1. World Health Organization. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/ [Accessed 5th August 2020]
2. World Health Organization. Child and adolescent mental health. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/mental_health/maternal-child/child_adolescent/en/#:~:text=Worldwide%2010%2D20%25%20of%20children,young%20people%20in%20all%20regions [Accessed 5th August 2020]
3. Informations services division. Body Mass Index of Primary 1 Children in Scotland School Year 2018/19. 2019. Available from: https://beta.isdscotland.org/media/2834/2019-12-10-p1-bmi-statistics-publication-report.pdf [Accessed 7th August 2020]
4. Sellers R, Warne N, Pickles A, Maughan B, Thapar A, Collishaw S. Cross-cohort change in adolescent outcomes for children with mental health problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2019;60(7):813-21.
5. Martin A, Booth JN, Young D, Revie M, Boyter AC, Johnston B, et al. Associations between obesity and cognition in the pre‐school years. Obesity. 2016;24(1):207-14.
6. Cooper AR, Goodman A, Page AS, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, van Sluijs EM, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth: the International children's accelerometry database (ICAD). International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. 2015;12(1):113.
7. Aubert S, Barnes JD, Abdeta C, Abi Nader P, Adeniyi AF, Aguilar-Farias N, et al. Global matrix 3.0 physical activity report card grades for children and youth: results and analysis from 49 countries. Journal of physical activity and health. 2018;15(Supplement 2):S251-S73.
8. Mygind L, Kjeldsted E, Hartmeyer R, Mygind E, Bølling M, Bentsen P. Mental, physical and social health benefits of immersive nature-experience for children and adolescents: A systematic review and quality assessment of the evidence. Health & Place. 2019;58:102136.
9. Tillmann S, Tobin D, Avison W, Gilliland J. Mental health benefits of interactions with nature in children and teenagers: a systematic review. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018;72(10):958-66.
10. Truelove S, Bruijns BA, Vanderloo LM, O'Brien KT, Johnson AM, Tucker P. Physical activity and sedentary time during childcare outdoor play sessions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive medicine. 2018;108:74-85.
11. Gray C, Gibbons R, Larouche R, Sandseter EBH, Bienenstock A, Brussoni M, et al. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health. 2015;12(6):6455-74.
12. Vanderloo LM, Tucker P, Johnson AM, Burke SM, Irwin JD. Environmental influences on Preschoolers' physical activity levels in various early-learning facilities. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 2015;86(4):360-70.
13. Brussoni M, Gibbons R, Gray C, Ishikawa T, Sandseter EBH, Bienenstock A, et al. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health. 2015;12(6):6423-54.
14. Timmons BW, LeBlanc AG, Carson V, Connor Gorber S, Dillman C, Janssen I, et al. Systematic review of physical activity and health in the early years (aged 0–4 years). Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2012;37(4):773-92.
15. McCurdy LE, Winterbottom KE, Mehta SS, Roberts JR. Using nature and outdoor activity to improve children's health. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care. 2010;40(5):102-17.
16. Chawla L. Benefits of nature contact for children. Journal of Planning Literature. 2015;30(4):433-52.
17. Dankiw KA, Tsiros MD, Baldock KL, Kumar S. The impacts of unstructured nature play on health in early childhood development: A systematic review. Plos One. 2020;15(2).
18. Fjørtoft I. Landscape as playscape: The effects of natural environments on children's play and motor development. Children Youth and Environments. 2004;14(2):21-44.
19. World Health Organization. Reducing inequities in health across the life-course: Early years, childhood and adolescence. Denmark: World health Organization. 2020. Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/457289/Reducing-inequities-in-health-across-the-life-course.pdf [Accessed 5th August 2020]
20. Scottish Government. Out to Play - creating outdoor play experiences for children: practical guidance. Edinburgh: Scottish Government; 2020 [Available from: https://www.gov.scot/binaries/content/documents/govscot/publications/advice-and-guidance/2020/02/out-play-practical-guidance-creating-outdoor-play-experiences-children/documents/out-play-practical-guidance-creating-outdoor-play-experiences-early-learning-childcare/out-play-practical-guidance-creating-outdoor-play-experiences-early-learning-childcare/govscot%3Adocument/out-play-practical-guidance-creating-outdoor-play-experiences-early-learning-childcare.pdf?forceDownload=true [Accessed 3rd August 2020]
21. Howe N, Perlman M, Bergeron C, Burns S. Scotland Embarks on a National Outdoor Play Initiative: Educator Perspectives. Early Education and Development. 2020:1-15.
22. Johnstone A, McCrorie P, Cordovil R, Fjørtoft I, Iivonen S, Jidovtseff B, et al. Nature-based early childhood education for child health, wellbeing and development: a mixed-methods systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews. 2020;9(1):1-6.
23. Sobel D. Learning to walk between the raindrops: The value of nature preschools and forest kindergartens. Children Youth and Environments. 2014;24(2):228-38.
24. Thomas B, Ciliska D, Dobbins M, Micucci S. A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing. 2004;1(3):176-84.
25. Dixon-Woods M, Shaw RL, Agarwal S, Smith JA. The problem of appraising qualitative research. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2004;13(3):223-5.
26. Campbell M, McKenzie JE, Sowden A, Katikireddi SV, Brennan SE, Ellis S, et al. Synthesis without meta-analysis (SWiM) in systematic reviews: reporting guideline. bmj. 2020;368.
27. Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Akl EA, Kunz R, Vist G, Brozek J, et al. GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction—GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2011;64(4):383-94.
28. Thomas S. Study of the positive effect of work and nature on various aspects of child development at the preschool age. Bulletin de la Societe des sciences medicales du Grand-Duche de Luxembourg. 2008:145-64.
29. رضائی زف, عباسپور ک, یزدانی ش. تأثیر بازی خودانگیخته در طبیعت بر مهارتهای حرکتی ظریف و یکپارچگی بینایی-حرکتی کودکان پیشدبستانی. مجله پژوهش در علوم توانبخشی.14(3):143-50.
30. Weisshaar E, Schaefer A, Scheidt RRW, Bruckner T, Apfelbacher CJ, Diepgen TL. Epidemiology of tick bites and borreliosis in children attending kindergarten or so-called "forest kindergarten'' in southwest Germany. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2006;126(3):584-90.
31. Storli R, Hagen TL. Affordances in outdoor environments and children's physically active play in pre-school. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal. 2010;18(4):445-56.
32. Wishart L, Cabezas-Benalcázar C, Morrissey A-M, Versace VL. Traditional vs naturalised design: a comparison of affordances and physical activity in two preschool playscapes. Landscape Research. 2019;44(8):1031-49.
33. Dowdell K, Gray T, Malone K. Nature and its influence on children's outdoor play. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education. 2011;15(2):24-35.
34. Cordiano TS, Lee A, Wilt J, Elszasz A, Damour LK, Russ SW. Nature-Based Education and Kindergarten Readiness: Nature-Based and Traditional Preschoolers Are Equally Prepared for Kindergarten. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education. 2019;6(3):18-36.
35. Cooper H. An evaluation of Forest School for nursery aged children: University of Nottingham; 2018.
36. Choi B-i, Park J, Kim H-R, Kim H-W, Chung S. The Effects of a Forest Kindergarten Program on the Sleep Habits of Preschool Children. Sleep Medicine Research. 2014;5(1):15-9.
37. Frenkel H, Tandon P, Frumkin H, Vander Stoep A. Illnesses and Injuries at Nature Preschools. Environment and Behavior. 2019;51(8):936-65.
38. Meyer J, Müller U, Macoun S. Comparing classroom context and physical activity in nature and traditional kindergartens. Children, Youth and Environments. 2017;27(3):56-77.
39. Christian H, Lester L, Trost SG, Trapp G, Schipperijn J, Boruff B, et al. Shade coverage, ultraviolet radiation and children's physical activity in early childhood education and care. International Journal of Public Health. 2019;64(9):1325-33.
40. Maatta S, Gubbels J, Ray C, Koivusilta L, Nislin M, Sajaniemi N, et al. Children's physical activity and the preschool physical environment: The moderating role of gender. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2019;47:39-48.
41. Maatta S, Lehto R, Konttinen H, Ray C, Sajaniemi N, Erkkola M, et al. Preschool group practices and preschool children's sedentary time: a cross-sectional study in Finland. BMJ open. 2019;9(12):e032210-e.
42. Brussoni M, Ishikawa T, Brunelle S, Herrington S. Landscapes for play: Effects of an intervention to promote nature-based risky play in early childhood centres. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2017;54:139-50.
43. Elliot E, Ten Eycke K, Chan S, Müller U. Taking kindergartners outdoors: Documenting their explorations and assessing the impact on their ecological awareness. Children Youth and Environments. 2014;24(2):102-22.
44. Ng M, Rosenberg M, Thornton A, Lester L, Trost SG, Bai P, et al. The Effect of Upgrades to Childcare Outdoor Spaces on Preschoolers' Physical Activity: Findings from a Natural Experiment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(2).
45. Müller U, Temple VA, Smith B, Kerns K, Ten Eycke K, Crane J, et al. Effects of nature kindergarten attendance on children's functioning. Children, Youth and Environments. 2017;27(2):47-69.
46. Fyfe-Johnson AL, Saelens BE, Christakis DA, Tandon PS. Physical Activity and Parental Attitudes and Beliefs of Children Attending a Nature Preschool. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education. 2019;6(3):3-17.
47. de Weger A. The relationship between the quality of the outdoor learning environment and physical activity in preschoolers in centre-based early childhood education and care settings: Queensland University of Technology; 2017.
48. Olesen LG, Kristensen PL, Korsholm L, Froberg K. Physical Activity in Children Attending Preschools. Pediatrics. 2013;132(5):E1310-E8.
49. Sugiyama T, Okely AD, Masters JM, Moore GT. Attributes of Child Care Centers and Outdoor Play Areas Associated With Preschoolers' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior. Environment and Behavior. 2012;44(3):334-49.
50. Boldemann C, Blennow M, Dal H, Martensson F, Raustorp A, Yuen K, et al. Impact of preschool environment upon children's physical activity and sun exposure. Preventive Medicine. 2006;42(4):301-8.
51. Luchs A, Fikus M. Differently designed playgrounds and preschooler's physical activity play. Early Child Development and Care. 2018;188(3):281-95.
52. Torkar G, Rejc A. Children's Play and Physical Activity in Traditional and Forest (Natural) Playgrounds. International Journal of Educational Methodology. 2017;3(1):25-30.
53. Wright JH. Affordances for Physically Active Play in an Outdoor, Nature-Rich Preschool. 2019.
54. Cosco NG, Moore RC, Smith WR. Childcare Outdoor Renovation as a Built Environment Health Promotion Strategy: Evaluating the Preventing Obesity by Design Intervention. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2014;28(3):S27-S32.
55. Sando OJ. The outdoor environment and children's health: a multilevel approach. International Journal of Play. 2019;8(1):39-52.
56. Sando OJ, Sandseter EBH. Affordances for physical activity and well-being in the ECEC outdoor environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2020;69.
57. Gubbels JS, Van Kann DH, Cardon G, Kremers SP. Activating childcare environments for all children: The importance of children's individual needs. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018;15(7):1400.
58. Agostini F, Minelli M, Mandolesi R. Outdoor Education in Italian Kindergartens: How Teachers Perceive Child Developmental Trajectories. Frontiers in Psychology. 2018;9.
59. Ene-Voiculescu C, Ene-Voiculescu V. The impact of outdoor play activities in school children. Scientific Bulletin" Mircea cel Batran" Naval Academy. 2015;18(1):325.
60. Fjørtoft I. The natural environment as a playground for children: The impact of outdoor play activities in pre-primary school children. Early childhood education journal. 2001;29(2):111-7.
61. Lysklett OB, Berg A, Moe B. Motor competence and physical fitness among children attending nature preschools and traditional preschools. International Journal of Play. 2019;8(1):53-64.
62. Scholz U, Krombholz H. Untersuchung zur körperlichen Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern aus Waldkindergärten und Regelkindergärten. Motorik-Zeitschrift Für Motopädagogik Und Mototherapie. 2007;1:17-22.
63. Ernst J. Early childhood educators' use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments: an exploratory study of beliefs, practices, and barriers. Environmental Education Research. 2014;20(6):735-52.
64. Soderstrom M, Boldemann C, Sahlin U, Martensson F, Raustorp A, Blennow M. The quality of the outdoor environment influences childrens health - a cross-sectional study of preschools. Acta Paediatrica. 2013;102(1):83-91.
65. Boldeman C, Dal H, Wester U. Swedish pre-school children's UVR exposure - a comparison between two outdoor environments. Photodermatology Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. 2004;20(1):2-8.
66. Moen KH, Bakke HK, Bakke O, Fors EA. Preschool children's sickness absenteeism from Norwegian regular and outdoor day care centres: A comparative study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2007;35(5):490-6.
67. Ernst J, Burcak F. Young Children's Contributions to Sustainability: The Influence of Nature Play on Curiosity, Executive Function Skills, Creative Thinking, and Resilience. Sustainability. 2019;11(15).
68. Burgess E, Ernst J. Beyond Traditional School Readiness: How Nature Preschools Help Prepare Children for Academic Success. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education. 2020;7(2):17-33.
69. Zamzow J, Ernst J. Supporting School Readiness Naturally: Exploring Executive Function Growth in Nature Preschools. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education. 2020;7(2):6-16.
70. Ernst J, Johnson M, Burcak F. The Nature and Nurture of Resilience: Exploring the Impact of Nature Preschools on Young Children's Protective Factors. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education. 2019;6(2):7-18.
71. Wojciehowski M, Ernst J. Creative by Nature: Investigating the Impact of Nature Preschools on Young Children's Creative Thinking. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education. 2018;6(1):3-20.
72. Carrus G, Pirchio S, Passiatore Y, Mastandrea S, Scopelliti M, Bartoli G. Contact with nature and children's wellbeing in educational settings. Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;8(3):304.
73. Martensson F, Boldemann C, Soderstrom M, Blennow M, Englund JE, Grahn P. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children. Health & Place. 2009;15(4):1149-57.
74. Park S-A, Cho M-K, Yoo MH, Kim S-Y, Im E-A, Song J-E, et al. Horticultural Activity Program for Improving Emotional Intelligence, Prosocial Behavior, and Scientific Investigation Abilities and Attitudes in Kindergarteners. Horttechnology. 2016;26(6):754-61.
75. Lillard AJS. Growing Minds: Evaluating the Effect of a School Garden Program on Children's Ability to Delay Gratification and Influence Visual Motor Integration 2016.
76. Nazaruk SK, Klim-Klimaszewska A. Direct learning about nature in 6-year-old children living in urban and rural environments and the level of their knowledge and skills. Journal of Baltic Science Education. 2017;16(4):524.
77. Yılmaz S, Çığ O, Bolat EY. The effect of a short-term nature-based education program on young children's biophilic tendencies. Elementary Education Online. 2020;19(3):1729-39.
78. Barrable A, Booth D. Nature Connection in Early Childhood: A Quantitative Cross-Sectional Study. Sustainability. 2020;12(1).
79. Giusti M, Barthel S, Marcus L. Nature routines and affinity with the biosphere: a case study of preschool children in Stockholm. Children Youth and Environments. 2014;24(3):16-42.
80. Rice CS, Torquati JC. Assessing connections between young children's affinity for nature and their experiences in natural outdoor settings in preschools. Children Youth and Environments. 2013;23(2):78-102.
81. Robertson N, Morrissey A-M, Moore D. From boats to bushes: environmental elements supportive of children's sociodramatic play outdoors. Childrens Geographies. 2020;18(2):234-46.
82. Drown KKC, Christensen KM. Dramatic play affordances of natural and manufactured outdoor settings for preschool-aged children. Children Youth and Environments. 2014;24(2):53-77.
83. Luchs A, Fikus M. A comparative study of active play on differently designed playgrounds. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning. 2013;13(3):206-22.
84. Dyment J, O'Connell TS. The impact of playground design on play choices and behaviors of pre-school children. Childrens Geographies. 2013;11(3):263-80.
85. Morrissey A-M, Scott C, Rahimi M. A comparison of sociodramatic play processes of preschoolers in a naturalized and a traditional outdoor space. International Journal of Play. 2017;6(2):177-97.
86. Zamani Z. Affordance of Cognitive Play by Natural and Manufactured Elements and Settings in Preschool Outdoor Learning Environments. 2013.
87. Herrington S, Studtmann K. Landscape interventions: new directions for the design of children's outdoor play environments. Landscape and urban planning. 1998;42(2-4):191-205.
88. Liu X. Healthy Designed Environments for Pre-school Children: Investigating Ways to Optimize the Restoration Experience in Nature-based Outdoor Play Environments. 2020.
89. Puhakka R, Rantala O, Roslund MI, Rajaniemi J, Laitinen OH, Sinkkonen A, et al. Greening of daycare yards with biodiverse materials affords well-being, play and environmental relationships. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019;16(16):2948.
90. Sandseter EBH. Affordances for Risky Play in Preschool: The Importance of Features in the Play Environment. Early Childhood Education Journal. 2009;36(5):439-46.
91. Bjørgen K. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3–5 years olds in kindergarten. Springerplus. 2016;5(1):950.
92. Streelasky J. A forest‐based environment as a site of literacy and meaning making for kindergarten children. Literacy. 2019;53(2):95-101.
93. Maynard T, Waters J, Clement J. Child-initiated learning, the outdoor environment and the 'underachieving'child. Early years. 2013;33(3):212-25.
94. Logan SW, Webster EK, Getchell N, Pfeiffer KA, Robinson LE. Relationship between fundamental motor skill competence and physical activity during childhood and adolescence: A systematic review. Kinesiology Review. 2015;4(4):416-26.
95. Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Cliff DP, Barnett LM, Okely AD. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents. Sports medicine. 2010;40(12):1019-35.
96. Elmesmari R, Martin A, Reilly JJ, Paton JY. Comparison of accelerometer measured levels of physical activity and sedentary time between obese and non-obese children and adolescents: a systematic review. BMC pediatrics. 2018;18(1):106.
97. Booth J, Leary S, Joinson C, Ness A, Tomporowski P, Boyle J, et al. Associations between objectively measured physical activity and academic attainment in adolescents from a UK cohort. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014;48(3):265-70.
98. Caird J, Kavanagh J, Oliver K, Oliver S, O'Mara A, Stansfield C, et al. Childhood obesity and educational attainment: a systematic review. 2011.
99. BBC. Friluftsliv: The Nordic concept of getting outdoors. 2017 Available from: https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20171211-friluftsliv-the-nordic-concept-of-getting-outdoors [Accessed 26th October 2020]
There is a problem
Thanks for your feedback