Information

Scottish Health Survey 2013 - volume 1: main report

Presents results for the 2013 Scottish Health Survey, providing information on the health and factors relating to health of people living in Scotland.

This document is part of a collection


2 Dental Health

Anna Marcinkiewicz

SUMMARY

Natural teeth prevalence

  • In 2013, nine in ten adults had some natural teeth, with men significantly more likely than women to report having at least some (92%, compared with 88%). Although the Scottish Government's target that 90% of all adults living in Scotland would possess some natural teeth by 2010 was met overall, the proportion for women remained below the target level.
  • The proportion of 16 to 64 year olds with no natural teeth has decreased since 1995 (11%), and has remained at around 4% since 2008.
  • In line with earlier years, in 2013, natural teeth prevalence decreased with age, with just over half (55%) of adults aged over 75 reporting some natural teeth. Older men were significantly more likely than older women to have some natural teeth (64% of those aged 75 and over, compared with 49% of women of the same age).

Visiting the dentist

  • In 2013, three quarters (74%) of adults reported visiting the dentist in the year prior to interview, an increase from 69% in 2009.
  • Women remain more likely than men to have been to the dentist in the previous year (76%, compared with 71% of men).
  • Older people aged 75 and above were least likely to report having visited the dentist in the last year (52%, compared with 67% of those aged 65-74 and 75-81% of those aged 16-64).
  • Four in ten adults reported feeling nervous about visiting the dentist. Women were more likely than men to report feeling very nervous about going (20%, compared with 13%).
  • Most adults (72%) did not report experiencing any difficulties when visiting the dentist. One in ten mentioned difficulties in getting an appointment that suited, while a similar proportion reported that dental treatment was too expensive (9%).

2.1 INTRODUCTION

In the Annual Report of the Chief Dental Officer (CDO) 2012, the CDO flagged oral health as an important component of wider general health which can influence a person's quality of life.[1] Oral disease can detrimentally impact on a person's health and wellbeing and has potentially wider socio-economic consequences. The most common types of oral disease, dental caries and gum disease, are largely preventable. Of greatest concern is oral cancer. Major risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption.[1]

Child and adults registration rates have increased in recent years, with more than 91% of children and 84% of adults registered with an NHS dentist at the end of March 2014.[2] All NHS boards in Scotland have also now met the 2010 national target for 60% of P1 and P7 pupils to have no obvious decay experience.[1] In recent years there has also been a reduction in general anaesthetics for dental extractions among children.[1]

Despite these improvements, inequalities in oral health persist and the latest figures indicate that there continues to be an increase in the incidence of oral cancer.[1]

2.1.1 Policy background

In 2005, An Action Plan for Improving Oral Health and Modernising NHS Dental Services in Scotland was published.[3] The plan recognised the inequalities in oral health, the problems with access to services, and that poor dental health in adults often has its origins in childhood. A series of national dental health targets were set out in the Action Plan, including the aim that, by 2010, 90% of all adults in Scotland would have some natural teeth.

Childsmile, developed from the Action Plan, is a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland and to reduce inequalities both in dental health and in access to dental health services.[4] In addition, the SIGN guidance on preventing caries in children aged 0-18 was updated in March 2014 (SIGN 138).[5]

Other recent developments include the publication of the National Oral Health Improvement Strategy for Priority Groups in 2012.[6] The strategy, which set out a number of measures to prevent oral disease in adults vulnerable to poor oral health, including frail older people, those with special care needs or who are homeless, was published in May 2012.[7] A report on the oral health of prisoners and young offenders was published in June 2014,[8] and in August 2014 was accompanied by a set of guidelines for trainers on better oral care for offenders.

In 2012, NHS Health Scotland published Oral Health and Nutritional Guidance for Professionals.[9] In the same year, NHS Health Scotland also published Alcohol and Oral Health: Understanding risk, raising awareness and giving advice.[10] Since the publication of the 2012 SHeS annual report, the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme has published new guidance on the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases in primary care.[11]

The NHS HEAT target[12] to increase NHS dentist registration rates for 3 to 5 year olds to 80% by 2010/11 was surpassed and the latest available figures show 92% registered.[2] A second HEAT target sets out the aim to provide two or more fluoride varnish applications to at least 60% of 3- and 4-year olds in each SIMD quintile every year by March 2014.[13] In the year ending March 2013, one year before the target end date, the worst-performing age/quintile combination was 10.1%. While there has been significant variation across Health Boards, across Scotland use of fluoride varnishing has been highest among those in the most deprived SIMD quintiles.[14]

2.1.2 Reporting on dental health in the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS)

The focus of this chapter is on dental health and dental treatment. The section on dental health presents the findings on the prevalence of natural teeth in the Scottish population since 1995 and allows for further analysis by age and gender. The remainder of the chapter explores dental treatment in relation to the pattern of visits to the dentist, anxiety about going to the dentist and the difficulties experienced when arranging to see a dentist. Additional tables are available from the Scottish Government SHeS website.[15]

2.2 METHODS AND DEFINITIONS

Adults aged 16 and over are asked questions on dental health annually and on dental health services biennially. Two changes made to the questions on dental health have implications for the time series data presented here. Since 2008 participants have been asked how many natural teeth they have. Prior to 2008, participants were asked if they had their own teeth but were not asked how many of their own teeth they had. Consequently, it is only possible to compare people in the period 1995 to 2003 who said they had all false teeth with people from 2008 onwards who said they had no natural teeth. In addition, the definition of false teeth used in 1995 differed from that used in 1998 and 2003. In 1998 and 2003 participants were asked to count caps and crowns as natural teeth but there was no such instruction in 1995.

While the question on natural teeth prevalence used since 2008 is very different to that used in earlier years, it attempts to measure the same underlying concept - having no natural teeth - and might therefore be considered as functionally equivalent. As there is no way of verifying this, however, comparisons over time (between 1995-2003 and from 2008 onwards) should be made with caution.

2.3 DENTAL HEALTH

2.3.1 Trends in prevalence of natural teeth since 1995

Trends in natural teeth prevalence for adults aged 16 and over are presented in Figure 2A and Table 2.1 from 1995 onwards. As a result of changes to the sample composition in 2003, figures presented here for the first two survey years (1995 and 1998) are based on those aged 16 to 64 only. From 2003 onwards figures for both those aged 16 to 64 and all adults aged 16 and over are presented.

Over the years there has been a downward trend in the proportion of 16-64 year olds with no natural teeth. In 1995, around one in ten (11%) had all false teeth, while the percentage with no natural teeth has been between 3% and 5% since 2008 (4% in 2013). Trends for men and women have been similar, with 13% of women aged 16-64 with all false teeth in 1995, compared with 4% with no natural teeth in 2013. The equivalent figures for men in this age group were 9% in 1995 and 4% in 2013. The percentage of adults aged 16 and over with no natural teeth has not changed significantly since 2008 (12% in 2008 and 10% in 2013). Figure 2A, Table 2.1

Figure 2A Proportion of adults aged 16-64 with all false teeth (1995-2003)/ no natural teeth (2008-2013), by sex

The Action Plan for Improving Oral Health and Modernising NHS Dental Services in Scotland set out the aim that 90% of all adults living in Scotland would possess some natural teeth by 2010.[3] This target was met in 2011 and has been maintained since then (90% in 2013). The percentage of women with some natural teeth has not changed significantly since 2008 and the 90% target is yet to be met (88% in 2013, compared with 92% of men).

The percentage of adults aged 16 and over with 20 or more natural teeth has increased significantly since 2008 (from 71% to 74% in 2013). Table 2.1

2.3.2 Number of natural teeth and prevalence of no natural teeth in 2013, by age and sex

Natural teeth prevalence in 2013 is presented in Table 2.2, by age and sex. In 2013, 90% of adults aged 16 and over had at least some natural teeth, while 10% had no natural teeth at all. Around three-quarters (74%) of adults had 20 or more natural teeth, 11% had between 10 and 19 natural teeth and 5% had fewer than 10.

Men were significantly more likely than women to have some natural teeth (92%, compared with 88%). There was an inverse relationship between natural teeth prevalence and age for both men and women. In 2013, 95-100% of those aged 16-54 had at least some natural teeth, compared with 76-87% of those aged 55-74, and 55% of those aged 75 and above.

Natural teeth prevalence did not differ significantly between men and women under the age of 55. Pronounced differences emerged, however, at ages 55-64 upwards. For example, 90% of men aged 55-64 and 64% aged 75 and over had natural teeth, whereas prevalence among women in the same age groups was 85% and 49%, respectively. Table 2.2

2.4 DENTAL TREATMENT

2.4.1 Trends in last visit to the dentist since 2009

Biennially, adult participants are asked how long it has been since they last visited the dentist, with answer options ranging from 'less than a year ago' to 'never'. Figures for the years 2009, 2011 and 2013 are presented in Table 2.3.

Since 2009, the percentage of adults reporting visiting the dentist 'less than a year' ago has increased significantly from 69% to 74% in 2013. This increase was most pronounced among men, with a six percentage point increase in the percentage reporting that their last visit was within the last 12 months (from 65% in 2009 to 71% in 2013). The increased proportion of adults visiting the dentist was coupled with a decline in the percentage reporting that their last visit had either been more than 5 years ago or that they had never been (13% in 2009 compared with 10% in 2013).

Women remain more likely than men to report visiting the dentist within the last year. However, the gap between the sexes dropped from 8 percentage points in 2011 to 5 percentage points in 2013 (71% of men and 76% of women in 2013).

Dentist visits also varied by age, as shown in Table 2.4. Older people aged 75 and above were least likely to have visited the dentist in the last year (52%, compared with 67% of those aged 65-74 and 75-81% of those aged 16-64). Moreover, around one third (32%) of those aged 75 and over had not visited the dentist in the past 5 years; whereas the figure ranged from 3-17% among younger age groups. Women aged 35-54 were significantly more likely than their male counterparts to have visited the dentist in the past year (82-86%, compared with 68-74%). While men aged 75 and over appear to have been more likely than women of the same age to have visited the dentist in the last year (55% and 49%), this difference was not statistically significant. Table 2.3, Table 2.4

2.4.2 Dental anxiety in 2013, by age and sex

One factor which could potentially affect a person's willingness to visit a dentist is a feeling of nervousness or anxiety about the visit. All adults, irrespective of when they last visited, were asked how nervous they felt about going to the dentist. Answer options ranged from 'I don't feel nervous at all' to 'I feel very nervous'.

In 2013, four in ten adults reported that they felt nervous about visiting the dentist: around a quarter (23%) reported feeling a bit nervous and 16% felt very nervous. Women were significantly more likely than men to report that visiting the dentist made them feel very nervous (20% compared with 13%). While the pattern with age was less clear, those aged 75 and over were least likely to report feeling very nervous (9%), while those aged 45-54 were most likely to report that visiting the dentist made them feel very nervous (21%). Table 2.5

2.4.3 Difficulties experienced when visiting the dentist in 2013, by age and sex

Participants were also presented with a list of potential difficulties a person might experience when planning a visit to the dentist and were asked which, if any, applied to them. In 2013, most adults (72%) did not report any difficulties when planning a visit (71% of men and 73% of women). The most commonly mentioned issues mentioned were difficulties in getting an appointment that suited (10% of all adults) and the cost of treatment (9% of all adults).

While men and women's experiences of planning a visit to the dentist did not differ significantly, there were some significant differences by age. Younger age groups were significantly more likely than others to cite the following difficulties when planning a dentist visit: getting time off work (8-9% of those aged 16-44); problems with getting an appointment that suited (11-17% of those aged 16-44); and, cost of the dental treatment (9-15% of those aged 16-54). Table 2.6

Table list

Table 2.1 Number of natural teeth and % with no natural teeth, 1995 to 2013, by age and sex
Table 2.2 Number of natural teeth and % with no natural teeth, 2013, by age and sex
Table 2.3 Length of time since last visit to the dentist since 2009
Table 2.4 Length of time since last visit to the dentist, 2013, by age and sex
Table 2.5 Dental anxiety, 2013, by age and sex
Table 2.6 Difficulties when visiting the dentist, 2013, by age and sex

Additional tables available on the survey website include:

  • Number of natural teeth (including crowns), by age & key demographics
  • Happiness with appearance of teeth, by age & key demographics
  • Toothache/mouth pain in last month, by age & key demographics
  • Problems biting/chewing food, by age & key demographics
  • Bleeding gums, by age & key demographics
  • Perceived need for dental treatment, by age & key demographics
  • Length of time since last visit to dentist, by age & key demographics
  • Treatment on the NHS or private, by age & key demographics
  • Feelings about visiting the dentist, by age & key demographics
  • Difficulties visiting the dentist, by age & key demographics
  • Dental and oral health behaviour, by age & key demographics

Table 2.1 Number of natural teeth and % with no natural teeth, 1995 to 2013, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over

1995 to 2013

False teeth / number of natural teeth

1995

1998

2003

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

All own teeth

16 - 64

69

73

76

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

16+

n/a

n/a

67

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

All false teeth

16 - 64

9

8

5

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

16+

n/a

n/a

12

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

No natural teeth

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

4

4

4

3

4

4

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

9

9

9

9

9

8

Fewer than 10

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

4

3

3

3

3

3

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

6

6

5

5

5

6

Between 10 and 19

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

11

11

11

11

12

9

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

13

12

13

13

13

11

20 or more

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

82

82

82

83

82

84

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

72

72

73

73

72

75

All with teeth

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

96

96

96

97

96

96

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

91

91

91

91

91

92

Women

All own teeth

16 - 64

66

70

75

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

16+

n/a

n/a

62

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

All false teeth

16 - 64

13

11

7

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

16+

n/a

n/a

18

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

No natural teeth

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

5

5

5

4

4

4

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

14

14

13

11

12

12

Fewer than 10

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

3

3

3

3

4

2

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

5

4

5

6

6

5

Between 10 and 19

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

9

10

8

8

7

9

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

11

12

11

11

10

11

20 or more

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

83

82

84

85

85

84

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

70

70

72

72

73

73

All with teeth

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

95

95

95

96

96

96

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

86

86

87

89

88

88

All adults

All own teeth

16 - 64

68

72

75

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

16+

n/a

n/a

64

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

All false teeth

16 - 64

11

9

6

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

16+

n/a

n/a

15

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

No natural teeth

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

4

5

4

3

4

4

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

12

12

11

10

10

10

Fewer than 10

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

3

3

3

3

3

3

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

5

5

5

5

6

5

Between 10 and 19

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

10

10

10

10

9

9

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

12

12

12

12

11

11

20 or more

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

82

82

83

84

83

84

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

71

71

72

73

73

74

All with teeth

16 - 64

n/a

n/a

n/a

96

95

96

97

96

96

16+

n/a

n/a

n/a

88

88

89

90

90

90

Bases (weighted):

Men 16 - 64

3902

3950

3169

2537

2940

2824

2944

1885

1892

Men 16+

n/a

n/a

3833

3083

3585

3450

3598

2309

2338

Women 16 - 64

3998

3989

3318

2632

3060

2938

3063

1950

1979

Women 16+

n/a

n/a

4276

3362

3917

3762

3924

2500

2545

All adults 16 - 64

7900

7939

6487

5169

6001

5762

6007

3836

3871

All 16+

n/a

n/a

8109

6445

7502

7212

7522

4809

4883

Bases (unweighted):

Men 16 - 64

3524

3364

2756

2078

2398

2287

2416

1517

1600

Men 16+

n/a

n/a

3589

2835

3276

3104

3270

2126

2134

Women 16 - 64

4408

4212

3451

2687

3206

3073

3172

1970

2075

Women 16+

n/a

n/a

4522

3608

4234

4114

4252

2684

2752

All adults 16 - 64

7932

7576

6207

4765

5604

5360

5588

3487

3675

All 16+

n/a

n/a

8111

6443

7510

7218

7522

4810

4886

Table 2.2 Number of natural teeth and % with no natural teeth, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over

2013

False teeth / number of natural teeth

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

No natural teeth

-

0

2

6

10

23

36

8

Fewer than 10

0

0

2

4

9

14

21

6

Between 10 and 19

-

3

8

12

20

21

17

11

20 or more

100

97

88

78

61

42

26

75

All with teeth

100

100

98

94

90

77

64

92

Women

No natural teeth

-

-

2

5

15

25

51

12

Fewer than 10

-

0

1

3

7

12

15

5

Between 10 and 19

1

2

9

14

17

22

14

11

20 or more

99

98

88

78

61

41

20

72

All with teeth

100

100

98

95

85

75

49

88

All adults

No natural teeth

-

0

2

5

13

24

45

10

Fewer than 10

0

0

2

4

8

13

17

5

Between 10 and 19

0

2

8

13

18

22

15

11

20 or more

100

97

88

78

61

41

22

74

All with teeth

100

100

98

95

87

76

55

90

Bases (weighted):

Men

335

367

387

436

366

269

177

2338

Women

334

389

412

462

383

301

264

2545

All adults

669

756

799

898

749

571

441

4883

Bases (unweighted):

Men

204

310

339

394

353

318

216

2134

Women

242

419

432

540

442

372

305

2752

All adults

446

729

771

934

795

690

521

4886

Table 2.3 Length of time since last visit to the dentist since 2009

Aged 16 and over

2009, 2011, 2013

Length of time since last visit

2009

2011

2013

%

%

%

Men

Less than a year ago

65

66

71

More than 1 year, up to 2 years ago

12

12

10

More than 2 years, up to 5 years ago

8

9

7

More than 5 years ago

15

12

11

Never

1

1

1

Women

Less than a year ago

73

74

76

More than 1 year, up to 2 years ago

9

11

9

More than 2 years, up to 5 years ago

8

6

6

More than 5 years ago

10

9

9

Never

0

1

0

All adults

Less than a year ago

69

70

74

More than 1 year, up to 2 years ago

10

11

10

More than 2 years, up to 5 years ago

8

7

7

More than 5 years ago

12

11

10

Never

1

1

0

Bases (weighted):

Men

1233

1171

1130

Women

1346

1276

1236

All adults

2578

2447

2367

Bases (unweighted):

Men

1133

1073

1038

Women

1452

1375

1333

All adults

2585

2448

2371

Table 2.4 Length of time since last visit to the dentist, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over

2013

Length of time since last visit

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

Less than a year ago

78

72

68

74

75

68

55

71

More than 1 year, up to 2 years ago

11

14

13

11

6

5

5

10

More than 2 years, up to 5 years ago

4

8

8

7

6

9

11

7

More than 5 years ago

5

5

10

8

13

18

27

11

Never

1

1

1

-

0

-

2

1

Women

Less than a year ago

83

81

82

86

74

65

49

76

More than 1 year, up to 2 years ago

14

10

10

7

9

8

5

9

More than 2 years, up to 5 years ago

2

7

4

3

7

11

10

6

More than 5 years ago

1

2

4

3

11

15

35

9

Never

-

-

-

1

-

1

1

0

All adults

Less than a year ago

80

76

75

80

75

67

51

74

More than 1 year, up to 2 years ago

13

12

12

9

7

7

5

10

More than 2 years, up to 5 years ago

3

8

6

5

6

10

10

7

More than 5 years ago

3

3

7

6

12

17

32

10

Never

0

1

0

0

0

0

2

0

Bases (weighted):

Men

158

178

188

212

178

131

87

1130

Women

162

189

200

224

186

147

128

1236

All adults

320

367

388

436

364

278

215

2367

Bases (unweighted):

Men

84

157

159

201

171

158

108

1038

Women

123

218

202

249

201

193

147

1333

All adults

207

375

361

450

372

351

255

2371

Table 2.5 Dental anxiety, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over

2013

Dental anxiety

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

I don't feel nervous at all

58

66

66

58

74

80

78

67

I feel a bit nervous

26

21

20

22

22

9

16

20

I feel very nervous

16

12

14

20

5

11

6

13

Women

I don't feel nervous at all

56

56

54

49

51

56

62

54

I feel a bit nervous

29

21

27

29

24

27

26

26

I feel very nervous

15

23

19

22

24

17

12

20

All adults

I don't feel nervous at all

57

61

60

53

62

67

68

60

I feel a bit nervous

27

21

24

25

23

18

22

23

I feel very nervous

16

18

17

21

15

14

9

16

Bases (weighted):

Men

158

178

188

212

178

131

86

1130

Women

162

189

200

224

186

147

127

1235

All adults

320

367

388

436

364

278

213

2365

Bases (unweighted):

Men

84

157

159

201

171

158

107

1037

Women

123

218

202

249

201

193

146

1332

All adults

207

375

361

450

372

351

253

2369

Table 2.6 Difficulties when visiting the dentist, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over

2013

Type of difficulty

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

Difficulty in getting time off work

4

11

13

8

4

-

-

7

Difficulty in getting an appointment that suits me

6

19

14

11

8

0

2

10

Dental treatment too expensive

12

8

20

12

6

7

4

10

Long way to go to the dentist

6

5

4

5

2

4

5

4

I have not found a dentist I like

-

7

2

4

1

1

2

3

I cannot get dental treatment under the NHS

4

3

1

3

4

2

2

3

I have difficulty in getting access, e.g. steps, wheelchair access

-

-

-

-

1

1

5

1

Other

3

2

5

2

0

2

2

2

None of these

77

61

57

65

80

86

83

71

Women

Difficulty in getting time off work

11

6

5

4

1

-

-

4

Difficulty in getting an appointment that suits me

16

16

14

8

5

2

1

9

Dental treatment too expensive

7

9

10

10

7

7

6

8

Long way to go to the dentist

11

7

3

5

7

3

5

6

I have not found a dentist I like

3

5

3

2

2

1

1

2

I cannot get dental treatment under the NHS

2

2

5

4

5

3

2

3

I have difficulty in getting access, e.g. steps, wheelchair access

-

0

1

1

2

4

3

1

Other

3

4

2

2

1

2

-

2

None of these

62

63

71

74

76

81

87

73

All adults

Difficulty in getting time off work

8

9

9

6

2

-

-

5

Difficulty in getting an appointment that suits me

11

17

14

9

7

1

1

10

Dental treatment too expensive

10

9

15

11

7

7

5

9

Long way to go to the dentist

8

6

3

5

4

3

5

5

I have not found a dentist I like

1

6

2

3

2

1

1

3

I cannot get dental treatment under the NHS

3

2

3

4

4

2

2

3

I have difficulty in getting access, e.g. steps, wheelchair access

-

0

0

0

1

2

4

1

Other

3

3

3

2

1

2

1

2

None of these

69

62

64

70

78

83

85

72

Bases (weighted):

Men

157

175

187

212

178

131

84

1123

Women

162

187

200

223

186

145

126

1229

All adults

319

362

387

434

364

276

211

2352

Bases (unweighted):

Men

82

154

158

201

170

158

105

1028

Women

123

216

202

247

201

191

145

1325

All adults

205

370

360

448

371

349

250

2353

Contact

Email: Julie Landsberg

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