The Scottish Health Survey 2011: Volume 1 - Adults

Annual report of the Scottish Health Survey for 2011. Volume focussing on adult health

This document is part of a collection


1. National Performance Framework: Changes to the National Indicator Set, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2012. [online] Available from: See also:

2. See:

3. See:

4. See:

5. Gray, L. and Leyland, A. (2009). Chapter 4: Smoking. In Bromley, C., Bradshaw, P. and Given, L. [eds.] The 2008 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government.

6. Miller, M. (2010). Chapter 4: Smoking. In Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. [eds.] The 2009 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government.

7. Marryat, L. (2011). Chapter 4: Smoking. In Bromley, C. and Given, L. [eds.] The 2010 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government.

8. See:

9. See:

10. The consultation uses the term "standardised" packaging to reflect the fact that the proposals would not in fact introduce completely plain packaging, but would instead introduce standardised formats for brand names and coloured graphic health warnings. However, plain packaging is the term that has more commonly been used in the research literature and campaign materials to date.

11. See:

12. Page v in: Moodie, C., Stead, M., Bauld, L., McNeill, A., Angus, K. Hinds, K. Kwan, I. Thomas, J., Hastings, G. and O'Mara-Eves, A. (2012). Plain Tobacco Packaging: A Systematic Review. Public Health Research Consortium. Available from:

13. The 2007 Better Health, Better Care action plan for improving health and health care in Scotland set out how NHS Scotland's HEAT performance management system (based around a series of targets against which the performance of its individual Boards are measured) would feed into the Government's overarching objectives. The HEAT targets derive their name from the four strands in the performance framework: the Health of the population; Efficiency and productivity, resources and workforce; Access to services and waiting times; and Treatment and quality of services.

14. See:

15. NHSScotland HEAT Targets due for delivery in 2010/11 - Summary of performance. (2012). NHS Scotland Performance and Business management. Available from:

16. Analyses of data from the Health Survey for England 1996-2004 demonstrated that the optimal thresholds (in terms of maximising both sensitivity - identifying smokers - and specificity - correctly identifying non-smokers) to distinguish smokers from non-smokers varied, depending on smoking prevalence, with a gradient from 8ng/ml to 18ng/ml with increasing social disadvantage. The optimal threshold also varied by presence (18ng/ml) or absence (5ng/ml) of smoking in the home. Overall, the best threshold for general use was 12ng/ml.

17. Scotland's People - Annual report: Result from the 2011 Scottish Household Survey. (2012) Edinburgh: Scottish Government. Available from:

18. MacGregor, A. and Wardle, H. Chapter 2: Smoking. In Bromley, C., Shelton, N. and Sproston, K. (Eds.) (2003). The Scottish Health Survey 2003 - Volume 2: Adults. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.

19. Geometric means can only be calculated for positive numbers. The cases in the dataset with values of zero were therefore converted to 0.05 prior to the calculation. 0.05ng/ml is the lowest value for cotinine detectable by the tests used in the survey.


Email: Julie Ramsay

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