Information

Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2013

The SSCQ gathers survey responses from identical questions in the Scottish Crime and Justice Survey, the Scottish Health Survey and the Scottish Household Survey into one output. SSCQ provides reliable and detailed information on the composition, characteristics and attitudes of Scottish households and adults across a number of topic areas including equality characteristics, housing, employment and perceptions of health and crime, and enables detailed sub-national analysis.

This document is part of a collection


4 Core Equality Questions

This chapter presents breakdowns of SSCQ data on:

and further information on the following sections with reference to supplementary tables[29]:

All reported differences are statistically significant unless otherwise stated.

Country of Birth

Details of the aggregate categories presented here are provided in section 6.5.

Data on country of birth was collected in the 2011 Census and is available through Scotland's Census website.[30] Country of birth information has been reported in a range of Census 2011 statistical outputs; for example, a report on the characteristics of recent and established migrants in Scotland.[31]

National Records of Scotland furthermore provide population projections.[32] A comparison of SSCQ and census findings is provided in Annex A, Table A.3.

There are several advantages of using country of birth data in migration research as a proxy for country of origin: The meaning of 'country of birth' is clear and unambiguous, and people only have one place of birth, which lessens the risk of double counting.

Ethnic Group

Ethnicity is a complex issue. There is no consensus about what constitutes an 'ethnic group'. Research shows that it means different things to different people, which can depend on the context or situation, and understanding of the term evolves over time. It is diverse, encompassing aspects of identity, race, ancestry, history and culture. Ethnic group statistics are important for monitoring discrimination and inequality, and informing policy formulation and service delivery.

Details of the aggregate categories presented by SSCQ are provided in section 6.6.

Data on ethnic group was collected in the 2011 Census and is available through Scotland's Census website.30 The Scottish Government carried out a comprehensive equality analysis of this data.[33] A comparison of SSCQ and census findings is provided in Annex A, Table A.4.

Religion

There are several different concepts of religion that can be measured in social surveys. These include affiliation, belonging, belief and practice. It is important to be clear about what concept is being measured.

The Scottish Government's major household surveys ask specifically about religious belonging and this can be interpreted as both loose self-identification and active or formal belonging to a religious group. Statistics on religion are important for monitoring discrimination and inequality, informing policy formulation and service delivery.

Details of the aggregate categories presented by SSCQ are provided in section 6.6.

Data on religion was collected in the 2011 Census and is available through Scotland's Census website.30 The Scottish Government carried out a comprehensive equality analysis of this data.33 A comparison of SSCQ and census findings is provided in Annex A, Table A.5.

Sexual Orientation

Sexual orientation is a combination of emotional, romantic, sexual or affectionate attraction or feelings towards another person. It is important to acknowledge that sexual orientation is not just related to sex but is also about a person's identity. How a person determines their sexual orientation can be based on any combination of the above attractions, feelings or behaviours. It can be fluid over time and in different contexts, and an individual may not even know what their sexual orientation is.

Self-perceived sexual identity is a subjective view of oneself: it is about who a person is, not what they do. It is important to be clear that the question is not specifically about sexual behaviour or attraction, although these aspects might relate to the formation of identity. It is also important to note that a person can have a sexual identity while not being sexually active.

The question on self-identified sexual orientation was introduced into the large Scottish population surveys to provide statistics to underpin the equality monitoring responsibilities of public sector organisations and to assess the disadvantage or relative discrimination experienced by the lesbian, gay and bisexual population. Despite this positive step in collecting such information, it is felt that the figures are likely to under-report the percentage of lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) people within society due to a number of reasons, including the following: Asking about sexual orientation/identity is a new development in national surveys and such questions can be seen as intrusive and personal.

There is still significant prejudice and discrimination against LGB people in society. In a context where some LGB people will not have told friends and family about their sexual identity, there is a real question about whether LGB people generally would want to be open with an interviewer. The default option for being uncertain about one's sexual orientation may be to respond 'straight/heterosexual' rather than to say 'Don't know / not sure'. Particular LGB people are still less likely to be open where they belong to groups or communities where an LGB identity is less acceptable.

4.1 Country of Birth

Around four in five respondents in SSCQ 2013 were born in Scotland (81%), one in ten in the rest of the UK (11%) and less than one in twenty each in the rest of the EU (3.7%) and the rest of the world (4.4%), see Table 4.1. Scottish born adults made up a larger proportion of the population in the most deprived areas (87%) than in the least deprived areas (77%), while adults born in the rest of the UK formed only 4.8% of the population in the most deprived and 15% in the least deprived areas, see Table 4.1 and supplementary table S1.[34]

Adults born in the rest of the UK formed nearly a quarter (23%) of remote rural communities, a much larger proportion than in urban areas (9.1%), see Table 4.1 and supplementary table S1. The largest groups of adults from the rest of the EU and the world lived in large urban areas, and formed a much larger proportion of private tenants (both 13%) than social tenants (3.9% and 2.8%) or other tenure types.

Table 4.1: Country of birth

  Response % Totals
  Scotland Rest of UK Rest of EU Rest of World Adults Sample
All 81.1 10.8 3.7 4.4 4,398,900 21,038
Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
1: most deprived fifth of households 86.7 4.8 4.4 3.9 859,800 3,942
2 84.4 7.8 4.2 3.5 871,600 4,305
3 78.9 12.9 3.2 5.0 902,300 4,615
4 78.9 13.5 3.3 4.3 891,700 4,454
5: least deprived fifth of households 76.7 14.7 3.3 5.4 873,500 3,722
Urban/Rural Classification
Large Urban Area 78.0 9.1 5.4 7.5 1,728,000 7,005
Other Urban Area 86.0 8.5 2.9 2.6 1,333,700 6,359
Accessible Small Town 84.9 10.6 2.3 2.1 402,400 1,921
Remote Small Town 80.1 13.2 3.9 2.4 165,300 1,204
Accessible Rural 80.8 15.0 2.2 2.0 483,000 2,334
Remote Rural 72.4 23.4 1.5 2.6 286,500 2,215
Detailed Tenure
Owned outright 84.5 12.1 1.1 2.4 1,265,100 6,894
Mortgaged 83.0 11.0 2.2 3.7 1,543,600 6,445
Social rented 87.5 5.7 3.9 2.8 950,900 4,889
Private rented 58.0 15.8 13.0 13.2 583,300 2,558
Unknown rented 80.9 9.4 2.3 7.4 46,800 222
Ethnic Group
White: Scottish 96.7 2.4 0.3 0.6 3,501,200 16,949
White: Other British 28.6 66.5 1.6 3.2 531,400 2,631
White: Polish . * 99.4 * 55,800 211
White: Other* 6.2 * 51.8 * 155,300 661
Asian** 13.9 8.2 . 77.4 99,800 359
All other ethnic groups*** 8.9 8.4 11.3 71.1 51,300 209
Religion
None 81.8 12.4 2.6 3.2 1,891,400 8,521
Church of Scotland 94.2 4.5 0.3 1.0 1,352,800 7,108
Roman Catholic 78.0 6.7 11.9 3.4 679,700 3,001
Other Christian 49.0 33.8 7.2 10.0 323,200 1,779
Muslim 23.2 * * 62.7 52,500 176
Other 40.5 * * 35.3 87,000 394

Footnotes

Ethnic Groups

* 'White: Other' includes ‘White: Irish’, ‘White: Gypsy/Traveller’ and ‘White: Other White Ethnic Group’
** 'Asian' includes the categories Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British
*** 'All other ethnic groups' includes categories within the 'Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Group', ‘African’, ‘Caribbean or Black’, and ‘Other Ethnic Group’ sections.

Country of Birth

Scotland: Respondents who specifically list “Scotland” as their country of birth
Rest of UK: England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Great Britain/United Kingdom (Not Otherwise Specified)
Rest of EU: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus (European Union), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden
Rest of World: All other responses (excluding refusals)

Religion

The "Other" group includes Hindu, Buddhist, Pagan, Jewish, Sikh, and "Another religion" responses

4.2 Ethnic Group

Across Scotland, four in five (80%) of people identified as 'White: Scottish', one in eight (12%) as 'White: other British, 1.3% as 'White: Polish', 3.5% as 'White: Other', 2.3% as 'Asian' and 1.2% as another ethnic group (see Table 4.2 and grouping details in section 6.6).

The proportions of different ethnic groups varied significantly with area deprivation. 39% of adults identifying as 'White: Polish' lived in the most deprived fifth of areas, compared with only 6.3% in the least deprived fifth (see supplementary table S2).[35] Adults identifying as 'White: Scottish' were also more likely to live in deprived areas (21% vs 19%). On the other hand, adults who identified in the following ethnic groups were more likely to live in the least deprived areas: "White: other British" (10% in most vs. 27% in least deprived fifth or areas), 'White: other' (12% vs. 27%) and 'Asian' (15% vs 27%) see Table 4.2 and supplementary table S1.

95% of people who were born in Scotland identified as 'White: Scottish', as did 18% of those born in the rest of the UK, 6.9% born in the rest of the EU and 11% born in the rest of the world. See Table 4.2.

Table 4.2: Ethnic Group

  Response % Totals
  White: Scottish White: Other British White: Polish White: Other* Asian** All other ethnic groups*** Adults Sample
All 79.6 12.1 1.3 3.5 2.3 1.2 4,398,900 21,038
Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
1: most deprived fifth of households 85.4 5.9 2.6 2.1 1.7 2.0 859,800 3,942
2 83.2 9.2 1.7 3.2 1.8 0.9 871,600 4,305
3 78.2 13.5 0.9 3.8 2.5 1.0 902,300 4,615
4 76.9 15.4 0.8 3.7 2.3 0.7 891,700 4,454
5: least deprived fifth of households 74.4 16.2 0.4 4.8 3.0 1.1 873,500 3,722
Detailed Tenure
Owned outright 82.2 14.2 0.0 1.8 1.2 0.5 1,265,100 6,894
Mortgaged 81.2 12.1 0.7 2.8 2.4 0.7 1,543,600 6,445
Social rented 87.2 6.3 2.1 1.9 0.9 1.5 950,900 4,889
Private rented 57.4 16.7 4.2 11.9 6.4 3.3 583,300 2,558
Unknown rented 77.4 12.2 . 2.5 5.0 2.9 46,800 222
Country of Birth
Scotland 94.9 4.3 . 0.3 0.4 0.1 3,565,900 17,196
Rest of UK 17.7 74.5 * * 1.7 0.9 474,500 2,363
Rest of EU 6.9 5.1 34.4 49.9 . 3.6 161,200 656
Rest of World 11.0 8.8 * * 39.8 18.8 194,200 808
Religion
None 81.2 13.4 0.3 3.3 1.0 0.7 1,891,400 8,521
Church of Scotland 91.1 7.8 . 0.7 0.1 0.2 1,352,800 7,108
Roman Catholic 77.5 6.6 6.5 7.2 1.0 1.2 679,700 3,001
Other Christian 49.6 34.2 1.6 7.9 1.8 4.9 323,200 1,779
Muslim 4.4 3.2 * * 71.7 15.2 52,500 176
Other 40.3 17.8 * * 32.1 2.4 87,000 394

Footnotes

Ethnic Groups

* 'White: Other' includes ‘White: Irish’, ‘White: Gypsy/Traveller’ and ‘White: Other White Ethnic Group’
** 'Asian' includes the categories Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British
*** 'All other ethnic groups' includes categories within the 'Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Group', ‘African’, ‘Caribbean or Black’, and ‘Other Ethnic Group’ sections.

Country of Birth

Scotland: Respondents who specifically list “Scotland” as their country of birth
Rest of UK: England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Great Britain/United Kingdom (Not Otherwise Specified)
Rest of EU: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus (European Union), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden
Rest of World: All other responses (excluding refusals)

Religion

The "Other" group includes Hindu, Buddhist, Pagan, Jewish, Sikh, and "Another religion" responses

4.3 Religion

Across Scotland, 43% of adults said they had no religion, 31% stated Church of Scotland, 16% Roman Catholic, 7.3% other Christian, 1.2% Muslim and 2.0% another religion, see Table 4.3.

23% of adults who declared Church of Scotland as their religion lived in the least deprived fifth of areas, compared with only 17% in the most deprived areas. For people identifying as Roman Catholic, proportions were reversed (16% in least deprived fifth versus 30% in most deprived fifth). See supplementary table S1.[36]

Table 4.3: Religion

  Response % Totals
  None Church of Scotland Roman Catholic Other Christian Muslim Other Adults Sample
All 43.0 30.8 15.5 7.3 1.2 2.0 4,398,900 21,038
Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation - Quintiles
1: most deprived fifth of households 41.9 26.0 23.7 5.4 1.3 1.4 859,800 3,942
2 45.5 27.8 17.5 6.3 0.7 2.0 871,600 4,305
3 45.5 30.4 12.7 8.0 0.9 2.3 902,300 4,615
4 41.9 34.5 11.5 8.6 1.5 1.9 891,700 4,454
5: least deprived fifth of households 40.1 34.9 12.2 8.4 1.6 2.3 873,500 3,722
Country of Birth
Scotland 43.4 35.7 14.9 4.4 0.3 1.0 3,565,900 17,196
Rest of UK 49.6 12.7 9.6 23.0 * * 474,500 2,363
Rest of EU 30.0 2.5 50.2 14.4 * * 161,200 656
Rest of World 31.6 6.9 11.9 16.6 17.0 15.8 194,200 808
Ethnic Group
White: Scottish 43.9 35.2 15.0 4.6 0.1 1.0 3,501,200 16,949
White: Other British 47.5 19.8 8.4 20.8 0.3 2.9 531,400 2,631
White: Polish 9.9 . 78.9 9.5 * * 55,800 211
White: Other* 40.2 6.2 31.5 16.4 * * 155,300 661
Asian** 19.3 1.9 6.9 5.7 37.7 28.0 99,800 359
All other ethnic groups*** 27.4 5.9 15.9 31.0 15.6 4.1 51,300 209
Sexual Orientation
Heterosexual 43.0 31.1 15.4 7.3 1.1 1.9 4,237,300 20,178
LGB & other 53.2 15.5 13.1 10.2 1.1 6.6 65,700 292
Respondent Age and Sex
Female 16-24 57.5 16.6 16.1 6.2 1.9 1.5 312,600 981
Female 25-34 55.4 12.8 18.3 8.2 2.0 3.2 346,000 1,730
Female 35-44 48.0 23.1 16.9 7.8 2.0 2.1 363,100 1,800
Female 45-54 38.6 35.6 15.7 7.5 0.7 1.9 407,200 2,077
Female 55-64 30.7 42.0 15.9 8.4 0.5 2.1 337,900 1,920
Female 65-74 20.7 51.5 16.3 9.9 0.4 1.1 268,300 1,691
Female 75+ 13.4 60.1 14.3 10.0 0.2 1.4 254,500 1,556
Male 16-24 63.4 13.4 13.0 5.7 1.5 2.2 316,200 799
Male 25-34 59.1 12.2 18.1 5.5 2.3 2.6 334,000 1,243
Male 35-44 52.9 18.7 16.8 6.3 2.3 2.4 344,300 1,410
Male 45-54 47.6 29.2 14.6 5.9 0.7 1.8 387,800 1,671
Male 55-64 36.2 41.5 13.3 7.1 0.4 1.4 324,000 1,673
Male 65-74 30.9 45.7 12.1 8.7 0.4 1.9 239,000 1,460
Male 75+ 23.9 55.0 11.5 7.1 0.6 1.4 164,000 1,027

Footnotes

Religion

The "Other" group includes Hindu, Buddhist, Pagan, Jewish, Sikh, and "Another religion" responses

Ethnic Groups

* 'White: Other' includes ‘White: Irish’, ‘White: Gypsy/Traveller’ and ‘White: Other White Ethnic Group’
** 'Asian' includes the categories Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British
*** 'All other ethnic groups' includes categories within the 'Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Group', ‘African’, ‘Caribbean or Black’, and ‘Other Ethnic Group’ sections.

Country of Birth

Scotland: Respondents who specifically list “Scotland” as their country of birth
Rest of UK: England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Great Britain/United Kingdom (Not Otherwise Specified)
Rest of EU: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus (European Union), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden
Rest of World: All other responses (excluding refusals)

4.4 Sexual Orientation

Across Scotland, 96% of people responded that they identified as heterosexual or straight, and 1.5% responded that they identified as either lesbian, gay, bisexual or other (LGB). Responses for the latter three were grouped to provide sufficient numbers for statistical analysis.

A higher proportion of LGB people were born outside of Scotland. Just 69% of LGB people were born in Scotland, compared with 81% of the heterosexual population, see Table 4.1.

A higher proportion of LGB people had a 'White: Other British' ethnic group, and fewer identified as "White: Polish" (23% and 0.3% respectively, compared with 12% and 1.3% of the heterosexual population), see Table 4.2. The majority (53%) of LGB people identified as having no religion, compared with 43% of heterosexuals, see Table 4.3.

Just over half of LGB people were under 35, and the majority were male (60%). Men aged 16-24 were more likely to identify as LGB (3.5%) than those aged 55+ (typically less than 1%). A similar pattern is observed among women: 16-24 year olds were more likely to identify as LGB than women aged 65+. See Figure 16.

Figure 16: Proportion of adults identifying as LGB by age and sex

Figure 16

Table 4.4: Sexual orientation

  Response % Totals
  Heterosexual LGB & other Adults Sample
All 96.3 1.5 4,398,900 21,038
Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
1: most deprived fifth of households 95.9 1.4 859,800 3,942
2 96.4 1.3 871,600 4,305
3 96.4 1.5 902,300 4,615
4 96.5 1.7 891,700 4,454
5: least deprived fifth of households 96.5 1.5 873,500 3,722
Detailed Tenure
Owned outright 97.3 0.7 1,265,100 6,894
Mortgaged 96.8 1.5 1,543,600 6,445
Social rented 95.9 1.5 950,900 4,889
Private rented 94.2 3.2 583,300 2,558
Unknown rented 97.1 0.7 46,800 222
Respondent Age and Sex
Female 16-24 95.5 2.2 312,600 981
Female 25-34 96.9 1.9 346,000 1,730
Female 35-44 97.5 1.0 363,100 1,800
Female 45-54 97.5 1.0 407,200 2,077
Female 55-64 97.2 0.9 337,900 1,920
Female 65-74 97.0 0.8 268,300 1,691
Female 75+ 95.4 0.3 254,500 1,556
Male 16-24 93.8 3.5 316,200 799
Male 25-34 95.3 2.7 334,000 1,243
Male 35-44 95.8 2.1 344,300 1,410
Male 45-54 96.4 1.6 387,800 1,671
Male 55-64 96.7 1.0 324,000 1,673
Male 65-74 97.6 0.4 239,000 1,460
Male 75+ 94.9 0.5 164,000 1,027

4.5 Respondent Age

Tables providing details of the age group distribution of household and some social variables are presented in supplementary table 4.5.[37]

Several estimates in this report are highly age dependent, for example health variables and qualifications. Further household and social variables, such as tenure, household type and country of birth also vary by age. To enable interpretation of these estimates when crossed (e.g. smoking by tenure), the supplementary table provides the age breakdown of respondents in key household and social cross-variables. This details, for example, the proportion of people who hold no qualifications that are aged 16 to 24. Conversely, every other supplementary table contains a break-down by age (or age and sex) group, detailing for example, which proportion of people aged 16 to 24 hold no qualifications. Significant comparisons are highlighted in each topic chapter.

The production of age-standardised estimates based on these statistics is planned in future.

4.6 Marital Status

Details of the marital status by respondent and household characteristics are presented in supplementary table 4.6.[38] The headline figures for Scotland in 2013 were 34% never married (single), 47% married / in a civil partnership, 2.8% separated, 7.7% divorced / dissolved civil partnership and 8.2% widowed / bereaved civil partner.

All other supplementary tables also detail their estimates broken down by marital status.

Contact

Email: Jamie Robertson

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