Publication - Advice and guidance

Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network (SRTMN)

Last updated: 8 Sep 2021 - see all updates
Published: 5 Aug 2020

Research to improve our understanding of river temperature.

Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network (SRTMN)
River temperature research references

River temperature research references

Blog posts

Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network

How the HoTRiverS Project is helping us to understand and protect Scotland’s rivers

Resources to reduce river temperatures and protect Atlantic Salmon

MSS leaflets and tools

Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network (SRTMN) 

Where should we plant trees to protect rivers from high water temperatures? 

Summer 2018 river temperatures (download PDF)

Interactive national maps and WMS of riparian woodland prioritisation scores,

Interactive national maps and WMS of planting potential

Interactive national maps and WMS of maximum temperature and sensitivity to climate change

Papers using SRTMN data

Jackson, F.L., Hannah, D.M., Ouellet, V. and Malcolm, I.A. (2021) A simplified deterministic river temperature model to prioritise the management of riparian woodland to reduce summer maximum river temperatures Hydrological Processes

Jackson, FL, Fryer, RJ, Hannah, DM, Malcolm, IA. Predictions of national‐scale river temperatures: A visualisation of complex space–time dynamics. Hydrological Processes. 2020; 34: 2823– 2825. 

Jackson, F. L., Fryer, R. J., Hannah, D. M., Millar, C.P., and Malcolm, I. A. (2018) A spatio-temporal statistical model of maximum daily river temperatures to inform the management of Scotland's Atlantic salmon rivers under climate change. Science of The Total Environment., 612, 1543-1558.

Jackson, F. L., Fryer, R. J., Hannah, D. M., and Malcolm, I. A. (2017) Can spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments?, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4727-4745.

Jackson, F. L., Hannah, D. M., Fryer, R. J., Millar, C. P., and Malcolm, I. A. (2017) Development of spatial regression models for predicting summer river temperatures from landscape characteristics: implications for land and fisheries management. Hydrological Processes, 31, 1225–1238 doi: 10.1002/hyp.11087.

Jackson F.L. Malcolm I.A. Hannah D.M. (2016) A novel approach for designing large-scale river temperature monitoring networks. Hydrology Research, 47(3):569-590; DOI: 10.2166/nh.2015.106

Other river temperature related research by MSS-FFL

Dugdale S.J., Malcolm I.A., Hannah D.M. (2019) Drone-based Structure-from-Motion provides accurate forest canopy data to assess shading effects in river temperature models. Science of The Total Environment, 678, 326-340.

Dugdale S.J., Kelleher C.A., Malcolm I.A., Caldwell C., Hannah D.M. (2019) Assessing the potential of dronebased thermal infrared imagery for quantifying river temperature heterogeneity. Hydrological Processes, 33, 7, 1152-1163.

Dugdale, S.J., Malcolm, I.A., Kantola, K., & Hannah, D.M. (2018) Stream temperature under contrasting riparian forest cover: Understanding thermal dynamics and heat exchange processes. Science of The Total Environment, 610–611, 1375-1389

Dugdale, S.J., Hannah, D.M., & Malcolm, I.A. (2017) River temperature modelling: A review of process-based approaches and future directions. Earth-Science Reviews, 175, 97-113

Fabris L, Malcolm IA, Buddendorf WB, Soulsby C. (2018) Integrating process-based flow and temperature models to assess riparian forests and temperature amelioration in salmon streams. Hydrological Processes. 32:776–791

Garner, G., Malcolm, I.A., Sadler, J. P. and Hannah, D. M. (2017) The role of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and water velocity in determining river temperature dynamicsJournal of Hydrology, 553, 471-485

G Garner, IA Malcolm, JP Sadler, DM Hannah (2014) What causes cooling water temperature gradients in a forested stream reach? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18, (12), 5361-5376

G Garner, IA Malcolm, JP Sadler, CP Millar, DM Hannah (2014) Interannual variability in the effects of riparian woodland on microclimate, energy exchanges and water temperature of an upland Scottish stream. Hydrological Processes.

C Imholt, C Soulsby, IA Malcolm, CN Gibbins (2013) Influence of contrasting riparian forest cover on stream temperature dynamics in salmonid spawning and nursery streams. Ecohydrology, 6, (3), 380-392

C Imholt, C Soulsby, IA Malcolm, M Hrachowitz, CN Gibbins, S Langan, D Tetzlaff (2012) Influence of scale on thermal characteristics in a large montane river basin. River Research and Applications, 29, (4), 403-419

C Imholt, IA Malcolm, PJ Bacon, CN Gibbins, C Soulsby, M Miles, RJ Fryer (2011) Does diurnal temperature variability affect growth in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar? Journal of fish biology, 78, (2), 436-448

M Hrachowitz, C Soulsby, C Imholt, IA Malcolm, D Tetzlaff (2010) Thermal regimes in a large upland salmon river: a simple model to identify the influence of landscape controls and climate change on maximum temperatures. Hydrological Processes, 24, (23), 3374-3391

C Imholt, CN Gibbins, IA Malcolm, S Langan, C Soulsby (2010) Influence of riparian cover on stream temperatures and the growth of the mayfly Baetis rhodani in an upland stream. Aquatic ecology, 44, (4), 669-678

DM Hannah, IA Malcolm, C Bradley (2009) Seasonal hyporheic temperature dynamics over riffle bedforms. Hydrological processes, 23, (15), 2178-2194

WSC Gurney, PJ Bacon, G Tyldesley, AF Youngson (2008) Process-based modelling of decadal trends in growth, survival, and smolting of wild salmon (Salmo salar) parr in a Scottish upland stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 65(12)

DM Hannah, IA Malcolm, C Soulsby, AF Youngson (2008) A comparison of forest and moorland stream microclimate, heat exchanges and thermal dynamics, Hydrological Processes, 22, (7), 919-940

IA Malcolm, C Soulsby, DM Hannah, PJ Bacon, AF Youngson, D Tetzlaff. (2008) The influence of riparian woodland on stream temperatures: implications for the performance of juvenile salmonids. Hydrological processes, 22, (7), 968-979

PJ Bacon, WSC Gurney, W Jones, IS McLaren, AF Youngson (2005) Seasonal growth patterns of wild juvenile fish: partitioning among explanatory variables based on individual growth trajectories of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Journal of Animal Ecology 74 (1) 1-11

D Tetzlaff, C Soulsby, AF Youngson, C Gibbins, PJ Bacon, IA Malcolm, S Langan (2005) Variability in stream discharge and temperature: a preliminary assessment of the implications for juvenile and spawning Atlantic salmon. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 9, 193-208

DM Hannah, IA Malcolm, C Soulsby, AF Youngson (2004) Heat exchanges and temperatures within a salmon spawning stream in the Cairngorms, Scotland: seasonal and subseasonal dynamics. River Research and Applications, 20, (6), 635-652

IA Malcolm, DM Hannah, MJ Donaghy, C Soulsby, AF Youngson (2004) The influence of riparian woodland on the spatial and temporal variability of stream water temperatures in an upland salmon stream. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 8 (3), 449-459

IA Malcolm, C Soulsby, AF Youngson (2002) Thermal regime in the hyporheic zone of two contrasting salmonid spawning streams: ecological and hydrological implications. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 9, (1), 1-10

Selected conference papers

F.L. Jackson, I.A. Malcolm, C.P.Millar, David.M.Hannah (2015) Understanding and Predicting Spatio-Temporal Variability of Temperature in Scotland's Rivers: Implications for Riparian Land ManagementAmerican Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2015

G Garner, IA Malcolm, DM Hannah, JP Sadler (2014) Longitudinal Water Temperature and Heat Flux Patterns within a Semi Natural Forested Stream Reach. British Hydrological Society Twelfth National Symposium, Challenging Hydrological Theory and Practice.

G Garner, IA Malcolm, DM Hannah, JP Sadler (2014) Influence of riparian shading scenarios on stream heat exchange processes and water temperature dynamics. British Hydrological Society Twelfth National Symposium, Challenging Hydrological Theory and Practice.

FL Jackson, IA Malcolm, HL Anderson, DM Hannah (2014) A novel approach for the design of large scale temperature monitoring networks. British Hydrological Society Twelfth National Symposium, Challenging Hydrological Theory and Practice.

C Millar, IA Malcolm, KMH Kantola, DM Hannah, RJ Fryer (2014) The influence of forest harvesting on stream temperatures. British Hydrological Society Twelfth National Symposium, Challenging Hydrological Theory and Practice.

G Garner, IA Malcolm, DM Hannah, JP Sadler (2013) Longitudinal Water Temperature and Heat Flux Patterns within a Semi-Natural Forested Stream Reach. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts 1, 0944

G Garner, DM Hannah, IA Malcolm, JP Sadler (2012) Inter-Annual Variability in Stream Water Temperature, Microclimate and Heat Exchanges: a Comparison of Forest and Moorland Environments. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 1, 05

G Garner, DM Hannah, IA Malcolm, JP Sadler (2012) Inter-annual variability of stream temperature, micro-climate and heat exchange dynamics: a comparison of forest and moorland environments. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts 14, 11257

G Garner, DM Hannah, IA Malcom, JP Sadler (2012) Inter-annual variability in spring-summer stream water temperature microclimate and heat exchanges: a comparison of forest and moorland environments. British Hydrological Society Eleventh National Symposium, Hydrology for a changing world

DM Hannah, K Kantola, IA Malcolm (2012) River temperature processes under contrasting riparian land cover: linking microclimate, heat exchange and water thermal dynamics. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 1, 1575

AI Malcolm, C Millar, DM Hannah, R Fryer (2012) Quantifying the influence of forest removal on stream temperature. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts 1, 01

C Millar, IA Malcolm, K Kantola, DM Hannah, RJ Fryer (2012) The influence of forest harvesting on stream temperatures. British Hydrological Society Eleventh National Symposium, Hydrology for a changing world.

KM Kantola, DM Hannah, IA Malcolm (2010) Headwater river temperature response to forestry management (Loch Ard, Scottish Highlands). EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, 12, 597

PJ Bacon, WSC Gurney, J Thorley, D Tetzlaff, IA Malcolm, C Gibbins (2007) Salmonid population dynamics, river temperatures and flows: extracting information from the variability of fish Sizes-At-Ages. Geophysical Research Abstracts 9, 01528

IA Malcolm (2007) The Influence of Riparian Woodland on Stream Temperatures: Implications for juvenile salmonids. Geophysical Research Abstracts 9, 05294

Selected talks

Summary of a wide variety of work by MSS-FFL and collaborators. Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network (SRTMN): An example of a national-local collaboration to inform fisheries management under climate change. Fisheries Management Scotland Annual Meeting; Nurturing the next Generation, SNH Battleby, Perth. 4th April, 2018

Jackson F.L., Fryer R.J., Hannah D.M., Malcolm I.A. Assessing the transferability of spatial statistical river temperature models between catchments. Hydro-Eco, University of Birmingham. 19th – 23rd June 2017.

Jackson F.L., Fryer R.J., Hannah D.M., Millar C.P., Malcolm I.A. National Daily Maximum River Temperature Model for Scotland. Scottish Fisheries Coordination Centre Annual Meeting, Faskally House, Pitlochry. 7th – 8th February, 2018.

Summary of a wide variety of work by MSS-FFL and collaborators. Where should I plant trees? Tools and methods to decide where to plant trees to protect rivers and fisheries under climate change: integrating knowledge from statistical and process based modelling. Scottish Fisheries Coordination Centre Annual Meeting, Faskally House, Pitlochry. 7th – 8th February, 2018.

Summary of a wide variety of work by MSS-FFL and collaborators. Scotland River Temperature Monitoring Network (SRTMN): An example of a national-local collaboration to inform fisheries management under climate change. Fisheries Management Scotland Annual Meeting; Nurturing the next Generation, SNH Battleby, Perth. 4th April, 2018.

Jackson F.L., Fryer R.J., Hannah D.M., Millar C.P., Malcolm I.A. Development of a national river temperature model to inform the management of Scotland’s Atlantic Salmon rivers under climate change. Scottish Freshwater Group, University of Stirling, Stirling. 19th-20th April, 2018.

Related webpages

https://rivertemperature.net/ Heterogeneity of Temperature in Rivers and Streams. HoTRiverS is a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Independent Fellowship hosted by the University of Birmingham and funded by the European Commission through the Horizon 2020 initiative, with support also from Marine Scotland Science.


First published: 5 Aug 2020 Last updated: 8 Sep 2021 -