons in sediment

Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group ( SOTEAG)

Yes

Yes

III

Bi-annual

SOTEAG and contractors

West Shetland (Sullom Voe)

Contaminants in animal tissues

Contaminants in Seals (including grey seal condition monitoring programme)

Yes

Annually/ ad-hoc depending on region and species of seal

SMRU

Grey seals in North Scotland Coast and Forth; Ad-hoc for harbour seals

Contaminants in food

Contaminants in seafood

Shellfish hygiene programme: monitoring of chemical contaminants in new harvesting areas

Yes

Yes

III

FSA Scotland

2006 Present

Sites vary on annual basis

Chemical contaminants survey programme: research/ surveys commissioned on ad-hoc basis.

Yes

Yes

I

On completion of surveys

FSAUK

Retail surveys- not possible to trace to region therefore may not be relevant

Chemical contaminants survey programme: shellfish monitoring at harvesting sites.

Yes

Yes

II

FSA Scotland

Biannual: 2001-2006

Sites vary

Feedstuffs programme

NA

NA

0

NA

FSA

Shellfish Toxins

Toxic Phytoplankton

Shellfish hygiene programme

Yes

Yes

II

Weekly to industry and LAs; also published on FSA website.

FSA Scotland

2005-2007

Sites vary on annual basis

Toxic Phytoplankton Monitoring Programme (Shellfish Hygiene)

Yes

Yes

III

Weekly since 2005

SAMS

2005-Present

Coastal with a focus on west coast, Western Isles and Northern Isles

CEFAS and Integrin Advanced Biosystems Ltd

EVIDENCE FOR HEALTHY AND BIOLOGICALLY DIVERSE SEAS

Topic

Descriptor(s)

Parameter/ data programme

Is info. available?

Is info. reported?

Confidence rating - see end for coding

Collection or reporting frequency

Data source / who collects it?

Year(s) for which data available

Regions for which data available (Fig. 1.7 (ch.1))

Ecosystem Functioning and

Long-Term Mean Sea Level

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

Climate Regulation

Sea Surface Temperature

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

Wave Height

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

See 'Physical Characteristics of the Seas' tables

Species as indicators of change

Wetland Bird Survey (WeBS)

Yes

Monthly

BTO, Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, RSPB, JNCC

Surveys of Scottish sea bird populations on small islands

Yes

Annually (breeding)

SAMS

1982Present

Minches & Malin Sea.

Seabird Monitoring Programme ( SMP) of 26 species

Yes

Monthly & annually

JNCC, RSPB, SOTEAG

Key sites: Minches & Malin Sea (Canna), East Shetland (Fair Isle) and Forth (Isle of May. Triennial for North Scotland Coast.

Marine Mammals (including grey seal condition monitoring programme)

Yes

Annually

JNCC, SMRU

Coastal, including North Scotland Coast, Forth

Intertidal species

Yes

Yes

III

10+ yearly

SAMS, MBA

1950-55

Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches & Malin

2001-04

Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast and East Scotland Coast.

Species as indicators of pollution

University of Aberdeen, Glasgow Caledonian University and University of Stirling

Concentrations of contaminants in animal tissues

Contaminants in Seals (including grey seal condition monitoring programme)

Yes

Annually/ ad-hoc depending on region.

SMRU

Annually for grey seals in North Scotland Coast and Forth; Ad-hoc elsewhere for grey and harbour seals

Nutrients (winter nutrient max, total nitrogen, nitrate:phosphate ratio)

See 'Clean Safe Scottish Seas' tables

See 'Clean Safe Scottish Seas' tables

Seabirds, Rocky shore species, Macrobenthos, Endocrine disruptive effects in marine snails

Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group ( SOTEAG)

Yes

Yes

III

Annual

SOTEAG and contractors (including FRS)

1978present

West Shetland (Sullom Voe) and East Shetland.

Distribution and Quality of Marine Habitats

Biodiversity

Deep Sea Benthos

Yes

Annually

SAMS

1973Present

Rockall.

Biodiversity and Morphology

Yes

Yes

III

NOCS

1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002

Rockall, Bailey, Faroe-Shetland Channel and West Shetland.

Seamounts

Yes

Yes

III

Reports written

SAMS, UoP,

2005 - 2006

Hebrides, Rockall and Bailey.

Deep-sea benthic surveys of the Rockall Trough region

Yes

Yes

III

Papers published as data analysed

SAMS

1973 - 1990's, 2005 present

Hebrides and Rockall.

Faunal surveys of the Faroe- Shetland Channel

Yes

Yes

III

Papers published as data analysed

SAMS, NOCS

1996, 1998, 2000, 2006, present

Faroe-Shetland Channel and West Shetland.

Surveying cold water coral in the Minch

Yes

Yes

III

Papers published as data analysed

SAMS

2000 - present

Minches & Malin Sea.

Species Abundance and Distribution

Population studies

Bivalve surveys

Yes

Monthly

SAMS

1977-1983

West and east coasts

Population densities and growth rates of juvenile fishes in shallow sandy nursery areas

Monthly during season

SAMS

1972Present (broken)

Clyde and Minches & Malin Sea.

Wetland Bird

Yes

Monthly

BTO, Wildlife &

Survey (WeBS)

Wetlands Trust, RSPB, JNCC

Goose and Swan Monitoring ( GSMP)

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, JNCC

Seabirds at Sea

JNCC

Annual Survey of Grey Seal Pup Production

Yes

Annually during breeding period (Oct-Nov)

SMRU

1962Present

Minches & Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast, East & West Shetland, Moray Firth and Forth.

Estimation of Harbour Seal Population Size

Yes

5 yearly during moult (Aug); some areas annually if required

SMRU

1988Present

Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches & Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast, East & West Shetland, Moray Firth, East Scotland Coast and Forth.

Cetacean abundance

CODA via SMRU

2007 -

All

Yes

Yes

II

1995 and 2005 in summer

Small Cetacean Abundance in the European Atlantic and North Sea ( SCANS) via SMRU

1995 & 2005

In 1995: North Scotland Coast, Faroe-Shetland Channel, East & West Shetland, Fladen, Moray Firth, Forties and Forth. All in 2005.

Broadscale survey as indicator of climate change

Broadscale surveys of rocky shore community structure

Yes

Yes

III

5 yearly

SAMS

2001Present

Irish Sea, Clyde, Minches and Malin Sea, Hebrides, North Scotland Coast and East Scotland Coast.

Amount of marine litter e.g. loss of fishing gear

See 'Clean Safe Seas' tables

See 'Clean Safe Seas' tables

Ghost fishing i.e. loss of gear and litter on seabed- disease

Cetacean bycatch

Yes

SMRU

1999 Present

Confidence rating used: III - High; II - Good / satisfactory; I - Low; 0 - no assessment possible. Year(s) for which data available: If year included that is when programme ends; 'Present' indicates that data will be collected beyond 2007.


Contact

Email: Central Enquiries Unit ceu@gov.scot