Information

Scottish Health Survey 2013 - volume 1: main report

Presents results for the 2013 Scottish Health Survey, providing information on the health and factors relating to health of people living in Scotland.

This document is part of a collection


5 Diet

Tracey Hughes and Geraldine McNeill

SUMMARY

Fruit and vegetable consumption in adults

  • Adults consumed a mean of 3.2 portions of fruit and vegetables per day in 2013.
  • Only 22% consumed the recommended 5 portions per day, with no evidence of a change since 2003 (21%).
  • Consumption levels remain similar for men and women (mean of 3.2 portions per day for men and 3.3 portions for women).
  • Consumption was lowest among those aged 16-24 (3.0 portions) and highest among those aged 65-75 (3.5 portions).

Fruit and vegetable consumption in children

  • Children aged 2-15 consumed a mean of 2.7 portions of fruit per day in 2013.
  • Just 13% consumed 5 portions per day, with no evidence of change since 2008.
  • There remains no difference in the fruit and vegetables consumption of boys and girls (average of 2.7 portions and 2.8 portions per day, respectively).
  • Consumption was highest among 2-4 year olds (3.0 portions) and lowest among those aged 13-15 (2.5 portions).

Consumption of other foods in children

  • In 2012/2013, 53% of children aged 2-15 consumed white fish once a week or more, while 16% consumed oily fish at least once a week, and 28% consumed tuna with the same frequency. While frequency of consumption of white fish and oily fish has gradually increased since 2003, the percentage eating tuna fish once a week or more has seen a small decline over the same period (from 33% to 28% in 2012/2013).
  • Half (51%) of children consumed sweets or chocolate at least once a day or more in 2012/2013. Four in ten drank non-diet soft-drinks at least once a day and around a third (35%) ate biscuits with the same frequency.
  • The frequency with which children consume sugary foods and snacks declined between 2003 and 2012/2013. While most of the change occurred earlier in the series, the percentage eating biscuits once a day or more continued to decline in 2012/2013 (40% in 2010/2011 and 35% in 2012/2013). The exception is cakes, with a small increase observed in the percentage of children eating cake at least twice a week (from 30% in 2003 to 34% in 2010/2011 and 2012/2013.
  • In 2012/2013, a third (32%) of children ate 2-3 slices of high fibre bread each day. Consumption has not changed significantly since 2008/2009. While the frequency with which children eat chips has declined since 2003 (54% at least twice a week), there has been no change since 2008/2009 (40% in 2012/2013).

Urinary sodium and potassium in adults

  • Urinary sodium concentration in spot urine samples was 113.8 mmol/l in men and 95.1 mmol/l in women.
  • Urinary potassium concentration in spot urine samples was 58.5 mmol/l in men and 53.1 mmol/l in women.
  • While concentrations of both sodium and potassium have generally fallen since 2003 in both men and women, creatinine concentrations in the samples have also fallen and Na/Cre and K/Cre ratios have risen. As a result the changes in sodium and potassium concentrations over time cannot be assumed to reflect changes in dietary intake.

Vitamin and mineral supplement use in adults

  • Just over a quarter (27%) of adults took some kind of vitamin or mineral supplement in 2012/2013.
  • Women remain more likely than men to use vitamin or mineral supplements (31%, compared with 24%). Use was lowest among those aged 16-24 year olds (21%).
  • Among women, folic acid supplements were taken by 4% of 16-24 year olds, 10% of 25-34 year olds, 5% of 35-44 year olds and 3% if 45-49 year olds.
  • Only 31% of those aged 65 and over took any vitamin or mineral supplement, suggesting a low level of compliance with advice to take supplements of Vitamin D in this age group.

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.1.1 Diet and health

In recent decades evidence has been accumulating on the influence of diet on the incidence of a wide range of health conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases such as type II diabetes and certain types of cancer. Estimates from international comparisons have suggested that around 30% of cases of cancer[1] and cardiovascular disease[2] worldwide could be prevented by prudent dietary habits, though confounding of these observations by other lifestyle factors is difficult to exclude. For many common cancers the influence of overweight and obesity as a result of poor diet may be as important as the influence of specific nutrients or foods.[3]

Early research on diet and chronic diseases focussed on the possible role of fat, particularly saturated fat, and fruit and vegetable intake. In recent decades other aspects of diet, notably fibre and wholegrains, salt, oily fish intake and trans fatty acid intake have been studied in relation to cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in later life. Other more established roles for diet components are folate in the prevention of neural tube defects;[4] vitamin D and calcium for bone health;[5] sugar intake in relation to dental decay[6] and salt intake in the development of hypertension[7]. More recently a link between consumption of red and processed meats in bowel disease has been proposed,[8],[9] while it has been suggested that added sugars, particularly those consumed in drinks, may have a particular role in development of obesity and type 2 diabetes.[10]

Given the broad range of health conditions which may be influenced by diet it is difficult to estimate the economic and social costs of poor eating habits, but some examples can highlight the potential benefits of improving the diet of the population. Treatment of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, represent significant costs to the NHS, as do treatment of dental decay in children and bone disease in adults. Another area in which a small effect of good nutrition could lead to significant benefits to health is in the preservation of cognitive function in the aging population but at present further evidence for beneficial effects of e.g. antioxidant vitamins is still needed.[11]

In recent years the wider environmental cost of a diet high in red meat and a food system which involves significant food waste has been recognised,[12] adding to the need for long-term, comprehensive food strategies at national and local level.

The most widely promoted diet and health message has been the World Health Organisation (WHO) 'five a day' advice for adults to consume five varied portions of 80g of fruit and vegetables per day. A target to reduce salt intake from around 9g to 6g per day for adults has been set by the Food Standards Agency.[13] Advice on fruit and vegetables and salt intake are included in the Food Standards Agency's 'Eight tips for Eating Well, while the 'Eatwell Plate' model describes the proportions of 5 main food groups which would constitute a balanced diet.[14] More recently the WHO and Public Health England have proposed that added sugars should be reduced by more than half, to provide 5% of energy in the diet.[15],[16]

Surveys of household food intake and of children's diet in Scotland have highlighted socio-economic inequalities in consumption of a wide range of food groups such as fruit and vegetables and soft drinks though differences in fat and sugar content of the diet between those in more versus less deprived areas are not marked.[17],[18],[19]

5.1.2 Policy background

In Scotland the poor record on diet was first highlighted in 1993 with the publication of the Scottish Diet report and associated Action Plan.[20],[21] The Action Plan included specific Scottish Dietary Targets for eight nutrients and food groups which were replaced in 2013 by the Scottish Dietary Goals.[22] These include the fruit and vegetable and salt advice as well as a reduction in average calorie intake by 120 kcal per day and average intake of red meat to 70g per day as well as advice to limit fat and sugar intake and increase consumption of fibre and oil-rich fish.

To tackle the poor diet in children in Scotland, the main target has been food in schools with Hungry for Success guidance on the nutrient content of school meals[23] and the Schools Food and Nutrition legislation which prohibits the sale of foods and drinks high in fat, sugar and/or salt in schools.[24] The foods available to children who leave school at lunchtimes have also been considered in the 'Beyond the School Gate' advice to caterers in the vicinity of schools.[25] Most recently the Scottish Government has outlined specific measures which could be taken by retailers and caterers which would affect the wider population in its 'Supporting Healthy Choices' framework.[26] This is a voluntary framework based on four core principles. These are to:

  • Put the health of children first in food-related decisions
  • Rebalance promotional activities
  • Support consumers and communities
  • Formulate healthier products

5.1.3 Reporting on diet in the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS)

This chapter provides information on fruit and vegetable consumption in adults and children from 2003-2013, along with data on consumption of selected foods and drinks by children over the same period. Urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine in adults are presented as an indicator of trends in salt intake from 2003 - 2012/2013. Information on vitamin and mineral supplement use by adults in 2012/2013 is also provided. Supplementary tables on diet, including analysis by socio-economic classification, household income and area deprivation (SIMD) will be published on the Scottish Health Survey website.[27]

5.2 METHODS AND DEFINITIONS

5.2.1 Measuring fruit and vegetable consumption

The module of questions on fruit and vegetable consumption was designed with the aim of providing sufficient detail to monitor adherence to the 5-a-day recommendation. This module has been asked of all adults (aged 16 and over) participating in the survey since 2003 and of children aged 2 to 15 since 2008.

To determine the total number of portions consumed in the 24 hours preceding the interview, the fruit and vegetable module includes questions about consumption of the following food types: vegetables (fresh, frozen or canned); salads; pulses; vegetables in composites (e.g. vegetable chilli); fruit (fresh, frozen or canned); dried fruit; and fruit in composites (e.g. apple pie). A portion is defined as the conventional 80g of a fruit or vegetable. As 80g is difficult to visualise, a 'portion' was described using more everyday terms, such as tablespoons, cereal bowls and slices. Examples are given in the questionnaire to aid the recall process, for instance, tablespoons of vegetables, cereal bowls full of salad, pieces of medium sized fruit (e.g. apples) or handfuls of small fruits (e.g. raspberries). In spite of this, there may be some variation between participants' interpretation of a portion. These everyday measures were converted back to 80g portions prior to analysis. The following table shows the definitions of the portion sizes used for each food item included in the survey:

Food item

Portion size

Vegetables (fresh, frozen or canned)

3 tablespoons

Pulses (dried)

3 tablespoons

Salad

1 cereal bowlful

Vegetables in composites, such as vegetable chilli

3 tablespoons

Very large fruit, such as melon

1 average slice

Large fruit, such as grapefruit

Half a fruit

Medium fruit, such as apples

1 fruit

Small fruit, such as plum

2 fruits

Very small fruit, such as blackberries

2 average handfuls

Dried fruit

1 tablespoon

Fruit in composites, such as stewed fruit in apple pie

3 tablespoons

Frozen fruit/canned fruit

3 tablespoons

Fruit juice

1 small glass (150 ml)

Since the 5-a-day policy stresses both volume and variety, the number of portions of fruit juice, pulses and dried fruit is capped so that no more than one portion can contribute to the total number of portions consumed. Interviewers record full or half portions, but nothing smaller.

5.2.2 Measuring consumption of other foods and drinks

The eating habits module of the interview was developed from the Dietary Instrument of Nutrition Education (DINE) questionnaire and is similar to that used in the Health Survey for England (HSE). The DINE questionnaire was developed by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund's General Practice Research Group to assess usual intake of a wide range of nutrients, including protein, starch, fat and fibre.[28] The module asks about the frequency of consumption for categories of food, but does not ask about the amount consumed or specific types of food. It cannot be used to estimate daily nutrient intake but can reflect differences in consumption of the specified foods between population and sub-groups or within a population over time. These questions are asked of all children aged 2-15 annually, and a sub-sample of adults biennially.

5.2.3 Measuring urinary sodium and potassium

Sodium (Na) is obtained from the diet in the form of sodium chloride (salt) and potassium (K) from fruits and vegetables. Urinary excretion of sodium and potassium over a 24-hour period reflects the dietary intake over that day in normal healthy individuals. However, collection of urine over 24-hours is inconvenient and completeness of collection is difficult to achieve. Spot samples (taken at any time of day) are much easier to collect but the concentration of electrolytes is influenced by hydration.

Creatinine (Cre), a non-enzymic breakdown product of creatine in muscle, is produced and excreted in the urine at a constant rate, so the ratio Na/Cre or K/Cre are considered more robust indices for comparative purposes than sodium or potassium concentrations alone. The concentration of sodium and potassium in spot urine samples cannot be used to estimate 24-hour excretion and hence intake, but it has been suggested that the values can provide information on differences between subgroups within a population and on trends over time.

Since 2003 a spot urine sample has been collected in the survey from adults and analysed for Na, K and Cre. Details of the sample collection and analysis are given in Volume 2 of this report.

5.2.4 Measuring vitamin and mineral supplement use

The following question, designed to measure self-administered supplement use, is included in the core interview:[29]

At present, are you taking any vitamins, fish oils, iron supplements, calcium, other minerals or anything else to supplement your diet or improve your health, other than those prescribed by your doctor?

In addition, women aged 16-49 are also asked:

At present, are you taking any folic acid supplements such as Solgar folic acid, Pregnacare tablets, Sanatogen Pronatal, or Healthy Start, to supplement your diet or improve your health?

Women, pregnant and taking folic acid at the time of interview, are asked if they started taking supplements before they became pregnant, and whether they had taken them for the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Those women who are not pregnant at the time of interview but who are taking folic acid are asked if they are taking it because they hope to become pregnant.

5.3 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION

5.3.1 Trends in adult fruit and vegetable consumption since 2003

Trends in fruit and vegetable consumption for men, women and all adults aged 16 and over are presented in Table 5.1 for the period 2003 to 2013. In addition to the mean and median number of portions consumed, the proportions meeting, exceeding and falling short of the 5-a-day recommendation are also presented.

In 2013, adults consumed a mean of 3.2 portions of fruit and vegetables (median of 3.0) per day. Average consumption has fluctuated a little since 2003 (3.1-3.3 mean, 2.7-3.0 median portions) but with no obvious pattern. Trends in average consumption were very similar for men and women, with some fluctuation for both but with no observable changes in overall.

The percentage of adults meeting the 5-a-day recommendation was similarly stable over this period: 21% met the target in 2003, as did 22% in 2013. The percentage of men consuming at least 5-a-day ranged between 19% and 22% in the decade 2003-2013 but in no clear direction. Over this same period, the figure for women meeting the target ranged between 21% and 25%, with a slight increase detectable up until 2009, followed by a small decrease thereafter.

The percentage of adults reporting that they did not eat any fruit and vegetables in the 24 hours prior to interview has been very stable over time (9-10%). Table 5.1

5.3.2 Adult fruit and vegetable consumption in 2013, by age and sex

More detailed figures on adult (aged 16 and over) fruit and vegetable consumption in 2013 are presented in Table 5.2. As seen in previous years, in 2013, the average portions consumed per day by men and women were very similar (means of 3.2 and 3.3, respectively).

Consumption remains lowest for the youngest age group (those aged 16-24) who, on average, ate 3.0 portions of fruit and vegetables per day. Those aged 65-74 consumed an average of 3.5 portions per day, while the equivalent figure for those aged 75 and over was 3.2 portions per day.

Figure 5A illustrates the way in which the pattern in consumption differs by age for men and women. Mean consumption was broadly similar (3.0-3.2 portions) among men aged 16-64 and increased to an average of 3.4 portions per day for those aged 65 and over. In contrast, women's consumption more closely resembled the pattern for all adults - with the youngest and oldest women consuming fewest portions on average (3.0-3.1 portions per day, compared with 3.3-3.5 for those aged 25-74).

Just over one in five adults (22%) met the 5-a-day recommendation in 2013. Adherence did not differ by sex but, as would be expected given the patterns in mean consumption, there was some variation by age. Again, adults aged 25-74 were most likely to eat at least five portions a day (22-25%). The pattern in adherence levels by age was clearer for women than men. The percentage of men eating at least 5-a-day peaked among those aged 45-54 (25%) and 65-74 (27%), and ranged between 19% and 21% for remaining age groups.

Supplementary tables on adult fruit and vegetables consumption in 2013, including analysis by socio-economic classification, household income and area deprivation (SIMD), will be published on the Scottish Health Survey website.[30] Figure 5A, Table 5.2

Figure 5A Percentage meeting/ exceeding recommended daily fruit and vegetable consumption (5 portions), and mean portions consumed per day, 2013, by age and sex

5.3.3 Trends in child fruit and vegetable consumption since 2003

No information on the fruit and vegetable consumption of children under the age of five was collected on the survey prior to 2008. Therefore, two sets of trends are presented in Table 5.3: one for children aged 5-15 from 2003 to 2013, and one for children aged 2 to 15 from 2008 to 2013.

Over the last decade (2003-2013) there has been very little change in the average number of portions of fruit and vegetables consumed daily by children aged 5-15 (2.6 mean portions in 2003 and 2.7 in 2013). The separate figures for boys and girls show some small fluctuations across the period, but as with adults, the overall picture suggests that consumption levels have been relatively stable since 2003. A similar trend has been observed for children aged 2-15 since 2008, with average portion consumption varying between 2.6 and 2.8 portions per day over this period, and, with one exception (2010), there has been no variation in the median number of portions consumed (2.5).

The proportion of children aged 5-15 who met the 5-a-day recommendation was identical in 2003 and 2013: 12%. The 2008 and 2013 figures for children aged 2-15 were also identical (13%). The separate trends for boys and girls show small fluctuations of 2-3 percentage points over time for boys and 4 points for girls, but with no consistent patterns for either. Table 5.3

5.3.4 Child fruit and vegetable consumption in 2013, by age and sex

The mean portions of fruit and vegetables consumed by children aged 2-15 in 2013 (2.7 portions) did not differ significantly between boys (2.7) and girls (2.8), and was well below the recommended 5 portions a day.

While it appears that mean portions consumed decreased with increased age for children, the relationship was not statistically significant. Children aged 2-4 consumed an average of 3.0 portions per day (2.9 portions for boys 3.0 portions for girls). The equivalent figure for those aged 13-15 was 2.5 portions (2.7 portions for boys and 2.8 portions for girls).

In 2013 13% of children aged 2-15 met the 5-a-day recommendation. With the exception of a drop at age 8-10 (9%), adherence was broadly similar across age groups (13-15%). Boys and girls were equally likely to meet the recommendation, and the lower adherence among those aged 8-10 was observed for both boys and girls (8% and 9%, respectively).

One in ten children reported not eating any fruit or vegetables (10%) in the day prior to interview. There was a notable difference between children aged 2-4 (6% of whom ate 0 portions) and those aged 13-15, who have more control over their diets, 17% of whom ate 0 portions. These patterns were true for both boys and girls. Figure 5B, Table 5.4

Figure 5B Percentage children (aged 2-15) eating five + portions, no portions, and mean portions consumed per day, 2013, by age

5.4 CONSUMPTION OF OTHER FOODS IN CHILDREN

5.4.1 Trends in consumption of other foods since 2003

Trends in consumption of a number of food and drink items are presented in Table 5.5 for all children aged 2-15 and for boys and girls separately. To increase the sample sizes, figures for the 2008-2013 period are based on data from three sets of combined years (2008/2009, 2010/20011 and 2012/2013).

Sugary foods and snacks

The previously reported[31] reduction in children's consumption of many sugary foods and snacks since 2003 has largely been maintained in the most recent years of the survey (2012/2013). The proportions reporting at least daily consumption of sweets or chocolates (51%), non-diet soft drinks (40%), crisps (37%) and biscuits (35%), and weekly (or more) consumption of ice-cream (51%), were all statistically significantly lower than those observed in 2003.

For most of these food types, the largest reduction in consumption occurred between 2003 and 2008/2009, with the trend either levelling off, or continuing, albeit more gradually since then. The exception was daily consumption of biscuits for which there has been similarly large declines between 2003 (48%) and 2008/2009 (42%), and between 2010/2011 (40%) and 2012/2013 (35%).

In contrast, the past 10 years has seen a gradual increase in the proportion of children eating cakes at least twice a week (from 30% in 2003 to 34% in 2010/2011 and 2012/2013).

The patterns in consumption of sugary foods and snacks were broadly similar for boys and girls, with the only significant difference being that boys were more likely than girls to eat biscuits at least once a day (38% and 32% respectively, in 2012/2013).

Fibre and starch

The proportion of children eating a high fibre and low sugar cereal at least 5-6 times a week has remained stable since 2008/2009 (ranging between 27% and 28% over this period).

In 2012/2013, around a third (32%) of children aged 2-15 reported eating 2 to 3 slices of high fibre bread a day and, again, this figure has been broadly stable in recent years (35% in 2008/2009 and 34% in 2010/2011).

The previously reported[32] decline in the percentage of children eating chips two or more times a week, from 54% in 2003 to 40% in 2008/2009, was a maintained in 2012/2013 (40%).

Half of children ate potatoes, pasta or rice five or more times a week in 2003, as did 53-54% in more recent years.

Some small differences in fibre and starch consumption were apparent by gender. While the percentage of boys consuming 2-3 slices of high fibre bread daily has remained stable over time, the fall observed for girls in 2010/2011 was maintained in 2012/2013 resulting in a gap of 4 percentage points in the consumption rates of boys and girls. Conversely, in 2012/2013, girls were significantly more likely than boys to consume potatoes, pasta and rice five or more times a week (56%, compared with 51% for boys), despite there being no clear gap between the genders prior to this.

Meat and fish

The proportion of children consuming oily fish once a week or more doubled between 2003 and 2012/2013 (from 8% to 16%, respectively), though much of the increase occurred between 2003 and 2008/2009. There has been a somewhat more sustained increase in the consumption of white fish once a week or more (from 42% in 2003 to 53% in 2012/2013). In contrast, between 2003 and 2012/2013 there was a decline in the percentage of children consuming tuna fish at least once a week, from 33% to 28%.

Consumption of red meat at least twice a week increased between 2003 and 2008/2009 (from 53% to 57%) and remained at a similar level to this in 2012/2013 (58%). While the proportion of children eating meat products (such as pies, sausages) twice a week or more was lower in 2012/2013 (40%) than in 2003 (43%), the observed difference was not statistically significant.

Girls were more likely than boys to eat tuna fish once a week or more often (31%, compared with 24%), while the reverse was true of white fish (56% of boys, compared with 49% of girls). The frequency with which boys and girls consumed oily fish was broadly similar (17% and 15%, respectively). Boys have, however, consistently been more likely than girls to eat meat products at least twice weekly. For example, in 2012/2013 45% of boys reported this, compared with 33% of girls. Frequency of red meat consumption was similar for boys and girls (59% and 58%, respectively).

Dairy products

Between 2003 and 2008/2009 there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of children drinking skimmed or semi-skimmed milk (from 51% to 57%). It has remained around this level since then (57-58%). The frequency with which boys and girls drank skimmed or semi-skimmed milk was similar in 2012/2013 (57% and 58%, respectively). Table 5.5

5.5 URINARY SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IN ADULTS

5.5.1 Trends in urinary sodium and potassium in adults since 2003

Sodium (Na), potassium (K) and creatinine (Cre) levels from spot urine samples are presented in Table 5.6, alongside the Na/Cre ratio and K/Cre ratio for 2003, 2008/2009, 2010/2011 and 2012/2013. In addition to mean and median levels, levels for the 5th, 10th, 90th and 95th percentiles are also presented for all adults aged 16 and over as well as for men and women separately.

Since 2003 there has been a statistically significant drop in the mean urinary sodium level for adults, although there appears to have been a levelling-off in more recent years. In 2003 the mean level of sodium for adults was 116.1mmol/l, falling to 109.0mmol/l in 2008/2009, and to 104.3mmol/l and 104.1mmol/l in 2010/2011 and 2012/2013, respectively. There was no significant change in the mean level between 2010/2011 and 2012/2013.

This decline in urinary sodium has been evident for both men and women, though in absolute terms it has been larger for men: between 2003 and 2012/2013, the mean urinary sodium level for men fell from 129.3mmol/l to 113.8mmol/l, while for women the corresponding figures were 104.3mmol/l and 95.1mmol/l, respectively. For women, the slight increase between the two most recent time periods was not statistically significant.

In contrast, mean urinary potassium levels were broadly stable in the earlier part of the time series (62.5mmol/l and 63.9mmol/l), but have since fallen to 55.7mmol/l (2012/2013). This decline is reflected in the fact that the mean levels at the upper end of the distribution (the 95th percentile) reduced significantly from 2010/2011 onwards. Again, while mean potassium levels have declined for both men and women, the absolute decline has been larger for men.

Creatinine levels in adults follow a similar trend to urinary sodium, with a decrease in the mean from 12.2mmol/l in 2003 to 10.9mmol/l in 2008/2009, and to 10.1mmol/l from 2010/2011 onwards. As with the sodium levels, average creatinine levels have declined for both men and women.

In line with the figures presented above, the ratios of sodium to creatinine (Na/Cre) and potassium to creatinine (K/Cre) have both increased since 2003, though with slightly different patterns. The Na/Cre ratio increased from 12.2 in 2003 to 13.3 in 2010/2011, and was 13.1 in 2012/2013. The ratio for K/Cre increased from 5.9 in 2003 to 6.7 in 2008/2009, and has been at a similar or identical level since then (6.7 in 2012/2013). The changes in the creatinine concentrations and Na/Cre and K/Cre ratios mean that the changes in Na and K concentrations cannot be assumed to reflect changes in intake. Table 5.6

5.5.2 Urinary sodium and potassium in adults in 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex

Urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels for adults in 2012/2013 are presented for by age group and sex in Table 5.7. Women had lower mean urinary sodium levels (95.1mmol/l) than men (113.8mmol/l) - and this pattern was true across all age groups. It should be noted, however, that urinary sodium levels varied markedly by age group for both sexes. Younger men (16-44), for example, had notably higher levels of urinary sodium (121.4mmol/l) than older men (98.8-112.0mmol/l).

Women also had a lower mean potassium level (53.1mmol/l) than men (58.5mmol/l) in 2012/2013, however, in contrast with the results above for sodium, potassium levels did not significantly decline with increased age.

Creatinine levels, in 2012/2013, followed similar patterns to urinary sodium levels, with women (8.7mmol/l) having a lower mean than men (11.5mmol/l) at all ages. For both men and women average creatinine levels declined with increased age.

The Na/Cre and K/Cre ratios followed the expected patterns: ratios were higher in women than men, and increased with age, for both sexes. Table 5.7

5.6 VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENT USE IN ADULTS

5.6.1 Vitamin and mineral supplement use in adults in 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex

The percentage of adults using vitamin and mineral supplements, in the years 2012/2013 combined, are presented in Table 5.8, by age and sex. In 2012/2013, just over a quarter (27%) of adults aged 16 and over reported taking any supplements. Women were more likely than men to report supplement use (31%, compared with 24%); and with the exception of those aged 75 and over, this difference was apparent across all age groups.

For both men and women, supplement use was lowest among those aged 16-24 (17% and 24%, respectively), though the patterns in use among remaining age groups differed somewhat for men and women. Among women, supplement use ranged from 31-33% for those aged 25 and over. In contrast, usage was more varied for men - ranging between 20% and 25% for those aged 25-64, and between 29-30% for the two oldest age groups.

While these figures highlight a general pattern of increasing supplement use with age, they do not to tell us which types of vitamins and minerals people take. The figures in Table 5.8 show that the majority (69%) of all adults aged 65 and over do not take any supplements, indicating low adherence to the recommendation that people of this age should take a Vitamin D supplement. Table 5.8

5.6.2 Folic acid supplement use in women in 2012/2013 combined

Vitamin use for women aged 16-49 in 2012/2013 combined is presented in Table 5.9. This table also displays folic acid supplement use among this same age group.

Almost three in ten (29%) women aged 16-49 reported taking any vitamin or mineral supplement in 2012/2013, with the youngest group (aged 16-24) least likely to do so (24%). Just 6% of women aged 16-49 reported taking a folic acid supplement at the time of interview. Women aged 25-34 were most likely to report taking folic acid (10%) and were twice as likely as those aged 16-24 and 35-44 to do so (4% and 5%, respectively). Just 3% of women aged 45-49 took a folic acid supplement.

With the average age of women giving birth now around 30 years,[33] the increased usage of folic acid supplements among the 25-34 age group likely reflects adherence to advice that folic acid supplements should be taken both, before, and during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To assess if this was the case, women who reported taking folic acid were asked if they were doing so because they hoped to become pregnant.

Fifty-five percent of non-pregnant women who were taking folic acid at the time for interview were doing so because they hoped to become pregnant. A similar proportion (57%) of those who were pregnant and taking folic acid at the time of interview reported that they started taking the supplement before becoming pregnant. Note, however, the small sample sizes for these groups. Table 5.9

Table list

Table 5.1 Adult fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003 to 2013
Table 5.2 Adult fruit and vegetable consumption, 2013, by age and sex
Table 5.3 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003 to 2013
Table 5.4 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2013, by age and sex
Table 5.5 Summary of child eating habits, 2003 to 2012/2013 combined
Table 5.6 Urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K) and creatinine (Cre), Na/Cre ratio, K/Cre ratio, 2003 to 2012/2013 combined
Table 5.7 Urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K) and creatinine (Cre), Na/Cre ratio, K/Cre ratio, 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex
Table 5.8 Vitamin and mineral supplements use, 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex
Table 5.9 Folic acid supplement use, 2012/2013 combined

Additional tables available on the survey website include:

  • Times in the last week people in household ate main meal together, by age & key demographics
  • Portions of fruit and vegetables consumed, by age & key demographics
  • Summary fruit and vegetable serving type, by age & key demographics
  • Adult use of vitamin or mineral supplements, by age & key demographics
  • Child: Summary diet, by age & key demographics
  • Child: Frequency and type of bread & cereal, by age & key demographics
  • Child: How often eat chips & potatoes, by age & key demographics
  • Child: How often eat meat & meat products, by age & key demographics
  • Child: How often eat tinned tuna fish, white fish & oily fish, by key demographics
  • Child: How often eat cheese, by age & key demographics
  • Child: How often eat sweets or chocolates, ice cream, crisps, by age & key demographics
  • Child: How often drink milk, & soft drinks, diet/low calorie soft drinks, by age & key demographics
  • Child: How often eat cakes, scones or pastries, & biscuits, by age & key demographics

Table 5.1 Adult fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003 to 2013

Aged 16 and over

 

 

        2003 to 2013

Portions per day

2003

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

 

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

             

None

11

10

11

12

10

11

11

5 portions or more

20

20

22

20

20

19

22

Mean

3.0

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.0

3.2

Standard error of the mean

0.06

0.07

0.05

0.06

0.05

0.08

0.07

Median

2.7

2.7

2.8

2.7

2.7

2.7

3.0

Women

             

None

8

7

7

9

8

9

8

5 portions or more

22

24

25

23

23

21

22

Mean

3.2

3.4

3.4

3.3

3.3

3.2

3.3

Standard error of the mean

0.05

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.06

Median

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.8

3.0

All adults

             

None

9

9

9

10

9

10

9

5 portions or more

21

22

23

22

22

20

22

Mean

3.1

3.3

3.3

3.2

3.2

3.1

3.2

Standard error of the mean

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

Median

2.7

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

2.7

3.0

Bases (weighted):

             

Men

3834

3087

3594

3465

3606

2309

2343

Women

4281

3375

3926

3775

3931

2502

2547

All adults

8115

6462

7520

7239

7537

4811

4890

Bases (unweighted):

             

Men

3590

2840

3283

3112

3275

2126

2138

Women

4526

3621

4241

4127

4260

2686

2754

All adults

8116

6461

7524

7239

7535

4812

4892

Table 5.2 Adult fruit and vegetable consumption, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over

         

 

  2013

Portions per day

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

 

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

               

None

15

13

12

13

9

6

5

11

Less than 1 portion

4

3

3

3

4

5

5

4

1 portion or more but less than 2

17

20

17

19

19

18

15

18

2 portions or more but less than 3

15

19

18

16

19

17

16

17

3 portions or more but less than 4

18

15

17

14

15

13

22

16

4 portions or more but less than 5

10

12

14

10

13

14

15

12

5 portions or more

21

19

20

25

21

27

21

22

Mean

3.0

3.1

3.1

3.2

3.2

3.4

3.4

3.2

Standard error of the mean

0.23

0.14

0.15

0.14

0.15

0.14

0.17

0.07

Median

2.5

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.8

3.0

3.2

3.0

Women

               

None

13

11

7

11

5

2

5

8

Less than 1 portion

2

3

6

5

7

4

5

5

1 portion or more but less than 2

18

15

16

16

17

15

22

17

2 portions or more but less than 3

24

17

20

15

18

21

18

19

3 portions or more but less than 4

17

18

16

17

16

20

20

17

4 portions or more but less than 5

9

12

11

13

14

14

11

12

5 portions or more

17

24

24

24

23

23

19

22

Mean

3.0

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.1

3.3

Standard error of the mean

0.19

0.13

0.14

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.13

0.06

Median

2.3

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.2

3.0

3.0

All adults

               

None

14

12

9

12

7

4

5

9

Less than 1 portion

3

3

4

4

5

4

5

4

1 portion or more but less than 2

18

17

17

17

18

16

19

17

2 portions or more but less than 3

19

18

19

16

19

19

17

18

3 portions or more but less than 4

17

16

17

16

16

17

21

17

4 portions or more but less than 5

9

12

13

12

14

14

13

12

5 portions or more

19

22

22

24

22

25

20

22

Mean

3.0

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.3

3.5

3.2

3.2

Standard error of the mean

0.17

0.11

0.11

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.12

0.05

Median

2.5

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

Bases (weighted):

               

Men

338

367

387

438

366

269

178

2343

Women

334

389

412

462

383

303

265

2547

All adults

671

756

799

900

749

572

443

4890

Bases (unweighted):

               

Men

206

310

339

395

353

318

217

2138

Women

242

419

432

540

442

373

306

2754

All adults

448

729

771

935

795

691

523

4892

Table 5.3 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003 to 2013

Aged 2-15

 

 

        2003 to 2013

Portions per day

2003

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Boys

             

Total 5 - 15

             

None

12

13

10

12

11

13

12

5 portions or more

12

14

13

11

12

11

13

Mean

2.6

2.6

2.6

2.5

2.6

2.4

2.6

Standard error of the mean

0.07

0.11

0.07

0.10

0.09

0.10

0.10

Median

2.0

2.0

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.0

2.3

Total 2 - 15

             

None

n/a

11

9

11

10

12

11

5 portions or more

n/a

14

14

12

13

12

13

Mean

n/a

2.7

2.7

2.6

2.7

2.5

2.7

Standard error of the mean

n/a

0.09

0.06

0.09

0.08

0.09

0.09

Median

n/a

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.5

2.2

2.3

Girls

             

Total 5 - 15

             

None

12

9

10

11

10

11

11

5 portions or more

13

14

15

12

11

12

12

Mean

2.6

2.8

2.8

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.7

Standard error of the mean

0.07

0.10

0.09

0.09

0.09

0.10

0.09

Median

2.0

2.5

2.4

2.5

2.5

2.7

2.7

Total 2 - 15

             

None

n/a

8

9

10

9

9

10

5 portions or more

n/a

13

16

13

12

14

13

Mean

n/a

2.9

2.9

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.8

Standard error of the mean

n/a

0.09

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.09

0.09

Median

n/a

2.7

2.7

2.5

2.5

2.7

2.7

All children

             

Total 5 - 15

             

None

12

11

10

12

10

12

12

5 portions or more

12

14

14

12

12

11

12

Mean

2.6

2.7

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.6

2.7

Standard error of the mean

0.05

0.08

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.08

0.08

Median

2.0

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.5

Total 2 - 15

             

None

n/a

10

9

11

9

11

10

5 portions or more

n/a

13

15

12

13

13

13

Mean

n/a

2.8

2.8

2.6

2.7

2.7

2.7

Standard error of the mean

n/a

0.07

0.05

0.07

0.06

0.07

0.07

Median

n/a

2.5

2.5

2.3

2.5

2.5

2.5

Bases (weighted):

             

Boys 5 - 15

1225

618

910

621

686

614

637

Boys 2 - 15

n/a

791

1153

792

881

800

830

Girls 5 - 15

1166

591

867

591

652

588

607

Girls 2 - 15

n/a

736

1108

759

835

759

787

All children 5 - 15

2391

1209

1777

1212

1338

1202

1243

All children 2 - 15

n/a

1527

2261

1551

1716

1559

1616

Bases (unweighted):

             

Boys 5 - 15

1152

591

923

629

649

580

608

Boys 2 - 15

n/a

764

1153

821

855

761

819

Girls 5 - 15

1170

597

837

532

619

602

554

Girls 2 - 15

n/a

752

1100

708

833

784

761

All children 5 - 15

2322

1188

1760

1161

1268

1182

1162

All children 2 - 15

n/a

1516

2253

1529

1688

1545

1580

Table 5.4 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2013, by age and sex

Aged 2-15

 

 

      2013

Portions per day

Age

Total

2-4

5-7

8-10

11-12

13-15

 

%

%

%

%

%

%

Boys

           

None

6

11

8

16

16

11

Less than 1 portion

4

4

8

8

5

6

1 portion or more but less than 2

21

19

20

24

23

21

2 portions or more but less than 3

25

20

24

15

17

21

3 portions or more but less than 4

18

19

17

17

15

17

4 portions or more but less than 5

11

12

15

7

9

11

5 portions or more

15

15

8

12

16

13

Mean

2.9

2.8

2.5

2.3

2.7

2.7

Standard error of the mean

0.14

0.18

0.12

0.24

0.23

0.09

Median

2.7

2.5

2.3

2.0

2.0

2.3

Girls

           

None

6

8

6

13

17

10

Less than 1 portion

5

4

5

3

5

4

1 portion or more but less than 2

17

24

19

16

21

20

2 portions or more but less than 3

27

19

20

15

19

21

3 portions or more but less than 4

21

18

28

22

17

21

4 portions or more but less than 5

9

11

12

17

10

11

5 portions or more

15

16

9

15

11

13

Mean

3.0

2.8

2.8

2.8

2.4

2.8

Standard error of the mean

0.21

0.16

0.16

0.20

0.18

0.09

Median

2.7

2.7

2.7

3.0

2.3

2.7

All children

           

None

6

10

7

14

17

10

Less than 1 portion

4

4

6

5

5

5

1 portion or more but less than 2

19

21

20

20

22

21

2 portions or more but less than 3

26

20

22

15

18

21

3 portions or more but less than 4

20

19

22

20

16

19

4 portions or more but less than 5

10

11

14

12

9

11

5 portions or more

15

15

9

14

13

13

Mean

3.0

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.7

Standard error of the mean

0.13

0.12

0.10

0.17

0.15

0.07

Median

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.5

2.0

2.5

Bases (weighted):

           

Boys

193

169

197

101

169

830

Girls

180

170

178

107

152

787

All children

373

339

375

208

321

1616

Bases (unweighted):

           

Boys

211

174

191

86

157

819

Girls

207

173

160

89

132

761

All children

418

347

351

175

289

1580

Table 5.5 Summary of child eating habits, 2003 to 2012/2013 combined

Aged 2-15

 

    2003 to 2012/2013 combined

Food type and frequency of consumption

2003

2008/2009 combined

2010/2011 combined

2012/2013 combined

 

%

%

%

%

Boys

       

Eats oily fish once a week or more

8

12

13

17

Eats white fish once a week or more

45

51

50

56

Eats tuna fish once a week or more

29

28

25

24

Eats red meat 2+ times a week

55

59

59

59

Eats meat products 2+ times a week

48

43

43

45

Drinks skimmed/semi-skimmed milk

51

55

56

57

Sweets or chocolates once a day or more

57

53

50

53

Biscuits once a day or more

51

44

44

38

Cakes 2+ times a week

31

33

35

35

Ice-cream once a week or more

58

53

53

50

Non-diet soft drinks once a day or more

46

39

39

41

Crisps once a day or more

50

36

38

38

Eats chips 2+ times a week

55

41

43

41

Eats potatoes, pasta, rice 5+ times a week

48

54

52

51

Eats at least 2-3 slices of high fibre bread a day

n/a

35

36

34

Eats high fibre/low sugar cereal at least 5-6 times a week

n/a

28

30

30

Girls

       

Eats oily fish once a week or more

8

13

15

15

Eats white fish once a week or more

39

45

47

49

Eats tuna fish once a week or more

37

36

33

31

Eats red meat 2+ times a week

52

56

57

58

Eats meat products 2+ times a week

39

32

35

33

Drinks skimmed/semi-skimmed milk

50

59

60

58

Sweets or chocolates once a day or more

60

52

48

50

Biscuits once a day or more

45

41

36

32

Cakes 2+ times a week

28

31

34

32

Ice-cream once a week or more

57

54

51

53

Non-diet soft drinks once a day or more

43

36

38

39

Crisps once a day or more

53

35

39

36

Eats chips 2+ times a week

53

39

41

38

Eats potatoes, pasta, rice 5+ times a week

51

54

53

56

Eats at least 2-3 slices of high fibre bread a day

n/a

34

32

30

Eats high fibre/low sugar cereal at least 5-6 times a week

n/a

26

27

25

All children

       

Eats oily fish once a week or more

8

13

14

16

Eats white fish once a week or more

42

48

49

53

Eats tuna fish once a week or more

33

32

29

28

Eats red meat 2+ times a week

53

57

58

58

Eats meat products 2+ times a week

43

38

39

40

Drinks skimmed/semi-skimmed milk

51

57

58

57

Sweets or chocolates once a day or more

59

53

49

51

Biscuits once a day or more

48

42

40

35

Cakes 2+ times a week

30

32

34

34

Ice-cream once a week or more

58

53

52

51

Non-diet soft drinks once a day or more

44

38

38

40

Crisps once a day or more

52

36

38

37

Eats chips 2+ times a week

54

40

42

40

Eats potatoes, pasta, rice 5+ times a week

50

54

53

53

Eats at least 2-3 slices of high fibre bread a day

n/a

35

34

32

Eats high fibre/low sugar cereal at least 5-6 times a week

n/a

27

28

27

Bases (weighted):a

       

Boys

1511

1942

1673

1630

Girls

1440

1845

1597

1548

All children

2957

3789

3270

3178

Bases (unweighted):

       

Boys

1459

1917

1677

1580

Girls

1461

1852

1544

1545

All children

2924

3771

3221

3125

a Bases vary: the smallest of the range is presented and may be marginally higher for some food items

Table 5.6 Urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K) and creatinine (Cre), Na/Cre ratio, K/Cre ratio, 2003 to 2012/2013 combined

Aged 16 and over with a valid urine sample

 

 

  2003 to 2012/2013 combined

Urinary sodium, potassium, creatinine (mmol/l)

2003

2008/2009 combined

2010/2011 combined

2012/2013 combined

Men

       

Sodium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

129.3

120.9

117.6

113.8

Standard error of the mean

3.69

2.18

2.35

2.35

5th percentile

34

37

30

29

10th percentile

51

47

45

43

Median

125

117

113

108

90th percentile

215

197

195

190

95th percentile

230

219

213

210

Potassium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

67.1

67.9

62.4

58.5

Standard error of the mean

1.70

1.44

1.31

1.29

5th percentile

18

17

16

15

10th percentile

26

24

23

22

Median

63

64

59

57

90th percentile

115

119

105

101

95th percentile

129

138

119

101

Creatinine (mmol/l)

       

Mean

14.3

12.7

11.8

11.5

Standard error of the mean

0.37

0.27

0.27

0.32

5th percentile

3.8

2.9

2.6

2.5

10th percentile

5.6

4.3

3.7

3.7

Median

13.9

12.2

11.0

10.6

90th percentile

23.5

20.9

20.1

20.2

95th percentile

27.5

23.7

24.8

24.3

Na/Cre ratio

       

Mean

10.9

11.6

12.0

12.3

Standard error of the mean

0.42

0.27

0.26

0.32

5th percentile

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.3

10th percentile

4.7

4.7

4.7

5.0

Median

9.5

10.3

10.9

11.1

90th percentile

17.7

19.2

20.4

20.5

95th percentile

21.8

23.2

24.3

25.4

K/Cre ratio

       

Mean

5.2

5.9

5.9

5.9

Standard error of the mean

0.13

0.10

0.11

0.13

5th percentile

2.0

2.3

2.4

2.3

10th percentile

2.6

3.0

2.8

2.9

Median

4.7

5.5

5.6

5.5

90th percentile

8.1

9.8

9.2

9.3

95th percentile

9.6

11.2

10.6

10.5

Women

       

Sodium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

104.3

97.9

91.5

95.1

Standard error of the mean

2.88

1.85

2.16

2.10

5th percentile

26

23

22

23

10th percentile

36

32

28

31

Median

97

87

81

85

90th percentile

189

186

176

176

95th percentile

214

212

197

202

Potassium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

58.3

60.1

55.6

53.1

Standard error of the mean

1.57

1.16

1.25

1.00

5th percentile

14

14

12

14

10th percentile

19

19

17

19

Median

52

55

48

49

90th percentile

108

111

105

97

95th percentile

132

129

123

101

Creatinine (mmol/l)

       

Mean

10.3

9.2

8.5

8.7

Standard error of the mean

0.30

0.18

0.22

0.22

5th percentile

2.2

1.8

1.6

1.7

10th percentile

2.8

2.8

2.1

2.4

Median

9.3

8.3

7.4

7.5

90th percentile

19.1

16.9

16.4

17.0

95th percentile

22.1

19.5

19.2

19.6

Na/Cre ratio

       

Mean

13.3

13.3

14.6

13.9

Standard error of the mean

0.46

0.30

0.36

0.35

5th percentile

3.6

3.5

3.3

3.7

10th percentile

4.8

4.9

5.0

5.2

Median

11.3

11.4

12.4

12.1

90th percentile

22.2

23.4

26.8

24.5

95th percentile

27.3

27.7

32.8

28.0

K/Cre ratio

       

Mean

6.5

7.4

7.9

7.4

Standard error of the mean

0.14

0.12

0.14

0.15

5th percentile

2.6

3.0

3.0

3.0

10th percentile

3.1

3.8

3.7

3.6

Median

6.0

6.6

7.1

6.6

90th percentile

10.5

11.8

13.0

11.9

95th percentile

12.5

14.5

15.9

14.2

All adults

       

Sodium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

116.1

109.0

104.3

104.1

Standard error of the mean

2.76

1.55

1.72

1.76

5th percentile

29

27

24

25

10th percentile

40

38

33

35

Median

110

99

98

96

90th percentile

202

191

187

185

95th percentile

222

217

208

206

Potassium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

62.5

63.9

58.9

55.7

Standard error of the mean

1.13

1.00

0.93

0.88

5th percentile

16

15

13

15

10th percentile

21

21

19

21

Median

58

59

54

53

90th percentile

110

113

105

100

95th percentile

131

133

121

101

Creatinine (mmol/l)

       

Mean

12.2

10.9

10.1

10.1

Standard error of the mean

0.25

0.17

0.19

0.21

5th percentile

2.4

2.2

1.9

2.1

10th percentile

3.6

3.2

2.5

2.8

Median

11.4

10.1

9.2

9.0

90th percentile

22.0

19.3

18.6

18.5

95th percentile

25.0

22.1

22.3

22.0

Na/Cre ratio

       

Mean

12.2

12.5

13.3

13.1

Standard error of the mean

0.32

0.21

0.23

0.25

5th percentile

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

10th percentile

4.7

4.8

4.8

5.0

Median

10.4

10.9

11.5

11.6

90th percentile

20.2

21.4

23.7

22.7

95th percentile

25.4

26.4

29.5

26.8

K/Cre ratio

       

Mean

5.9

6.7

6.9

6.7

Standard error of the mean

0.11

0.09

0.10

0.11

5th percentile

2.3

2.6

2.6

2.7

10th percentile

2.9

3.3

3.2

3.2

Median

5.3

6.1

6.3

5.9

90th percentile

9.6

10.9

11.3

10.6

95th percentile

11.3

12.7

13.6

12.9

Bases (weighted):

       

Men

535

998

885

896

Women

594

1075

915

974

All adults

1129

2074

1800

1870

Bases (unweighted):

       

Men

508

921

793

846

Women

640

1165

1004

1026

All adults

1148

2086

1797

1872

Table 5.7 Urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K) and creatinine (Cre), Na/Cre ratio, K/Cre ratio, 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over with a valid urine sample

   

 

2012/2013 combined

Urinary sodium, potassium, creatinine (mmol/l)

Age

Total

16-44

45-64

65+

 

%

%

%

%

Men

       

Sodium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

121.4

112.0

98.8

113.8

Standard error of the mean

4.16

3.75

3.48

2.35

5th percentile

33

23

34

29

10th percentile

45

38

45

43

Median

114

111

95

108

90th percentile

201

184

159

190

95th percentile

224

206

179

210

Potassium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

59.0

59.9

55.1

58.5

Standard error of the mean

1.85

2.04

1.80

1.29

5th percentile

15

15

20

15

10th percentile

20

24

23

22

Median

59

58

53

57

90th percentile

101

101

88

101

95th percentile

101

101

101

101

Creatinine (mmol/l)

       

Mean

12.9

10.9

9.4

11.5

Standard error of the mean

0.54

0.44

0.42

0.32

5th percentile

2.6

2.3

2.9

2.5

10th percentile

4.0

2.9

3.3

3.7

Median

11.5

10.7

8.4

10.6

90th percentile

23.7

17.9

16.5

20.2

95th percentile

27.6

20.9

18.1

24.3

Na/Cre ratio

       

Mean

12.0

11.8

13.8

12.3

Standard error of the mean

0.51

0.37

0.75

0.32

5th percentile

3.1

4.1

3.3

3.3

10th percentile

4.8

5.6

4.5

5.0

Median

10.5

11.3

12.0

11.1

90th percentile

20.4

19.3

23.8

20.5

95th percentile

25.5

22.0

27.7

25.4

K/Cre ratio

       

Mean

5.4

6.2

6.7

5.9

Standard error of the mean

0.20

0.18

0.24

0.13

5th percentile

2.0

2.7

3.3

2.3

10th percentile

2.4

3.2

3.7

2.9

Median

4.9

5.9

6.2

5.5

90th percentile

8.3

9.4

10.4

9.3

95th percentile

9.6

10.5

12.6

10.5

Women

       

Sodium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

109.9

85.7

79.6

95.1

Standard error of the mean

3.78

2.87

3.04

2.10

5th percentile

29

21

25

23

10th percentile

36

26

31

31

Median

107

78

70

85

90th percentile

193

162

150

176

95th percentile

214

188

177

202

Potassium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

55.7

50.9

51.1

53.1

Standard error of the mean

1.76

1.64

1.79

1.00

5th percentile

13

15

17

14

10th percentile

19

19

21

19

Median

52

46

48

49

90th percentile

101

90

89

97

95th percentile

101

101

98

101

Creatinine (mmol/l)

       

Mean

10.1

8.0

7.1

8.7

Standard error of the mean

0.38

0.31

0.26

0.22

5th percentile

2.1

1.5

1.7

1.7

10th percentile

2.9

2.1

2.3

2.4

Median

9.3

6.7

6.4

7.5

90th percentile

18.7

15.5

12.5

17.0

95th percentile

21.3

18.9

14.3

19.6

Na/Cre ratio

       

Mean

13.3

13.7

15.4

13.9

Standard error of the mean

0.46

0.49

1.09

0.35

5th percentile

4.2

2.9

3.2

3.7

10th percentile

5.3

5.2

5.0

5.2

Median

12.6

11.7

12.0

12.1

90th percentile

22.7

25.1

24.6

24.5

95th percentile

27.1

30.0

30.3

28.0

K/Cre ratio

       

Mean

6.4

7.8

8.5

7.4

Standard error of the mean

0.20

0.22

0.30

0.15

5th percentile

2.8

3.1

4.2

3.0

10th percentile

3.0

3.8

4.7

3.6

Median

5.6

6.9

7.5

6.6

90th percentile

10.3

12.9

13.2

11.9

95th percentile

12.5

15.8

17.3

14.2

All adults

       

Sodium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

115.5

98.5

88.1

104.1

Standard error of the mean

3.04

2.69

2.58

1.75

5th percentile

31

21

27

25

10th percentile

42

29

34

35

Median

109

93

82

97

90th percentile

199

176

155

185

95th percentile

218

201

179

206

Potassium (mmol/l)

       

Mean

57.3

55.3

52.9

55.7

Standard error of the mean

1.39

1.31

1.36

0.88

5th percentile

14

15

17

15

10th percentile

19

21

22

21

Median

55

54

49

53

90th percentile

101

98

89

100

95th percentile

101

101

101

101

Creatinine (mmol/l)

       

Mean

11.5

9.4

8.1

10.1

Standard error of the mean

0.34

0.29

0.26

0.21

5th percentile

2.4

1.8

1.9

2.1

10th percentile

3.3

2.4

2.6

2.8

Median

10.3

8.7

7.4

9.0

90th percentile

21.1

17.1

13.9

18.5

95th percentile

24.7

19.7

17.7

22.0

Na/Cre ratio

       

Mean

12.7

12.8

14.7

13.1

Standard error of the mean

0.37

0.32

0.72

0.25

5th percentile

3.7

3.8

3.2

3.5

10th percentile

5.0

5.2

4.8

5.0

Median

11.5

11.3

12.0

11.6

90th percentile

22.3

22.5

24.3

22.7

95th percentile

26.4

25.9

30.3

26.8

K/Cre ratio

       

Mean

5.9

7.0

7.7

6.7

Standard error of the mean

0.15

0.16

0.21

0.11

5th percentile

2.3

2.9

3.6

2.7

10th percentile

2.8

3.5

4.2

3.2

Median

5.2

6.3

6.9

5.9

90th percentile

9.5

11.1

12.3

10.6

95th percentile

11.3

13.3

13.8

12.9

Bases (weighted):

       

Men

415

309

171

896

Women

433

323

218

974

All adults

849

632

389

1870

Bases (unweighted):

       

Men

328

287

231

846

Women

378

392

256

1026

All adults

706

679

487

1872

Table 5.8 Vitamin or mineral supplements use, 2012/2013 combined, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over

         

 

  2012/2013 combined

Use of vitamin or mineral supplements

Age

Total

16-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75+

 

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

%

Men

               

Taking any supplement

17

24

23

20

25

29

30

24

No supplements taken

83

76

77

80

75

71

70

76

Women

               

Taking any supplement

24

31

31

31

32

33

31

31

No supplements taken

76

69

69

69

68

67

69

69

All adults

               

Taking any supplement

21

28

27

26

29

31

31

27

No supplements taken

79

72

73

74

71

69

69

73

Bases (weighted):

               

Men

671

731

768

869

726

534

354

4653

Women

660

772

817

915

760

600

525

5048

All adults

1331

1503

1584

1783

1487

1134

879

9701

Bases (unweighted):

               

Men

376

538

685

804

717

703

442

4265

Women

469

748

906

1039

885

761

632

5440

All adults

845

1286

1591

1843

1602

1464

1074

9705

Table 5.9 Folic acid supplement use, 2012/2013 combined

Women aged 16-49

 

 

  2012/2013 combined

Vitamin and folic acid supplement use; Reason for folic acid supplement use

Yes

No

Weighted Bases

Unweighted Bases

 

%

%

   

Vitamin supplement use

       

Taking any supplement

       

16-24

24

76

660

469

25-34

31

69

772

748

35-44

31

69

817

906

45-49

30

70

475

545

Total

29

71

2723

2668

Taking any folic acid supplements

       

16-24

4

96

660

469

25-34

10

90

770

746

35-44

5

95

816

905

45-49

3

97

475

545

Total

6

94

2721

2665

Reason for taking folic acid supplement

       

Taking folic acid supplements because hope to become pregnanta

55

45

94

87

Start taking folic acid supplements before becoming pregnantb

57

43

63

60

Taking folic acid supplements for the first 12 weeks of pregnancyc

[100]

[-]

36

30

a Base is those who were taking folic acid but were not pregnant at the time of interview
b Base is those who were taking folic acid and were pregnant at the time of interview
c Base is those who said they were taking folic acid before becoming pregnant

Contact

Email: Julie Landsberg

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