Publication - Corporate report

Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state

Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state.

Scotland's seas: towards understanding their state
References

References

Chapter 1

(1) Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a Framework for (Community Action in the field of Marine Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive)
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&language=EN&reference=P6-TA-2007-0595

(2) http://www.cbd.int/

(3) Defra, 2005. Charting Progress - An Integrated Assessment of the State of UK Seas. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London. pp. 120.
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/marine/uk/stateofsea/index.htm

(4) OSPAR, 2000. Quality Status Report 2000 for the North-East Atlantic. Oslo and Paris Commissions, London. pp. 108.
http://www.ospar.org/eng/html/welcome.html

(5) OSPAR, 2006. Overview of OSPAR Assessments 1998 - 2006. Oslo and Paris Commissions, London. pp. 89.
http://www.ospar.org/eng/html/welcome.html

(6) http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2007:0575:FIN:EN:PDF

(7) http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/pdf/ActionPaper/action_plan_en.pdf

(8) Defra, 2002. Safeguarding our Seas - Conservation and Sustainable Development of our Marine Environment. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London. pp. 80.
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/marine/uk/stewardship/index.htm

(9) ). Marine Environment Monitoring Group, 2004. UK National Marine Monitoring Programme - 2nd report (1999-2001) Cefas, Lowestoft. pp. 136.
http://www.cefas.co.uk/publications/files/nmmp2.pdf

(10) Scottish Executive, 2005. Seas the Opportunity - a strategy for the long term sustainability of Scotland's coasts and seas. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh. pp. 40.
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/08/26102543/25444

(11) Recommendations of the Advisory Group on Marine and Coastal Strategy: A Follow up to Seas the Opportunity: A Strategy for the Long Term Sustainability of Scotland's Coasts and Seas, 2007. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh. pp. 79.
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/03/08103826/0

(12) Scottish Parliament, 2007. Report on Inquiry into the Marine Environment. Environment and Rural Development Committee, Edinburgh. pp. 36. SP Paper 774.
http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/business/committees/environment/reports-07/rar07-04-00.htm

Chapter 2

(1) http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/inlwater/iwrainfall.htm

(2) Fehling, J., Davidson, K., and Bates, S.S., 2005. Growth dynamics of non-toxic Pseudo-nitzchia delicatissima and toxic P. seriat (Bacillariophyceae) under simulated spring and summer photperiods. Harmful Algae 4, 763 - 769.

(3) Inall, M.E., Gillibrand, P.A., Griffiths, C.R., MacDougal, N. and Blackwell, K., 2008. Temperature, Salinity and Flow Variability on the North-West European Shelf. Journal of Marine Systems (in press).

(4) Hickey, K.R., 2001. The storm of 31 January to 1 February 1953 and its impact on Scotland, Scottish Journal of Geography 117, 283-295.

(5) McKee, D., Cunningham, A. and Jones K.J., 2002. Optical and hydrographic consequences of freshwater run-off during spring phytoplankton growth in a Scottish fjord. Journal of Plankton Research 24 (11), 1163-1171.

(6) Heath, M.R., Edwards, A.C., Pätsch, J. and Turrell, W.R., 2002. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit contract: Modelling the behaviour of nutrients in the coastal waters of Scotland, Final Report. Fisheries Research Services Report 10/02.

(7) ICES., 2007. Report of the Workshop on the Significance of Changes in Surface CO2 and Ocean pH in ICES Shelf Sea Ecosystems (WKCpH). ICES C.M. 2007/ OCC:12

(8) Blackford, J. and Gilbert, F., 2007. pH variability and CO2 induced acidification in the North Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 64, 229-241.

(9) Andrews, I.J., Long, D., Richards, P.C., Thomson, A.R., Brown, S., Chesher, J.A. and McCormac, M., 1990. United Kingdom offshore regional report: The Geology of the Moray Firth. London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.

(10) Fyfe, J.A., Long, D. and Evans, D., 1993. United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the Malin-Hebrides sea area. London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.

(11) Gatliff, R.W., Richards, P.C., Smith, K., Graham, C.C., McCormac, M., Smith, N.J.P., Jeffery, D., Long, D., Cameron, T.D.J., Evans, D., Stevenson, A.G., Bulat, J. and Ritchie, J.D., 1993. United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the central North Sea. London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.

(12) Jackson, D.I., Jackson, A.A., Evans, D., Wingfield, R.T.R., Barnes, R.P. and Arthur, M.J., 1995. United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the Irish Sea. London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.

(13) Johnson, H., Richards, P.C., Long, D. and Graham, C.C., 1993. United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the northern North Sea. London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.

(14) Stoker, M.S., Hitchen, K. and Graham, C.C., 1993. United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the Hebrides and West Shetland shelves, and adjacent deep-water areas. London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.

Chapter 3

(1) www.sepa.org.uk/publications/state_of/2006/main/c_nutrient.html

(2) www.sepa.org.uk/data/classification/index.htm Trends in Water quality from 1996

(3) www.sepa.org.uk/wfd/index.htm

(4) Ross, P.S., Vos, J.G., Birnbaum, L.S. and Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., 2000. PCBs are a health risk for humans and wildlife. Science 289, 1878-1879.

(5) Kannan, K., Blankenship, A.L., Jones, P.D. and Giesy, J.P., 2000. Toxicity reference values for the toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls to aquatic mammals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6, 181-201.

(6) Hall, A. J., Law, R.J., Wells, D.E., Harwood, J., Ross, H.M., Kennedy, S., Allchin, C.R., Campbell, L.A. and Pomeroy, P.P., 1992. Organochlorine levels in common seals ( Phoca vitulina) that were victims and survivors of the 1988 phocine distemper epizootic. Science of the Total Environment 115, 145-162.

(7) Hall, A.J. and Thomas, G.O., 2005. Population impacts of endocrine disrupters on UK seals - effects on juvenile survival and interactions with disease. Contract No. AE1142, Endocrine Disrupters in the Aquatic Environment, Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.

(8) Hall, A.J. and Thomas, G.O., 2007. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organic pesticides in United Kingdom harbor seals - mixed exposures and thyroid homeostasis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26, 851-861.

(9) Edgar, P.J., Hursthouse, A.S., Matthews, J.E. and Davies, I.M., 2003. An investigation of geochemical factors controlling the distribution of PCBs in intertidal sediments at a contamination hot spot, the Clyde Estuary, UK. Applied Geochemistry 18, 327-338.

(10) Law, R.J., Bersuder, P., Allchin, C.R. and Barry, J., 2006. Levels of the flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A in the blubber of harbor porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena) stranded or bycaught in the UK, with evidence for an increase in HBCD concentrations in recent years. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 2177-2183.

(11) www.frs-scotland.gov.uk/Delivery/standalone.aspx?contentid=2202

(12) www.sepa.org.uk/spri/index.htm

(13) www.sepa.org.uk/publications/state_of/index.htm

(14) http://www.ospar.org/documents/dbase/publications/p00189_Eutrophication Status Report 2003.pdf

(15) www.sepa.org.uk/dpag

(16) www.corwm.org.uk/content-0

Recommendations of the Committee of Radioactive Waste management (CoRWM)

(17) www.sepa.org.uk/publications/rife/index.htm

(18) www.cefasdirect.co.uk/publications/aquatic/aemr59.pdf Radioactivity in Coastal Waters

(19) www.fwr.org/sniffer.htm Identification and Assessment of Alternative Disposal Options for Radioactive Oilfield Wastes - Summary Guidance

(20) http://www.wdcs.org/dan/publishing.nsf/c525f7df6cbf01ef802569d600573108/48a0c8d9c559fa0680256d2b004027d4/$FILE/Oceansofnoise.pdf
Simmonds, M., Dolman, S. & Weilgart, L. (eds.), 2003. Oceans of Noise [on-line]. Chippenham: Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society [cited 31/10/03].

(21) www.marlab.ac.uk/FRS.Web/Uploads/Documents/Impacts%20of%20Marine%20Litter.pdf Impacts of Marine Litter

Chapter 4

(1) Scottish Government. 2007. Scotland's Biodiversity Indicators. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh. pp. 50.
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/11/09155020/0

(2) http://www.searchnbn.net/

(3) http://www.searchmesh.net/

(4) http://www.snh.org.uk/pubs/cr.asp

(5) Batten, S.D., Clark, R., Flinkman, J., Hays, G., John, E., John, A.W.G., Jonas, T., Lindley, J.A., Stevens, D.P. and Walne, A., 2003. CPR sampling: the technical background, materials and methods, consistency and comparability. Progress in Oceanography 58, 193-215.
http://www.sahfos.ac.uk/PDF_files/symposiummanuscripts/PIO58Batten193-215.pdf

(6) Corten, A., 1999. Evidence from plankton for multi-annual variations of Atlantic inflow in the northwestern North Sea. Journal of Sea Research 42, 191-205.

(7) Edwards, M., John, A.W.G., Hunt, H.G. and Lindley, J.A., 1999. Exceptional influx of oceanic species into the North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 79, 737-739.

(8) Mavor, R.A., Parsons, M., Heubeck, M. and Schmitt, S., 2005. Seabird numbers and breeding success in Britain and Ireland, 2004. UK Nature Conservation, No. 29., Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.

(9) Reid, P.C., Edwards, M., Beaugrand, G., Stevens, D. and Wootton, M., 2005. Marine Habitats and Species: Chapter 2: State of Plankton. In: Charting Progress: An Integrated Assessment of the State of the UK Seas. DEFRA, London, pp. 59-100.
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/marine/uk/stateofsea/chartprogress-3.pdf

(10) Edwards, M., Johns, D.G., Licandro, P., John, A.W.G. and Stevens, D.P., 2007. Ecological Status Report: results from the CPR survey 2005/2006. SAHFOS Technical Report 4, 1-8.
http://www.sahfos.ac.uk/annual_reports/ecological status report (ebook) 2006.pdf

(11) Defra, 2005. Charting Progress: An integrated assessment of the State of the UK Seas. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London. pp 120.

(12) Saunders, G. 2004. Natural heritage trends: the seas around Scotland 2004. Scottish Natural Heritage, Perth. pp. 158.

(13) Scottish Biodiversity Forum, 2004. Scotland's biodiversity: it's in your hands. A strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland. An overview of the implementation plans 2005 - 2008. Scottish Executive, Edinburgh. pp. 38.

(14) Williams, J.M., ed. 2006. Common Standards Monitoring for Designated Sites: First Six Year Report. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. pp 16.

(15) Scottish Natural Heritage, in-prep. Site Condition Monitoring. The results from the First Six Years. Scottish Natural Heritage, Perth.

(16) Turrell, W.R., Slesser, G., Adams, R.D., Payne, R. and Gillibrand, P.A., 1999. Decadal variability in the composition of Faroe Shetland Channel bottom water. Deep Sea Research 46, 1-25.

(17) Minchin, D. and Eno, C., 2002. Exotics of coastal and inland waters of Ireland and Britain. In: Invasive Aquatic Species in Europe. Edited by Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. and Olenin, S., Kluwer, Dordrecht. 267-275.

(18) Willis, K.J., Cook, E.J., Lozano-Fernandez, M. and Takeuchi, I., 2004. First record of the alien caprellid amphipod, Caprella mutica, for the UK. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84, 1027-1028.

(19) Eno, C., Clark, R.A., and Sanderson, W.G. (Editors), 1997. Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. pp. 152.

(20) ICES, 2005. ICES Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms 2005. International Council for the Exploration og the Sea, Copenhagen. pp. 30.

(21) Davison, D.M., 1996. An estimation of the total number of marine species that occur in Scottish coastal waters. Scottish Natural Heritage Review No 63. Scottish National Heritage, Edinburgh. pp. 31

(22) Poxton, M.G., 1992. Towards a strategy for the conservation of marine fish in Scotland. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 100B, 141-167.

(23) Hammond, P.S. and Grellier, K., 2005. Grey seal diet composition and fish consumption in the North Sea. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs under project MF0319, 1-54.

(24) Hammond, P.S. and Harris, R.N., 2006. Grey seal diet composition and prey consumption off western Scotland and Shetland. Final report to Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department and Scottish Natural Heritage. pp. 41

(25) Wanless, S., Wright, P.J., Harris, M.P. and Elston, D.A., 2004. Evidence for decrease in size of lesser sandeels Ammodytes marinus in a North Sea aggregation over a 30-yr period. Marine Ecology Progress Series 279, 237-246.

(26) Jennings, S. and Reynolds, J.D. 2000. Impacts of fishing on diversity: from pattern to process. In: Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats: biological, conservation and socio-economic issues. Edited by. Kaiser, M.J. and de Groot, S.J. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp. 235-250.

(27) Edwards, M., Johns, D.G., Licandro, P., John, A.W.G. and Stevens, D.P., 2007. Ecological Status Report: results from the CPR survey 2005/2006. SAHFOS Technical Report 4, 1-8.
http://biology.st-and.ac.uk/scans2/

(29) Thompson, P.M., Corkrey, R., Lusseau, D., Lusseau, S.M., Quick, N., Durban, J.W., Parsons, K.M. and Hammond, P.S., 2006. An assessment of the current condition of the Moray Firth bottlenose dolphin population. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 175, pp. 27

(30) http://smub.st-and.ac.uk/CurrentResearch.htm/scos.htm

(31) Lonergan, M., Duck, C.D., Thompson, D., Mackey, B.L., Cunningham, L. and Boyd, I.L., 2007. Using sparse survey data to investigate the declining abundance of British harbour seals. Journal of Zoology 271(3), 261-269.

(32) http://www.strandings.com/Wales.html

(33) Penrose, R.S. and Gander, L.R., 2008. UK & Republic of Ireland Marine Turtle Strandings & Sightings Annual Report 2007. Marine Environmental Monitoring, pp. 28.

(34) Mitchell, P.I., Newton, S.F., Ratcliffe, N. and Dunn, T.E., 2004. Seabird Populations of Britain and Ireland. T. & A.D. Poyser , London. pp. 511.

(35) Parsons, M., Mitchell, P. I., Butler, A., Mavor, R., Ratcliffe, N. and Foster, S., 2006. Natural Heritage Trends: Abundance of Breeding Seabirds. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 222 F05NB01, pp. 74.

(36) Mavor, R.A., Parsons, M., Heubeck, M. and Schmitt, S.. 2005. Seabird numbers and breeding success in Britain and Ireland, 2004. UK Nature Conservation, No. 29, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, pp. 104

(37) Parsons, M., Mitchell, P.I., Butler, A., Ratcliffe, N., Frederiksen, M., Foster, S. and Reid, J.B., 2008. NATURAL HERITAGE TRENDS: Productivity of Breeding Seabirds in Scotland 1986 - 2006. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report. pp. 28.

(38) Arnott, S.A. and Ruxton, G. D., 2002. Sandeel recruitment in the North Sea: demographic, climatic and trophic effects. Marine Ecology Progress Series 238, 199-210.

(39) Frederiksen, M., Wanless, S., Harris, M.P., Rothery, P. and Wilson, L. J., 2004b. The role of industrial fishery and oceanographic changes in the decline of the North Sea black-legged kittiwakes. Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 1129-1139.

(40) Frederiksen, M., Mavor, R. A. and Wanless, S., in press. Seabirds as environmental indicators: the advantages of combining data sets. Marine Ecology Progress Series.

(41) Furness, R.W. and Tasker, M.L., 2000. Seabird-fishery interactions: quantifying the sensitivity of seabirds to reductions in sandeel abundance and identification of key areas for sensitive seabirds in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 202, 253-264.

(42) Wanless, S., Wright, P.J., Harris, M.P. and Elston, D. A., 2004. Evidence for decrease in size of lesser sandeels Ammodytes marinus in a North Sea aggregation over a 30-yr period. Marine Ecology Progress Series 279, 237-246.

(43) Wanless, S., Harris, M.P., Redman, P. and Speakman, J. R., 2005. Low energy values of fish as a probable cause of a major seabird breeding failure in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 294, 1-8.

(44) Beaugrand, G., Brander, K.M., Lindley, A., Souissi, S. and Reid, P.C., 2003. Plankton effect on cod recruitment in the North Sea. Nature 426, 661-664.

(45) Harris, M.P., Anker-Nilssen, T., McCleery, R.H., Erikstad, K.E., Shaw, D.N. and Grosbois, V., 2005. Effect of wintering area and climate on the survival of adult Atlantic puffins Fratercula arctica in the eastern Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 297, 283-296.

(46) Grosbois, V. and Thompson, P.M., 2005. North Atlantic climate variation influences survival in adult fulmars. Oikos 109, 273-290.

(47) Votier, S.C., Hatchwell, B.J., Beckerman, A., McCleery, R.H., Hunter, F.M., Pellatt, J., Trinder, M. and Birkhead, T.R., 2005. Oil pollution and climate have wide-scale impacts on seabird demographics. Ecology Letters 8, 1157-1164.

(48) Kirby, R.R., Johns, D.G. and Lindley, J.A., 2006. Fathers in hot water: rising sea temperatures and a Northeastern Atlantic pipefish baby boom. Biology Letters 2, 597-600.

(49) Harris, M.P., Beare, D., Toresen, R., Nøttestad, L., Kloppmann, M., Dörner, H., Peach, K., Rushton, D.R.A., Foster-Smith, J. and Wanless, S., 2007. A major increase in snake pipefish ( Entelurus aequoreus) in northern European seas since 2003: potential implications for seabird breeding success. Marine Biology 151, 973-983.

(50) Harris, M.P., Newell, M., Daunt, F., Speakman, J.R. and Wanless, S., in press. Snake pipefish ( Entelurus aequoreus) are poor food for seabirds. Ibis.

Chapter 5

(1) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Economy/Input-Output

(2) Pugh, D.T., 2008. Socio-economic indicators of marine-related activities in the UK economy. Marine Estate Research Report, The Crown Estate, March 2008. pp. 81.

(3) Pugh, D.T. and Skinner, L., 2002. A new analysis of marine-related activities in the UK economy with supporting science and technology. IACMST, August 2002. pp. 48.

(4) http://www.statistics.gov.uk/methods_quality/sic/downloads/UK_SIC_Vol1(2003).pdf

(5) Topping, G., Davies, J.M., Mackie, P.R. and Moffat, C.F., 1997 The impact of the Braer spill on commercial fish and shellfish. In: The Impact of an oil spill in Turbulent Waters: the Braer. Edited by Davies, J.M. and Topping, G, The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK, 121 - 143.

(6) Table 1, Statistical Bulletin No Fis/2007/1. September 2007. FRS.
http://www.frs-scotland.gov.uk/FRS.Web/Uploads/Documents/SCSB06%20web.pdf

(7) Figure 8. Statistical Bulletin No Fis/2007/1. September 2007. FRS.
http://www.frs-scotland.gov.uk/FRS.Web/Uploads/Documents/SCSB06%20web.pdf

(8) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2003/03/16842/20502

(9) Fisheries Research Services, 2007. Scottish Fish Farms Annual Production Survey 2006. Fisheries Research Services, Aberdeen, pp. 53
http://www.frs-scotland.gov.uk/Delivery/Information_Resources/information_resources_view_document.aspx?contentid=2220

(10) http://www.sarf.org.uk/Project%20Final%20Reports/SARF024%20-%20Final%20Reports%20and%20Templates/EIA%20Guidelines%20FINAL+%20Templates.pdf

(11) http://www.scottishsalmon.co.uk/dlDocs/CoGp.pdf

(12) Gubbins, M.J., McCollin, T., Lichtman, D., Miller, B.S., Dobson, J. and Davies, I.M., 2006. Eutrophication assessment of Scottish coastal waters supporting aquaculture 2004 - 2005. OSPAREUC 06/02/Info.1. pp. 303.

(13) Scottish Enterprise
http://www.scottish-enterprise.com/sedotcom_home/sig/sig-energy/energy_sector/energykeyfacts.htm?siblingtoggle=1

(14) http://www.og.dti.gov.uk/information/bb_updates/appendices/Appendix9.htm

(15) http://www.og.dti.gov.uk/information/bb_updates/appendices/Appendix10.htm

(16) http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/emergencyresponse/mcga-pollutionresponse/mcga-dops_cp_environmental-counter-pollution.htm

(17) http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/statistics/datatablespublications/maritime/compendium

(18) Hayes, P., Russell, M. and Packer, G., 2005. Surveys of dredged material and wastewater sludge sea disposal sites for the east coast of Scotland. Fisheries Research Services Report No. 08/05, 1 - 55.

(19) Hayes, P., Russell, M. and Packer, G., 2005. Assessment of the quality of sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tributyl tin samples collected from Aberdeen harbour and Aberdeen sea disposal site. Fisheries Research Services Report No. 07/05, 1 - 36.

(20) http://www.thecrownestate.co.uk/43_landing_port_statistics_2006.pdf

(21) UK leisure and small commercial marine industry. Key Performance Indicators. British Marine Federation January 2008.
www.britishmarine.co.uk/docimages/2038.pdf

(22) Sailing in the Clyde Estuary, The Potential For Future Development, A Market Assessment, Economic Impact Study and Action Plan, 2006. Scottish Enterprise. pp. 81.
http://www.scottish-enterprise.com/publications/sailing_in_the_clyde_estuary_june_2006.pdf

(23) www.scapetrust.org

(24) Historic Scotland, 2007. A review of existing information for Scotland's Historic Environment Audit ( SHEA).
http://www.heritageaudit.org.uk/

(25) Figures obtained from the Scottish Sub-Aqua Club
http://www.scotsac.com

(26) Smith, W.A., 1887. Loch Creran Notes from the West Highlands. Gardner, A. Paisley.

(27) Connor, D., 1990. Survey of Lochs Linnhe, Eil, Creran and Aline. Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report No. 1073. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough. pp. 170.

(28) Moore, C.G., Saunders, G.R., Harries, D.B., 1998. The status and distributional ecology of reefs of Serpula vermicularis L. (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in Scotland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 8, 645-656.

(29) Moore, C.G., Harries, D.B., Lyndon, A.R., Saunders, G.R. and Conway, T.R., 2003. Quantification of serpulid biogenic reef coverage of the sea bed (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) using a video transect technique. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13, 137-146.

(30) Chapman, N.D., Moore, C.G., Harries, D.B. andLyndon, A,R., 2007. Patterns of recruitment in Serpula vermicularis L. (Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 73, 598-606.

(31) Moore, C.G., Bates, C.R., Mair, J.M., Saunders, G.R., Harries, D.B. and Lyndon, A.R., in press. Mapping serpulid worm reefs (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) for conservation management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.

(32) Poloczanska, E.S., Hughes, D.J. and Burrows, M.T., 2004. Underwater television observations of Serpula vermicularis (L.) reefs and associated mobile fauna in Loch Creran, Scotland. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 61, 425-435.

(33) Ten Hove, H.A. and Van den Hurk, P., 1993. A review of recent and fossil serpulid 'reefs'; actuopalaeontology and the 'Upper Malm' serpulid limestones in NW Germany. Geologie en Mijnbouw 72, 23-67.

(34) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2007/11/27095600

(35) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/11/13092240/0 page 13

(36) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/19185/WaveTidalSEA

(37) http://www.seaenergyscotland.co.uk/WhatisSEA.htm

Chapter 6

(1) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC). Edited by Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden P.L. and Hanson, C.E. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 976.

(2) Rahmstorf, S., Cazenave, A., Church, J.A., Hansen, J.E., Keeling, R.F., Parker, D.E. and Somerville, R.C.J., 2007. Recent Climate Observations Compared to Projections. Science 316 (5825), pp. 709.

(3) Fisheries Research Services, 2007. Scottish Ocean Climate Status Report 2004 and 2005. Edited by Hughes S.L. Fisheries Research Services, Aberdeen. pp. 40.

(4) Hughes, S.L. and Holliday, N.P. (Editors). 2007. ICES Report on Ocean Climate 2006. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 289, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. pp. 55.

(5) Holliday, N.P., Hughes, S., Bacon, S., Beszczynska-Möller, A., Hansen, B., Lavín, A., Loeng, A.H., Mork, K.A., Østerhus, S., Sherwin, T. and Walczowski, W., in press. Reversal of the 1960s - 1990s Freshening Trend in the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas, Geophysical Research Letters.

(6) Boyer, T., Levitus, S., Antonov, J., Locarnini, R., Mishonov, A., Garcia, H. and Josey, S.A., 2007. Changes in freshwater content in the North Atlantic Ocean 1955-2006. Geophysical Research Letters 34.

(7) Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership, 2008. Marine Climate Change Impacts Annual Report Card 2007-2008. Edited by Baxter, J.M., Buckley, P.J. and Wallace, C.J. Summary Report, MCCIP, Lowestoft, pp. 8.

(8) Dawson, A., Smith, D.E. and Dawson, S., 2001. The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Sea Levels around Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Research Survey and Monitoring Report, No. 178. Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh. pp. 77.

(9) http://www.mba.ac.uk/marclim/

(10) Hulme, M., Jenkins, G.J., Lu, X., Turnpenny, J.R., Mitchell, T.D., Jones, R.G., Lowe, J., Murphy, J.M., Hassell, D., Boorman, P., McDonald, R. and Hill, S., 2002. Climate Change Scenarios for the United Kingdom: The UKCIP02 Scientific Report. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. pp. 120.

(11) British-Irish Council, 2003. Scenarios of climate change for islands within the BIC region. Edited by Jenkins, G., Cooper, C., Hassell D. and Jones, R. UK Met Office, Bracknell. pp. 48.

(12) UK Climate Impacts Programme ( UKCIP) Scenarios gateway - UKCIP08:
http://www.ukcip.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=163&Itemid=488

(13) www.cefas.co.uk/data/wavenet

(14) http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/index.html

Chapter 7

(1) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2003/03/16842/20502

(2) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/03/sfifs/0

(3). Halpern, B., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K.A., Kappel, C.V., Micheli, F. et al., 2008. A Global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319, 948 - 952.


Contact

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