Information

Scottish Health Survey 2013 - volume 1: main report

Presents results for the 2013 Scottish Health Survey, providing information on the health and factors relating to health of people living in Scotland.

This document is part of a collection


7 Obesity

Shanna Dowling

SUMMARY

Adult obesity

  • Over one quarter of adults (27.1%) were obese (BMI of 30 kg/m2 or above) in 2013, while 64.6% were overweight including obese (BMI 25 kg/m2 or more).
  • Obesity prevalence remained higher among women than men (29.3% compared with 24.9%) in 2013, whereas men were more likely to be overweight including obese (68.3%, compared with 61.0% of women).
  • As seen in previous years, both obesity and overweight prevalence remain significantly associated with age, with levels generally higher among older people. For example, around three quarters of those aged 45-74 were overweight including obese in 2013, and over a third of those aged 55-74 were obese.

Adult waist circumference

  • In 2012/2013 the mean waist measurement for men was 98.1cm and for women was 93.1cm.
  • The mean waist circumference for men aged 16-64 increased significantly between 1995 (90.2cm) and 2008/2009 (95.3cm) but has been relatively stable since then (adjusted figure of 96.2cm in 2012/2013). There has been a larger increase in the mean for women over this same period (from 78.5cm in 1995 to 88.7cm (adjusted figure) in 2012/2013.
  • Half of women (50.4%) and a third of men (32.7%) had a raised waist circumference in 2012/2013, indicating an increase in the risk of obesity related diseases. The proportion of men aged 16-64 with a raised waist circumference has not changed significantly since 2008/2009 (28.9% in 2012/2013). Whereas for women of the same age, prevalence has continued to rise, albeit at a slower pace than previously (47.0% in 2012/2013).
  • BMI and waist measurements can be combined to provide a better indication of risk of disease from obesity related illness. In 2012/2013, women remained significantly more likely than men to be at high risk (including very and extremely high risk) of obesity-related disease (52.6% compared with 35.9%).
  • As for previous years, the proportion at high risk (or above) according to their BMI and waist circumference increased with age for both men and women.

Child healthy weight, overweight and obesity

  • Seven in 10 children (69.6%) aged 2-15 were within the healthy weight range in 2013, this was not significantly different from the 2012 level (67.5%). Among girls, 72.1% fall within the healthy range; the equivalent figure for boys was 67.3%.
  • Three in ten children (28.8%) were at risk of overweight or obesity in 2013. Prevalence was greatest for those aged 12-15 (30.8%).
  • 16.0% of children aged 2-15 were at risk of obesity in 2013. The percentage of boys at risk increased between 1998 and 2008 (from 14.5% to 18.7%) and has fluctuated around this level since then (17.2% in 2013). The rate has remained relatively stable for girls ranging between 13.7% and 15.9% since 1998.

7.1 INTRODUCTION

Overweight and obesity have been defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.[1],[2] Obesity is associated with an increased risk of a number of common causes of disease and death. The impact of overweight and obesity upon quality of life and health is felt across the lifecourse. During childhood, those who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes and asthma.[3],[4] If their weight continues to be unhealthy into adulthood, children are at an increased risk of numerous conditions associated with adult obesity, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers.[5],[6],[7] There is also evidence suggesting a link between overweight and obesity in midlife and dementia in old age.[8],[9],[10]

Scotland has one of the worst obesity records among OECD countries.[11] It is predicted that by 2030 adult obesity in Scotland could reach over 40%.[11] The estimated cost of obesity and related illnesses to the NHS in Scotland was in excess of £175 million in 2007/2008 with costs expected to almost double by 2030.[11] The latest estimate of the total (direct and indirect) cost of obesity to Scottish society is between £0.9 billion-£3 billion.[11] The health and economic consequences of obesity mean that tackling it remains a key priority for government and public health professionals.

7.1.1 Policy Background

A number of government policies and initiatives aimed at addressing the issue of obesity are in place in Scotland. In the Prevention of Obesity Route Map, the Scottish Government and COSLA outlined their long-term commitment to tackle overweight and obesity and achieve a healthier Scotland.[11] The long-term goals of the route map are to have the majority of Scotland's adult population in normal weight throughout life and to have fewer overweight or obese children in Scotland. The commitment to the latter of these goals is reinforced by the inclusion of the National Indicator to 'increase the proportion of healthy weight children' in the National Performance Framework (NPF).[13]

The NPF indicator is underpinned by an NHS HEAT target[14] for the provision of child healthy weight interventions. The child healthy weight programme incorporates diet, physical activity and behaviour change components. A target of 14,910 interventions over the three year period ending in March 2014 was set, with at least 40% required to be delivered to children living in the two most deprived SIMD quintiles.[15] 16,820 interventions had been carried out by the target date.[16]

The Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) is used to monitor progress towards the NPF indicator on healthy weight children and several of the Obesity Route Map indicators.[12] Scotland's children and young people's mental health indicators set also includes an indicator on child obesity prevalence.[17]

Take Life On was the primary public information campaign delivering the message on the benefits of having a healthy weight.[18] The emphasis of Take Life On was on encouraging people to make small, achievable lifestyle changes, including increasing daily physical activity and eating healthier, to help them feel better and improve their health.

Regular physical activity helps people maintain a healthy weight. One of the themes of Legacy 2014 programmes centres around using the opportunities presented by the Games to help people be more physically active.[19] The Physical Activity Implementation Plan is one of the many legacy programmes developed under the 'active' theme to meet this desired outcome.[20] The 10 year plan, launched in 2014, links directly to the Scottish Government's legacy ambitions for the Commonwealth Games.

7.1.2 Reporting on obesity in the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS)

The anthropometric measures presented in this chapter focus on measurements relevant to adult and child obesity. Height, weight and waist measurements have been collected during the survey interview every year since its inception in 1995. SHeS is one of a small number of surveys that collects height, weight and waist measures as opposed to using self-reported measures which are known to be less accurate.[21],[22] Height and weight are used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI), the primary measure of obesity used in the SHeS series. Adult and child trends in BMI are examined in this chapter along with trends in adult waist circumference. Updated analysis of health risks from obesity, using a measure endorsed in Scotland by SIGN that takes into account both BMI and waist circumference, is also presented. Supplementary tables are also available on the Scottish Government SHeS website.[23]

7.1.3 Comparability with other UK statistics

Adult obesity is defined consistently in the Scottish Health Survey and the other health surveys within the UK using BMI classifications. Height and weight measurements are self-reported in the Welsh Health Survey and are therefore not directly comparable with equivalent statistics in Scotland, England and Northern Ireland, where direct measurements are taken. Sampling methodologies differ between the surveys.

A Government Statistical Service publication on the comparability of official statistics across the UK advises that adult obesity figures taken from Scottish Health Survey, Health Survey for England, Welsh Health Survey and Health Survey Northern Ireland are not comparable.[24] Of the four UK health surveys, the Scottish Health Survey and Health Survey for England are the most closely aligned.

7.2 METHODS AND DEFINITIONS

7.2.1 Methods

Full details of the protocols used for collecting height, weight and waist circumference measurements are included in Volume 2 of this report and are briefly summarised here.

Height

Height was measured using a portable stadiometer with a sliding head plate, base plate and three connecting rods marked with a metric measuring scale. Participants were asked to remove shoes. One measurement was taken, with the participant stretching to the maximum height and the head positioned in the Frankfort plane.[25] The reading was recorded to the nearest even millimetre. No measurement was taken from participants who were pregnant, aged under 2, or unsteady on their feet.

Weight

Weight was measured using Soehnle and Tanita electronic scales with a digital display. Participants were asked to remove shoes and any bulky clothing. A single measurement was recorded to the nearest 100g. A weight measurement was not collected from participants aged under 2 years, women who were pregnant or those who were chairbound, or unsteady on their feet. Those who weighed more than 130 kg were asked for an estimate of their weight because the scales are inaccurate above this level. These estimated weights were included in the analysis presented in this chapter.

In the analysis of height and weight, data from those who were considered by the interviewer to have unreliable measurements, for example those who had excessive clothing on, were excluded.

Waist

Prior to 2012, waist and hip measurements were collected during the nurse interview that followed the main interviewer visit. During this period, the waist was defined as the midpoint between the lower rib and the upper margin of the iliac crest. The nurse interview was discontinued in 2012. Waist measurement collection now sits within the biological module of the main interview and is administered by a sub-group of specially trained interviewers.

The protocol for collecting waist measures also changed in 2012. Waist circumference is now defined as around the navel or tummy button. Waist was measured using a tape with an insertion buckle at one end. Interviewers took each measurement twice, using the same tape, and recorded readings to the nearest even millimetre. Those participants whose two waist measurements differed by more than 3 cm had a third measurement taken. The mean of the two valid measurements (the two out of the three measurements that were the closest to each other, if there were three measurements) was used in the analysis presented in this chapter. Participants were excluded if they reported that they were pregnant, had a colostomy or ileostomy, or were unable to stand. All those with measurements considered unreliable by the interviewer, for example due to excessive clothing or movement, were excluded from the analysis presented in this chapter.

7.2.2 Definitions

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted measure that allows for differences in weight due to height. It is defined as weight (kg)/square of height (m2). This has been used as a measure of obesity in the SHeS since its inception in 1995. BMI was calculated from valid measures collected by the interviewer.

Adult BMI classification

Based on their BMI, adult participants were classified into the following groups based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification:

BMI (kg/m2)

Description

Less than 18.5

Underweight

18.5 to less than 25

Normal

25 to less than 30

Overweight, excluding obese

30 to less than 40

Obese, excluding morbidly obese

40+

Morbidly obese

In this chapter, both mean BMI and prevalence for the five categories outlined in the table above are presented for adults. Although obesity has the greatest ill-health and mortality consequences, overweight is also a major public health concern, not least because overweight people are at high risk of becoming obese. Being underweight can also have negative health consequences.

Raised waist circumference (WC)

BMI has some limitations, and does not, for example, distinguish between mass due to body fat and mass due to muscular physique.[27],[28] Nor does it take account of the distribution of fat in the body. It has therefore been suggested that waist circumference (WC) may be a better means of identify those with a health risk from being overweight than BMI.[2],[29],[30]

In accordance with the definition of abdominal obesity used by the National Institutes of Health (USA) ATP (Adult Treatment Panel) III, a raised WC is defined as more than 102 cm for men and more than 88 cm for women[31] Following the new protocol introduced to SHeS in 2012, and described in Section 7.2.1, the equivalent cut-offs on SHeS, since 2012, are 102.75cm or above for men and 91.35cm or above for women.[32]

These thresholds help identify people at risk of metabolic syndrome. Abdominal obesity is reported as more highly correlated with metabolic risk factors (high levels of triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol) than elevated BMI. It has recently been shown that these levels correspond fairly closely to the 95th centile of waist circumference for healthy people, indicating that few healthy people have a waist circumference above these thresholds.[33]

Combined assessment of health risk from obesity

The SIGN guideline on obesity cites the WHO's recommendation that an individual's risk of conditions such as type 2 diabetes and CVD is better estimated using a combination of both BMI and waist circumference (WC).[6]

The classification categories suggested by SIGN[6] are set out in the table below. BMI, derived from height and weight data collected in the main interview, in combination with waist measurements collected in the biological module have been used to estimate the proportion of the adults who fall into each of the risk categories. This combined classification designates those with a raised WC as 'very high' WC, while those towards the upper end of the 'not raised' WC range are designated 'high' WC. As the table below indicates, the health risk is similar for adults with very high WC and class I obesity and for adults with high WC and class II obesity. The SIGN guidance notes that increased WC can be a marker for disease even among people of normal weight. The analysis presented in this chapter classified people with normal weight and a very high WC as at increased risk of disease.

Assessment of health risk from obesity

BMI Classification

'High' WC
Men WC 94-102cm
Women WC 80-88cm

'Very high' WC
Men WC >102cm
Women WC >88cm

Normal weight (BMI 18.5 - <25(kg/m2))

-

-

Overweight (BMI 25 - <30(kg/m2))

Increased

High

Obese

I - Mild (BMI 30 - <35(kg/m2))

High

Very high

II - Moderate (BMI 35 - <40(kg/m2)_

Very high

Very high

III - Extreme (BMI 40+(kg/m2))

Extremely high

Extremely high

Source: based on Table 3, P11, in SIGN 115.[6]

Child BMI classification

BMI is defined for children in the same way as it is for adults: weight (kg)/square of height (m2). The International Obesity Task Force concluded that BMI is a reasonable measure of adiposity in children[34] and it is the key measure of overweight and obesity for children used in the SHeS series. Waist measurements were not collected in the child interview.

Despite the relatively wide acceptance of the use of BMI as an adiposity indicator, the establishment of an agreed specific obesity and overweight classification system for children and young people remains challenging. Constant changes in body composition during growth mean that the relationship between weight-for-height and adiposity during childhood and adolescence is age-dependent, and this relationship is further complicated by both ethnicity and gender.[35]

The classification of children's BMI used in this chapter, set out below, has been derived from BMI percentiles of the UK 1990 reference curves[36],[37] (referred to as the national BMI percentiles classification); these have been used in each SHeS to date. The national BMI percentiles classification has been shown to be reasonably sensitive (i.e. not classifying obese children as non-obese) and specific (i.e. not classifying non-obese children as obese).[38],[39] SIGN recommends that these reference curves and thresholds should be used for population surveillance in Scotland.[6] The 85th / 95th percentile cut-off points are commonly accepted thresholds used to analyse overweight and obesity in children. These thresholds have previously been used to describe childhood overweight and obesity prevalence trends in the UK.[40],[41],[42],[43]

Percentile cut-off

Description

At or below 2nd percentile

At risk of underweight

Above 2nd percentile and below 85th percentile

Healthy weight

At or above 85th percentile and below 95th percentile

At risk of overweight

At or above 95th percentile

At risk of obesity

SHeS uses a method developed by ISD Scotland to plot the exact ages of the children in the sample against the reference population data.[44] While children's exact age was used to calculate the BMI grouping prevalence rates (based on the interview date and the date of birth), results are presented using grouped ages based on age at last birthday.

As noted in the introduction to this chapter, one of the Scottish Government's national indicators relates to healthy weight in children, defined as neither underweight nor overweight or obese.[45] The presented data have been categorised to show the total proportions that are: healthy weight, at risk of overweight, at risk of obesity, and at risk of underweight.

Other changes, made to the presentation of child BMI data in 2012 are discussed in detail in Chapter 7 of the 2012 annual report.[46]

7.3 ADULT OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE AND MEAN BMI

7.3.1 Trends in overweight including obesity prevalence since 1995

Trends in overweight including obesity prevalence (BMI of 25 kg/m2 or above) are presented in Table 7.1. Prior to 2003 adults aged 65 and over were not eligible to participate in the survey therefore trends for adults aged 16-64 are presented from 1995 onwards. Trends for all adults aged 16 and over from 2003 are also presented.

Table 7.1 illustrates that overweight including obesity levels among adults aged 16-64 rose significantly between 1995 (52.4%) and 2008 (62.9%) with little change since then (ranging between 61.9% and 63.3%, 62.6% in 2013).

While overweight including obesity prevalence has been consistently higher for men than for women, the trends for both sexes have been similar over time. The proportion of men aged 16-64 overweight or obese increased by over 10 percentage points between 1995 and 2008 (from 55.6% to 66.3%) but has not changed significantly since then (66.7% in 2013). The equivalent figures for women were 47.2%, 59.6% and 58.6% respectively.

Figure 7A

For all adults aged 16 and over, overweight and obesity prevalence rose significantly between 2003 and 2008 (from 62.4% to 65.1%), but has not changed significantly since then (64.6% in 2013). Figure 7A, Table 7.1

7.3.2 Trends in obesity and morbid obesity prevalence since 1995

Obesity prevalence increased significantly between 1995 and 2008. One in 6 (17.2%) adults aged 16-64 were obese in 1995, compared with 1 in 4 (25.7%) in 2008. Prevalence has remained relatively stable since 2008 (25.6% in 2013). The trend in obesity for all adults aged 16 and over followed a similar pattern, again remaining stable since 2008 (27.1% in 2013).

Obesity trends have followed different patterns for men and women over time. For women, obesity prevalence has followed a similar pattern to that discussed above for all adults: a rise among those aged 16-64 from 17.3% in 1995 to 26.5% in 2008, with little change since then (27.5% in 2013). Obesity prevalence rose from 15.9% to 26.7% for men aged 16-64 between 1995 and 2009 and then remained stable until 2011. The decline in prevalence between 2011 and 2013 (from 26.7% and 23.7%) was marginally insignificant. The decline between 2012 and 2013 was not statistically significant. There is also some emerging evidence of a similar decline among all men aged 16 and over. However, the three percentage point drop (from 27.7% in 2011 to 24.9% in 2013) was not statistically significant.

Morbid obesity prevalence for adults aged 16-64 has doubled since 1995 (from 1.2% to 2.5%). However, much of the increase occurred between 1995 and 2003, with very little change in the last decade (ranging between 2.2% and 3.0% since 2003). Similar trends were observed for men and women separately, with higher prevalence for women than for men across the years. Morbid obesity prevalence for all adults aged 16 and over has not changed significantly since 2003, ranging from between 2.2% and 2.9% over this period (2.4% in 2013). Figure 7A, Table 7.1

7.3.3 Trends in mean BMI since 1995

The mean BMI for adults aged 16-64 increased significantly between 1995 (26.0kg/m2 for men and 25.7kg/m2 for women) and 2013 (27.1kg/m2 for men and 27.3kg/m2 for women). Similar to the patterns discussed above for overweight, obesity and morbid obesity prevalence, mean BMI has not, however, changed significantly since 2008. The mean BMI for all adults aged 16 and over has fluctuated between 27.1kg/m2 and 27.5kg/m2 since 2003 (27.4kg/m2 in 2013). Table 7.1

7.3.4 Adult BMI in 2013, by age and sex

Adult BMI in 2013 is presented by age and sex in Table 7.2. Just under two thirds of adults (aged 16 and over) (64.6%) were overweight including obese (BMI of 25 kg/m2 or above) in 2013, while over one quarter (27.1%) were obese (BMI of 30 kg/m2 or above). At 27.4 kg/m2, the mean BMI was higher than the recommended normal range of 18 kg/m2 to less than 25 kg/m2.

Both overweight (including obesity) rates and obesity rates were significantly different for men and women, in 2013. Men were more likely than women to be overweight including obese (68.3% compared with 61.0%), whereas obesity prevalence was higher among women than men (29.3% versus 24.9%). So while women were less likely to be overweight including obese, if they were, they were more likely than men to fall into the obese category. Mean BMI was similar for men and women (27.3 kg/m2 for men and 27.5 kg/m2 for women) in 2013. Three in ten (30.4%) men and 37.1% of women had a BMI within the normal range in 2013.

BMI remained significantly associated with age in 2013. Mean BMI, for example, increased with age up until age 55-64 (65-74 for women) before dropping among the oldest age groups. The drop in mean BMI was particularly pronounced for older men (mean of 29.1kg/m2 at age 55-64, compared with 27.8kg/m2 at age 75 and over. Overweight including obesity prevalence was lowest among young people aged 16-24 (35.7%) and increased steadily to approximately three quarters (74.8-76.8%) for those aged 45-74. Seven in ten (70.7%) of those in the oldest age group were overweight including obese. Obesity rates increased from 1 in 10 (10.9%) for those in the youngest age group (aged 16-24) to more than 3 in 10 (35.9-36.7%) of those aged 55-74. Again, prevalence for those aged 75 and over (29.6%) was slightly lower than those in middle-age groups. Figure 7B, Figure 7C, Table 7.2

Figure 7B Prevalence of overweight and obesity, by age, 2013 (Men)

Figure 7C Prevalence of overweight and obesity, by age, 2013 (Women)

7.4 ADULT WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE

The mean waist circumference trend for men and women aged 16-64 since 1995 is presented in Table 7.3 alongside the trend for those aged 16 and over since 2003. Trends for raised waist circumference are also presented.

The protocol for taking waist measurement changed in 2012, when the nurse interview was discontinued and trained interviewers started taking the measurement instead (see Section 7.2.1). Consequently, trend tables include two sets of waist circumference data for 2012/2013; adjusted and unadjusted figures. Adjusted figures take account of the switch in protocol and should be used when examining trends in waist circumference. A full description of the calibration equation used to make adjustments is available in Section 1.8.3 of Volume 2 of this report. Unadjusted figures are those data collected by the interviewer during the interview.

7.4.1 Trends in mean waist circumference since 1995

Mean waist circumference for men aged 16-64 increased significantly from 90.2cm in 1995 to 95.3cm in 2008/2009, but has changed little since then (adjusted figure of 96.2cm in 2012/2013). There has been a much larger increase in women's mean waist circumference over this same period, increasing by 8.7cm between 1995 (78.5cm) and 2008/2009 (87.2cm). The 1.5cm increase in the mean waist circumference for women between 2008/2009 and 2012/2013 (adjusted figure was 88.7cm) was not statistically significant.

In the last decade there has also been a similar upward trend in the mean waist circumference for men and women aged 16 and over. Average waist circumference increased by just over 2cm for men over this period (from 95.3cm in 2003 to 97.4cm (adjusted figure) in 2012/2013 and by 3.3cm for women (from 86.3cm in 2003 to 89.6cm (adjusted figure) in 2012/2013). Waist circumference did not change significantly for men or women, (aged 16 and over) between 2010/2011 and 2012/2013. Table 7.3

7.4.2 Trends in raised waist circumference since 1995

The proportion of men aged 16-64 with a raised waist circumference (greater then 102cm) increased by nearly 15 percentage points between 1995 (14.3%) and 2008/2009 (29.2%) and has remained relatively stable since then (28.9% in 2012/2013 based on adjusted estimate). For women, prevalence has continued to rise, albeit at a slower pace than in earlier years (increased from 42.0% in 2008/2009 to 47.0% in 2012/2013 (based on adjusted estimate).

Trends in raised waist circumference for adults aged 16 and over since 2003 have followed a similar pattern to that discussed above for those aged 16-64. The percentage of men with a raised waist circumference increased from 27.9% in 2003 to 33.0% in 2008/2009, and has remained around this level since then (32.7% in 2012/2013 based on adjusted estimate). The proportion of women with a raised waist circumference increased from 38.9% in 2003 to 50.4% in 2012/2013 (based on adjusted estimate). Figure 7D, Table 7.3

Figure 7D Prevalence of raised waist circumference in men and women, 1995-2012/2013 combined (age 16-64 and age 16+)

7.4.3 Adult waist circumference in 2012/2013 combined, by sex

In 2012/2013, the unadjusted (interviewer-obtained) mean waist circumference for men was 98.1cm and for women 93.1cm. As seen in previous years, average waist circumference is significantly higher for men than women. Whereas, the proportion with a raised waist circumference in 2012/2013 was significantly higher for women than for men (50.4%, compared with 32.7%). Table 7.3

7.5 ADULT DISEASE RISK BASED ON BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE

7.5.1 Disease risk in 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex

Section 7.2.2 describes how BMI and waist measurements have been combined to provide a better indication of risk of disease from obesity related illness. In Table 7.4, the suggested categories provided by SIGN (set out in Section 7.2.2) are presented by age and sex for the years 2012 and 2013 combined. Unadjusted waist circumference figures were used in this analysis.

Women were significantly more likely than men to be at high risk (including very and extremely high risk) of obesity-related disease (52.6%, compared with 35.9%). The proportion at high risk or greater according to their BMI and WC measurements increased with age for both men and women. Among men, the level at high risk increased from 11.9% of those aged 16-24 to 58.8% of those aged 65-74, before declining slightly to 47.5% among those aged 75 and over. There was a similar increase for women between the ages of 16-24 and 65-74 (25.8% and 65.6%, respectively).

The percentages of men and women categorised as being at very high or extremely high risk of disease in 2012/2013 were 23.2% and 29.2% respectively. Prevalence increased sharply between the ages of 25-34 and 35-44 for men, and between the ages of 16-24 and 35-44 for women. The proportion of men at very high or extremely high risk increased from 11.1% aged 16-24 to a peak of 36.1% aged 65-74. For women, the percentage at very high or extremely high risk of obesity related diseases increased from 14.9% aged 16-24 to a peak of 37.1% at age 55-64.

One percent of men and 4% of women were at extremely high risk of disease from obesity related illnesses in 2012/2013. Prevalence was highest among women aged 55-64, with 1 in 12 (8.2%) women in this age group at extremely high disease risk. Figure 7E, Figure 7F, Table 7.4

Figure 7E Health risk category (based on waist circumference and BMI) by age, 2012/2013 combined (Men)

Figure 7F Health risk category (based on waist circumference and BMI) by age, 2012/2013 combined (Women)

7.6 CHILD HEALTHY WEIGHT, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY

7.6.1 Trends in child healthy weight, overweight and obesity prevalence since 1998

The prevalence of healthy weight, overweight and obesity among children aged 2-15 since 1998 is shown in Table 7.5. A child is a healthy weight if their BMI falls above the 2nd percentile and below the 85th percentile. In 1998, 70.1% of children were within the healthy weight range, the equivalent figure in 2013 was 69.6%. The increase observed between 2011 and 2013 (from 65.4% to 69.6%) was not statistically significant.

Trends in healthy weight prevalence followed different patterns for boys and girls. For boys, prevalence fluctuated by almost ten percentage points between 1998 and 2013. Similar to the pattern discussed in relation to all children, the increase in healthy weight prevalence for boys between 2011 and 2013 (62.6% and 67.3%) was not statistically significant. There has been less variation in healthy weight prevalence among girls over time, fluctuating between 68.4% and 72.1% since 1998. Figure 7G, Table 7.5

Figure 7G Percentage of children aged 2-15 with BMI in the healthy weight range, 1998-2013, by sex

The proportion of children at risk of overweight including obesity has also fluctuated over the years. Prevalence was highest in 2008 (32.8%) and 2011 (32.7%) and lowest in 2013 (28.8%). The decrease in prevalence between 2011 and 2013 was not, however, statistically significant.

Trends for at risk of overweight including obesity have been different for boys and girls. The trend for boys has followed a similar pattern to that discussed above for all children. The decline in prevalence, between 2011 and 2013, from 36.2% to 30.9% was not statistically significant. Prevalence has fluctuated to a lesser extent for girls, between 26.6% (2013) and 30.2% (2003), over the years and the decline observed between 2010 and 2013 was not significant.

The percentage of children at risk of obesity increased significantly in the decade 1998 to 2008 (from 14.3% to 16.6%) but has not changed significantly since then (16.0% in 2013). The trend for boys was similar, with the percentage at risk of obesity increasing from 14.5% in 1998 to 18.7% in 2008, and fluctuating between 17.0% (2009) and 19.7% (2011 and 2012) since then (17.2% in 2013). Prevalence has been more stable for girls, ranging between 13.7% and 15.9% between 1998 and 2013, with no obvious pattern (14.8% in 2013). Table 7.5

7.6.2 Child BMI categories in 2013, by age and sex

The BMI status of children aged 2-15 in 2013 is presented, by age and sex, in Table 7.6. Seven in 10 (69.6%) children had a BMI within the healthy weight range in 2013, while almost 3 in 10 (28.8%) were at risk of overweight or obesity and 1.5% were at risk of underweight.

While girls appeared more likely than boys to have a healthy weight (72.1% compared with 67.3%) this difference was not statistically significant. Healthy weight prevalence did not vary significantly by age for boys or girls. Among girls, healthy weight prevalence ranged from 70.0% to 74.7%). Around seven in ten (71.7%) boys aged 2-6 were a healthy weight. The equivalent figures for boys aged 7-11 and 12-15 were 64.9% and 65.0%, respectively.

Overweight (including obesity) prevalence did not vary significantly by gender or age in 2013 (30.9% and 26.6% for boys and girls, respectively). A third (34.0%) of boys aged 7-11 were at risk of overweight including obesity. The equivalent figure for girls of the same age was 24.8%. Similarly, the percentage of boys and girls at risk of obesity did not vary significantly from each other (17.2% and 14.8%, respectively). One in five (19.1%) boys aged 7-11 and 14.6% of girls of the same age were at risk of obesity. Just 1.8% of boys and 1.2% of girls were at risk of underweight. Table 7.6

Table list

Table 7.1 Mean adult BMI, prevalence of overweight and obesity, 1995 to 2013
Table 7.2 Adult BMI, 2013, by age and sex
Table 7.3 Mean and raised waist circumference (WC), 1995 to 2012/2013 combined
Table 7.4 Health risk category associated with overweight and obesity based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference, 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex
Table 7.5 Proportion of children with BMI within the healthy range, at risk of overweight and at risk of obesity, 1998 to 2013
Table 7.6 Children's BMI, 2013, by age and sex

Additional tables available on the survey website include:

  • Adult: BMI (grouped), by age & key demographics
  • Adult: BMI 25 and over, by age & key demographics
  • Adult: BMI 30 and over, by age & key demographics
  • Adult: BMI 40 and over, by age & key demographics
  • Adult: Mean BMI, by age & key demographics
  • Adult: Mean height, by age & key demographics
  • Adult: Mean weight, by age & key demographics
  • Child: BMI (grouped), by age & key demographics
  • Child: Outwith healthy weight range, by age & key demographics
  • Child: At risk of overweight (including obese), by age & key demographics

Table 7.1 Mean adult BMI, prevalence of overweight and obesity, 1995 to 2013

Aged 16 and over with valid height and weight measurements

1995 to 2013

BMI (kg/m2)

1995

1998

2003

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

25 and overa

16-64

55.6

61.0

64.0

66.3

66.2

66.1

67.1

66.0

66.7

16+

n/a

n/a

65.4

68.5

67.9

67.8

69.2

68.2

68.3

30 and overb

16-64

15.9

18.8

22.0

24.9

26.7

26.6

26.7

24.8

23.7

16+

n/a

n/a

22.4

26.0

26.9

27.4

27.7

26.6

24.9

40 and overc

16-64

0.5

0.9

1.8

1.4

1.0

1.7

1.8

2.0

1.0

16+

n/a

n/a

1.6

1.4

1.0

1.6

1.7

2.0

0.9

Mean

16-64

26.0

26.4

26.9

27.2

27.4

27.3

27.4

27.1

27.1

16+

n/a

n/a

27.0

27.4

27.5

27.5

27.6

27.3

27.3

SE of the mean

16-64

0.07

0.07

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.15

0.14

0.16

0.14

16+

n/a

n/a

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.13

0.12

0.14

0.13

Women

25 and overa

16-64

47.2

52.2

57.3

59.6

58.4

60.3

57.1

57.7

58.6

16+

n/a

n/a

59.7

61.8

61.0

62.4

59.6

60.4

61.0

30 and overb

16-64

17.3

20.9

23.8

26.5

26.4

28.1

26.3

27.4

27.5

16+

n/a

n/a

26.0

27.5

27.6

28.9

27.6

27.5

29.3

40 and overc

16-64

1.3

2.0

3.6

3.5

3.5

3.7

4.2

3.5

4.0

16+

n/a

n/a

3.4

3.4

3.5

3.2

4.1

3.2

3.7

Mean

16-64

25.7

26.3

26.9

27.3

27.2

27.4

27.3

27.2

27.3

16+

n/a

n/a

27.2

27.4

27.4

27.6

27.5

27.3

27.5

SE of the mean

16-64

0.08

0.09

0.14

0.15

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.16

0.19

16+

n/a

n/a

0.14

0.13

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.14

0.16

All adults

25 and overa

16-64

52.4

56.7

60.6

62.9

62.4

63.3

62.2

61.9

62.6

16+

n/a

n/a

62.4

65.1

64.4

65.1

64.3

64.3

64.6

30 and overb

16-64

17.2

19.8

23.0

25.7

26.5

27.4

26.5

26.1

25.6

16+

n/a

n/a

24.2

26.8

27.2

28.2

27.7

27.1

27.1

40 and overc

16-64

1.2

1.4

2.7

2.5

2.2

2.7

3.0

2.7

2.5

16+

n/a

n/a

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.4

2.9

2.6

2.4

Mean

16-64

25.8

26.4

26.9

27.2

27.3

27.4

27.3

27.1

27.2

16+

n/a

n/a

27.1

27.4

27.4

27.5

27.5

27.3

27.4

SE of the mean

16-64

0.05

0.06

0.10

0.11

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.12

0.13

16+

n/a

n/a

0.09

0.10

0.09

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.12

Bases (weighted):

Men 16-64

3672

3673

2702

2238

2598

2487

2513

1706

1650

Men 16+

n/a

n/a

3217

2689

3129

2992

3003

2048

2005

Women 16-64

3632

3572

2776

2257

2553

2435

2478

1640

1685

Women 16+

n/a

n/a

3458

2828

3208

3046

3100

2063

2095

All adults 16-64

7757

7245

5478

4495

5151

4922

4991

3346

3336

All adults 16+

n/a

n/a

6675

5517

6336

6038

6103

4110

4099

Bases (unweighted):

Men 16-64

3303

3110

2368

1822

2107

2020

2092

1381

1399

Men 16+

n/a

n/a

3016

2454

2817

2674

2745

1876

1827

Women 16-64

4005

3783

2908

2293

2678

2553

2596

1676

1783

Women 16+

n/a

n/a

3684

3019

3449

3327

3389

2221

2280

All adults 16-64

7776

6893

5276

4115

4785

4573

4688

3057

3182

All adults 16+

n/a

n/a

6700

5473

6266

6001

6134

4097

4107

a 25 and over = overweight / obese / morbidly obese
b 30 and over = obese / morbidly obese
c 40 and over = morbidly obese

Table 7.2 Adult BMI, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over with valid height and weight measurements

2013

BMI (kg/m2)

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

Less than 18.5

4.9

1.0

0.3

0.4

0.4

1.3

1.3

1.3

18.5 to less than 25

57.7

40.7

31.3

17.3

15.8

24.2

20.9

30.4

25 to less than 30

25.4

43.1

43.8

53.6

47.1

40.7

52.2

43.4

30 to less than 40

11.7

15.0

24.3

27.3

33.8

32.8

25.6

24.0

40+

0.2

0.2

0.4

1.3

2.9

0.9

0.1

0.9

All 25 and overa

37.3

58.4

68.5

82.3

83.7

74.5

77.8

68.3

All 30 and overb

11.9

15.2

24.7

28.7

36.6

33.7

25.7

24.9

Mean

24.3

26.0

27.3

28.4

29.1

28.3

27.8

27.3

Standard error of the mean

0.33

0.27

0.27

0.24

0.29

0.30

0.34

0.13

Women

Less than 18.5

5.9

1.0

1.1

1.7

1.8

0.4

1.2

1.9

18.5 to less than 25

60.3

51.0

33.9

28.5

28.0

24.5

33.7

37.1

25 to less than 30

24.0

24.3

31.6

38.0

35.1

35.7

32.5

31.7

30 to less than 40

7.8

19.4

27.6

28.6

30.6

36.8

30.1

25.5

40+

2.0

4.3

5.8

3.3

4.6

2.6

2.4

3.7

All 25 and overa

33.8

48.0

65.0

69.8

70.2

75.1

65.1

61.0

All 30 and overb

9.8

23.7

33.4

31.9

35.1

39.4

32.6

29.3

Mean

24.6

26.5

28.3

28.1

28.6

28.8

27.7

27.5

Standard error of the mean

0.42

0.36

0.38

0.27

0.35

0.34

0.44

0.16

All adults

All 25 and overa

35.7

53.0

66.7

75.9

76.8

74.8

70.7

64.6

All 30 and overb

10.9

19.6

29.1

30.3

35.9

36.7

29.6

27.1

Mean

24.5

26.2

27.8

28.2

28.8

28.6

27.8

27.4

Standard error of the mean

0.26

0.26

0.25

0.19

0.24

0.23

0.30

0.12

Bases (weighted):

Men

311

306

350

377

307

223

131

2005

Women

287

326

354

394

325

241

168

2095

All adults

598

632

704

770

632

464

300

4099

Bases (unweighted):

Men

189

265

305

344

296

267

161

1827

Women

209

354

375

468

377

299

198

2280

All adults

398

619

680

812

673

566

359

4107

a 25 and over = overweight (including obese)
b 30 and over = obese

Table 7.3 Mean and raised waist circumference (WC), 1995 to 2012/2013 combined

Aged 16 and over with valid waist measurements

1995 to 2012/2013 combined

WC

1995

1998

2003

2008/2009 combined

2010/2011 combined

2012/2013 combined

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

Mean WC

16-64 (nurse / nurse equivalent)

90.2

91.8

94.2

95.3

95.1

96.2

16+ (nurse / nurse equivalent)

n/a

n/a

95.3

96.5

96.3

97.4

16+ (interviewer)

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

98.1

SE of the mean

16-64 (nurse / nurse equivalent)

0.19

0.21

0.43

0.67

0.67

0.57

16+ (nurse / nurse equivalent)

n/a

n/a

0.38

0.58

0.59

0.51

16+ (interviewer)

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

0.52

% with raised WCa

16-64

14.3

18.0

25.2

29.2

28.1

28.9

16+

n/a

n/a

27.9

33.0

31.7

32.7

Women

Mean WC

16-64 (nurse / nurse equivalent)

78.5

80.9

84.9

87.2

87.9

88.7

16+ (nurse / nurse equivalent)

n/a

n/a

86.3

88.3

89.0

89.6

16+ (interviewer)

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

93.1

SE of the mean

16-64 (nurse / nurse equivalent)

0.21

0.22

0.4

0.6

0.6

0.60

16+ (nurse / nurse equivalent)

n/a

n/a

0.35

0.48

0.47

0.50

16+ (interviewer)

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

0.56

% with raised WCa

16-64

19.1

24.7

34.3

42.0

45.5

47.0

16+

n/a

n/a

38.9

45.3

49.1

50.4

Bases (weighted):

Men 16-64

3426

3240

2099

875

787

855

Men 16+

n/a

n/a

2532

1061

962

1054

Women 16-64

3329

3150

2077

888

785

848

Women 16+

n/a

n/a

2679

1134

1010

1092

Bases (unweighted):

Men 16-64

3061

2761

1765

699

636

714

Men 16+

n/a

n/a

2356

970

865

970

Women 16-64

3661

3340

2179

919

830

895

Women 16+

n/a

n/a

2850

1224

1107

1177

a A raised WC is more than 102 cm for men and more than 88 cm for women
These are equivalent to 102.75cm and 91.35 cm using the interviewer measures

Table 7.4 Health risk category associated with overweight and obesity based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference, 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over with valid height, weight and waist measurementsa

2012/2013 combined

Waist circumferenceb & BMI classification c

Health risk category d

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

Underweight

Low WC

Not applicable

5.8

2.4

-

0.6

0.4

0.6

1.1

1.6

High WC

Not applicable

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Very high WC

Not applicable

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

All underweight

5.8

2.4

-

0.6

0.4

0.6

1.1

1.6

Normal

Low WC

No increased risk

57.6

39.7

23.1

17.0

14.6

12.4

15.6

26.9

High WC

No increased risk

-

0.7

6.2

5.0

2.8

6.3

4.4

3.5

Very high WC

Increased

-

-

-

0.5

0.7

0.8

2.7

0.5

All normal

57.6

40.4

29.2

22.4

18.1

19.6

22.8

30.9

Overweight

Low WC

No increased risk

16.7

21.9

9.0

9.0

8.1

1.9

3.4

10.9

High WC

Increased

8.0

19.8

23.8

22.4

26.7

19.1

25.2

20.5

Very high WC

High

-

3.1

9.6

13.2

14.5

20.1

19.9

10.4

All overweight

24.6

44.9

42.4

44.7

49.3

41.0

48.5

41.8

Obesity I

Low WC

Increased

-

1.2

0.3

-

0.1

-

-

0.3

High WC

High

0.8

-

4.1

4.3

1.9

2.7

1.0

2.3

Very high WC

Very high

10.0

5.8

14.9

22.5

23.0

26.1

23.3

17.2

All obese I

10.8

7.0

19.3

26.8

25.0

28.7

24.3

19.8

Obesity II

Low WC

Very high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

High WC

Very high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Very high WC

Very high

1.1

5.4

7.0

4.1

5.3

8.9

3.3

5.0

All obese II

Very high

1.1

5.4

7.0

4.1

5.3

8.9

3.3

5.0

Obesity III

Low WC

Extremely high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

High WC

Extremely high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Very high WC

Extremely high

-

-

2.1

1.3

1.9

1.1

-

1.0

All obese III

Extremely high

-

-

2.1

1.3

1.9

1.1

-

1.0

Men - Overall riskd

Not applicable

5.8

2.4

-

0.6

0.4

0.6

1.1

1.6

No increased

74.3

62.3

38.2

31.0

25.5

20.6

23.4

41.2

Increased

8.0

21.1

24.1

23.0

27.5

19.9

27.9

21.2

High

0.8

3.1

13.7

17.6

16.4

22.8

20.9

12.7

Very high

11.1

11.2

21.9

26.6

28.3

35.0

26.6

22.2

Extremely high

-

-

2.1

1.3

1.9

1.1

-

1.0

High risk or above

11.9

14.2

37.7

45.5

46.7

58.8

47.5

35.9

Very/extremely high risk

11.1

11.2

24.0

27.9

30.2

36.1

26.6

23.2

Women

Underweight

Low WC

Not applicable

4.2

0.8

0.6

1.5

2.2

0.7

-

1.5

High WC

Not applicable

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.0

0.1

Very high WC

Not applicable

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

All underweight

4.2

0.8

0.6

1.5

2.2

0.7

1.0

1.6

Normal

Low WC

No increased risk

39.2

29.9

17.9

10.3

12.9

10.2

7.4

18.3

High WC

No increased risk

15.0

16.3

15.7

14.1

9.6

13.5

10.5

13.7

Very high WC

Increased

8.5

4.2

5.8

3.3

4.5

3.4

13.5

5.6

All normal

62.7

50.4

39.4

27.7

27.0

27.1

31.4

37.6

Overweight

Low WC

No increased

2.0

3.4

1.7

1.8

0.8

1.0

-

1.6

High WC

Increased

5.4

5.8

7.6

6.7

8.2

5.6

5.4

6.5

Very high WC

High

10.9

14.7

17.0

31.2

24.7

33.0

36.0

23.4

All overweight

18.2

23.8

26.3

39.7

33.8

39.6

41.4

31.5

Obesity I

Low WC

Increased

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

High WC

High

-

0.6

-

-

-

-

-

0.1

Very high WC

Very high

9.0

8.9

20.5

20.4

18.9

19.3

17.1

16.6

All obese I

9.0

9.5

20.5

20.4

18.9

19.3

17.1

16.7

Obesity II

Low WC

Very high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

High WC

Very high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Very high WC

Very high

2.8

11.7

9.0

8.6

10.0

9.0

7.5

8.5

All obese II

Very high

2.8

11.7

9.0

8.6

10.0

9.0

7.5

8.5

Obesity III

Low WC

Extremely high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

High WC

Extremely high

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Very high WC

Extremely high

3.0

3.8

4.2

2.2

8.2

4.3

1.5

4.0

All obese III

Extremely high

3.0

3.8

4.2

2.2

8.2

4.3

1.5

4.0

Women - Overall riskd

Not applicable

4.2

0.8

0.6

1.5

2.2

0.7

1.0

1.6

No increased

56.1

49.5

35.3

26.2

23.3

24.7

17.9

33.7

Increased

13.9

10.0

13.4

10.0

12.7

9.0

18.9

12.2

High

10.9

15.3

17.0

31.2

24.7

33.0

36.0

23.5

Very high

11.9

20.6

29.5

29.0

28.9

28.3

24.6

25.1

Extremely high

3.0

3.8

4.2

2.2

8.2

4.3

1.5

4.0

High risk or above

25.8

39.7

50.7

62.3

61.8

65.6

62.1

52.6

Very/extremely high risk

14.9

24.4

33.7

31.2

37.1

32.6

26.1

29.2

Bases (weighted):

Men

156

159

167

190

150

116

72

1010

Women

135

149

173

195

165

130

87

1034

Bases (unweighted):

Men

111

121

149

162

141

158

84

926

Women

94

153

194

207

215

148

103

1114

a Percentages and bases in this table are based on those who have a valid measurement for waist circumference, in addition to valid measurements of height and weight. Therefore subtotals for BMI categories by age and sex in this table are not definitive
b Waist circumference categories according to WHO/SIGN guidelines (115): low: <94cm for men and <80cm for women; high: ≥94cm and <102cm for men, ≥80cm and <88cm for women; very high: ≥102cm for men and ≥88cm for women (nurse equivalent measures)
c BMI categories according to WHO guidelines: Underweight: Less than 18.5kg/m2, Normal: 18.5 to less than 25kg/m2, Overweight: 25 to less than 30kg/m2, Obesity I: 30 to less than 35kg/m2, Obesity II: 35 to less than 40kg/m2, Obesity III: 40kg/m2 or more
d Health risk category according to SIGN guidelines (115)

Table 7.5 Proportion of children with BMI within the healthy range, at risk of overweight and at risk of obesity, 1998 to 2013

Aged 2-15 with valid height and weight measurementsa

1998 to 2013

BMI status (National BMI percentiles)

1998

2003

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Boys

Within healthy rangeb

70.4

64.7

61.2

68.0

65.2

62.6

64.9

67.3

Outwith healthy rangec

29.6

35.3

38.8

32.0

34.8

37.4

35.1

32.7

At risk of overweight (including obesity)d

29.0

34.2

37.5

31.3

32.9

36.2

33.6

30.9

At risk of obesitye

14.5

17.6

18.7

17.0

17.8

19.7

19.7

17.2

Girls

Within healthy rangeb

69.7

68.7

71.5

70.3

69.5

68.4

70.3

72.1

Outwith healthy rangec

30.3

31.3

28.5

29.7

30.5

31.6

29.7

27.9

At risk of overweight (including obesity)d

29.1

30.2

27.8

28.9

29.6

29.1

27.4

26.6

At risk of obesitye

14.2

13.9

14.4

15.9

14.3

14.5

13.7

14.8

All children

Within healthy rangeb

70.1

66.7

66.2

69.1

67.3

65.4

67.5

69.6

Outwith healthy rangec

29.9

33.3

33.8

30.9

32.7

34.6

32.5

30.4

At risk of overweight (including obesity)d

29.1

32.3

32.8

30.2

31.3

32.7

30.6

28.8

At risk of obesitye

14.3

15.8

16.6

16.4

16.1

17.2

16.8

16.0

Bases (weighted):

Boys

985

1243

669

958

641

655

663

687

Girls

931

1182

621

924

612

621

620

660

All children

1916

2425

1290

1882

1253

1276

1283

1347

Bases (unweighted):

Boys

1780

1208

652

967

662

643

630

678

Girls

1704

1215

640

914

569

626

644

630

All children

3484

2423

1292

1881

1231

1269

1274

1308

a Children whose BMI was more than 7 standard deviations above or below the norm for their age were excluded from the table. The 1998 to 2011 figures have been revised as prior to 2012 cases which were more than 3 standard deviations above or below the mean for all children were excluded
b BMI above 2nd percentile, below 85th percentile. The 1998 to 2011 figures have been revised as prior to 2012 the range was above 5th percentile and below 85th percentile
c BMI at or below 2nd percentile, at or above 85th percentile
d BMI at or above 85th percentile
e BMI at or above 95th percentile

Table 7.6 Children's BMI, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 2-15 with valid height and weight measurementsa

2013

BMI status (National BMI percentiles)

Age

Total

2-6

7-11

12-15

%

%

%

%

Boys

At risk of underweightb

1.0

1.1

3.5

1.8

Healthy weightc

71.7

64.9

65.0

67.3

At risk of overweightd

13.4

14.9

12.8

13.8

At risk of obesitye

13.9

19.1

18.7

17.2

Outwith healthy rangef

28.3

35.1

35.0

32.7

At risk of overweight (including obese)g

27.3

34.0

31.5

30.9

Girls

At risk of underweightb

3.0

0.5

-

1.2

Healthy weightc

71.2

74.7

70.0

72.1

At risk of overweightd

10.5

10.2

15.8

11.8

At risk of obesitye

15.3

14.6

14.2

14.8

Outwith healthy rangef

28.8

25.3

30.0

27.9

At risk of overweight (including obese)g

25.8

24.8

30.0

26.6

All children

At risk of underweightb

2.0

0.8

1.8

1.5

Healthy weightc

71.5

69.7

67.4

69.6

At risk of overweightd

11.9

12.6

14.2

12.8

At risk of obesitye

14.6

16.9

16.5

16.0

Outwith healthy rangef

28.6

30.3

32.6

30.4

At risk of overweight (including obese)g

26.5

29.5

30.8

28.8

Bases (weighted):

Boys

237

247

203

687

Girls

237

238

185

660

All children

474

485

388

1347

Bases (unweighted):

Boys

257

238

183

678

Girls

254

217

159

630

All children

511

455

342

1308

a Children whose BMI was more than 7 standard deviations above or below the norm for their age were excluded from the table
b BMI at or below 2nd percentile
c BMI above 2nd percentile, below 85th percentile
d BMI at or above 85th percentile, below 95th percentile
e BMI at or above 95th percentile
f BMI at or below 2nd percentile, at or above 85th percentile
g BMI at or above 85th percentile

Contact

Email: Julie Landsberg

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