1. Based on 1990-2015 GHG Inventory.
2. The difference between the Inventory and TIMES is down to Agriculture Related Land Use, which is captured in the Agriculture and Related Land Use Category in the Inventory and in the LULUCF sector envelope in TIMES.
3. The Scottish Government's Purpose http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/purpose
4. United Nations Sustainable Development Goals http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/
5. This includes the electrification of heat. Currently, around 12% of domestic buildings' heat is supplied using electricity which, over time, will see an increase in the low carbon feedstock.
6. This includes the electrification of heat. Currently, around 50% of non-domestic buildings' heat is supplied using electricity which, over time, will see an increase in the low carbon feedstock
7. Scotland's Economic Strategy, 2015. https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-economic-strategy/
8. According to 2016 ONS figures.
9. Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2009/12/contents
10. The basket of greenhouse gases comprises carbon dioxide ( CO 2), methane ( CH 4) and nitrous oxide ( N 2O), for which the baseline is 1990; and hydrofluorocarbons ( HFCs), perfluorocarbons ( PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride ( SF 6), and nitrogen trifluoride ( NF 3), for which the baseline is 1995. Nitrogen trifluoride was added to the greenhouse gas emissions covered by the Act by The Climate Change (Additional Greenhouse Gas) (Scotland) Order 2015.
11. The CCC Advice on the new Scottish Climate Change Bill https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/advice-on-the-new-scottish-climate-change-bill/
12. The CCC Independent Advice to government on building low carbon economy and preparing for climate change http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0053/00530182.pdf
13. The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/
15. High Level Summary of Statistics Trend http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/TrendTemperature
16. Climate Ready Scotland Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/05/4669
17. The CCC, Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme: An independent assessment for the Scottish Parliament https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Scottish-Climate-Change-Adaptation-Programme-An-independent-assessment-CCC-September-2016.pdf
18. Climate Ready Scotland Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/05/4669
19. National Centre for Resilience https://www.readyscotland.org/ready-government/ncr/
20. Local Flood Risk Management Plans https://www.sepa.org.uk/environment/water/flooding/local-frm-plans/
21. Edinburgh Adapts - driving adaptation actions for the capital http://www.adaptationscotland.org.uk/get-involved/our-projects/edinburgh-adapts
22. Climate Ready Clyde http://www.adaptationscotland.org.uk/get-involved/our-projects/climate-ready-clyde
23. Aberdeen Adapts – an adaptation strategy for Aberdeen https://www.adaptationscotland.org.uk/get-involved/our-projects/aberdeen-adapts
24. UN Sustainable Development Goals http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/
25. Tourism in Scotland, Statistics http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Tourism?utm_source=website&utm_medium=navigation&utm_campaign=statistics-topics
26. Scotland Performs, National Indicators http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/indicator/naturalcapital
27. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment https://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/index.html
28. European Commission, Nature's Role in Climate Change https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/docs/nature_and_climate_change_en.pdf
29. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Managing Ecosystems In The Context Of Climate Change Mitigation: A review of current knowledge and recommendations to support ecosystem-based mitigation actions that look beyond terrestrial forests https://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/cbd-ts-86-en.pdf
30. Convention on Biological Diversity, The Aichi Targets https://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/default.shtml
31. Scottish Public Bodies Climate Change Reporting https://www.keepscotlandbeautiful.org/sustainability-climate-change/sustainable-scotland-network
32. Scottish Public Bodies Climate Change Reporting: Analysis Report 2016-2017 https://www.keepscotlandbeautiful.org/sustainability-climate-change/sustainable-scotland-network/climate-change-reporting/analysis/201617-analysis/
33. Greener Scotland http://www.greenerscotland.org/
34. Transitioning to a Low Carbon Economy - Presentation and Report. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/meetingemissionstargets/climate-change-plan/transitioning-to-a-low-carbon-economy
35. Figures taken from ONS UK Environmental Accounts: Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Economy Survey: 2016 final estimates: https://www.ons.gov.uk/ economy/environmentalaccounts/bulletins/ finalestimates/2016 and Scottish Renewables, Renewables in numbers, 2017 http://www.scottishrenewables.com/sectors/ renewables-in-numbers/
36. Scotland's International Framework, 2017 https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-international-framework-9781788514033/documents/00527955.pdf
37. Scotland's Place in Europe: People, Jobs and Investment, 2018 http://www.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-place-europe-people-jobs-investment/
38. Paris Agreement Article 6 makes provision for linking carbon markets http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/application/pdf/english_paris_agreement.pdf. For more information on the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative ( RGGI), the Western Climate Initiative ( WCI) and other carbon markets operating at international, national and regional level, see the World Bank Report https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/25160/9781464810015.pdf?sequence=7
39. Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2009/12/contents
40. Scottish emissions targets 2028-2032 http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scottish-emissions-targets-2028-2032
CCC updated advice on Climate Change (Scotland) Act http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/legislation/CCC-updated-advice
The Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2016 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2016/328/contents/made
41. Global Atmosphere – Greenhouse Gas Emissions. High Level Summary of Statistics Trend. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/TrendGasEmissions
42. The EU Emissions Trading System ( EU ETS) https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets_en
43. Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2015 http://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-greenhouse-gas-emissions-2015//downloads
44. EU ETS, Revision for phase 4 (2021-2030) https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/revision_en
45. The Climate Change (Limit on Use of Carbon Units) (Scotland) Order 2016 https://www.legislation.gov.uk/sdsi/2016/9780111032640
46. Scottish Environment Statistics http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment
47. The Climate Change (Limit on Use of Carbon Units) (Scotland) Order 2016 https://www.legislation.gov.uk/sdsi/2016/9780111032640
48. Public Sector Sclimate Change Reporting http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/publicsectoraction/publicsectorreporting
49. Scotland's Energy Strategy, 2017 http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/energystrategy
50. IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/
51. Upgrading our Energy System: Smart Systems and Flexibility Plan, 2017. Ofgem/BEIS: https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/system/files/docs/2017/07/upgrading_our_energy_system_-_smart_systems_and_flexibility_plan.pdf
52. Upgrading our Energy System: Smart Systems and Flexibility Plan, 2017. Ofgem/BEIS: https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/system/files/docs/2017/07/upgrading_our_energy_system_-_smart_systems_and_flexibility_plan.pdf
54. Scottish House Condition Survey, 2016 and English Housing Survey, 2016-17, based on SAP 2012.
55. Low Carbon Scotland: Meeting our Emissions Reduction Targets 2013-2027. The Second Report on Proposals and Policies http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/06/6387
56. The CCC describes low regrets options as measures to increase energy efficiency and decarbonise heat that are sensible regardless of which long-term options are chosen. .
57. This includes the electrification of heat. Currently, around 12% of domestic buildings' heat is supplied using electricity which, over time, will see an increase in the low carbon feedstock.
58. This includes the electrification of heat. Currently, around 50% of non-domestic buildings' heat is supplied using electricity which, over time, will see an increase in the low carbon feedstock
59. UK Clean Growth Strategy, 2017 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/651916/BEIS_The_Clean_Growth_online_12.10.17.pdf
60. Scotch Whisky Association Environmental Strategy http://www.scotch-whisky.org.uk/what-we-do/environmental-strategy/
61. UK Clean Growth Strategy, 2017 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/651916/BEIS_The_Clean_Growth_online_12.10.17.pdf
62. Energy intensity in the residential sector measures the amount of energy required per household. Therefore, if energy intensity falls this means that on average households are using less energy.
63. Emissions intensity in the residential sector measures the amount of emissions per household. Therefore, if emissions intensity falls this means that on average households are emitting fewer emissions.
64. Energy productivity in the non-domestic sector measures the level of economic activity for each unit of energy being used. Higher energy productivity means more economic activity for each unit of energy being used.
65. Emissions intensity in the non-domestic sector measures the amount of emissions per unit of output. Therefore, if emissions intensity falls this means that fewer emissions are emitted per unit of output.
66. Applying the latest construction sector multiplier (for 2014) from the Scottish Government input-output tables, and deflating 2018 spend to 2014 prices using the GDP deflator.
67. Low Carbon Scotland: A behaviours framework. http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0041/00415744.pdf
68. Climate Change Public Conversation Series; Findings From Climate Conversations, 2017 http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0052/00524893.pdf
69. Excluding adjustments for the EU Emissions Trading System.
70. Scottish Green Bus Fund https://www.transport.gov.scot/public-transport/buses/scottish-green-bus-fund/#
71. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Potential in the Scottish Transport Sector From Recent Advances in Transport Fuels and Technologies – www.transport.gov.scot/publication/greenhouse-gas-emissions-reduction-potential-scottish-transport-sector
72. Smarter Choices, Smarter Places – www.transport.gov.scot/our-approach/active-travel/smarter-choices-smarter-places
73. Low Carbon Behaviours – Findings from Climate Change Conversations – www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/lowcarbonbehaviours/findings-from-climate-conversations
74. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Potential in the Scottish Transport Sector From Recent Advances in Transport Fuels and Technologies – www.transport.gov.scot/publication/greenhouse-gas-emissions-reduction-potential-scottish-transport-sector
75. Scottish Transport Analysis Guide ( Scot-TAG) – www.transport.gov.scot/our-approach/industry-guidance/scottish-transport-analysis-guide-scot-tag
76. ChargePlace Scotland www.chargeplacescotland.org
77. Scotland's National Planning Framework 3, 2014 https://beta.gov.scot/publications/national-planning-framework-3/
78. Scotland's Planning Policy, 2014 https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scottish-planning-policy/pages/2/
79. European Commission, Reducing CO 2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/vehicles/heavy_en
80. European Commission, A European Strategy for low-emission mobility http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-16-2497_en.htm
81. Delivering the Goods – Scotland's Rail Freight Strategy – www.transport.gov.scot/publication/delivering-the-goods-scotlands-rail-freight-strategy
82. Delivering the Goods, Scotland's Rail Freight Strategy Scotland Rural Development Programme ( SRDP) 2014‑2020 Stage 2: Final Proposals https://www.transport.gov.scot/media/5362/ts-rail-freight-strategy-a4-aw3.pdf
83. The Scottish Minister's High Level Output Specification for Control Period 6 https://www.transport.gov.scot/media/39496/high-level-output-specification-hlos-for-control-period-6-final.pdf
84. ECO Stars Fleet Recognition Scheme https://www.ecostars-uk.com/
85. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Potential in the Scottish Transport Sector From Recent Advances in Transport Fuels and Technologies – www.transport.gov.scot/publication/greenhouse-gas-emissions-reduction-potential-scottish-transport-sector
86. Scottish Transport, Bus Investment Fund https://www.transport.gov.scot/public-transport/buses/bus-investment-fund/#
87. Cleaner Air for Scotland - The Road to a Healthier Future http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/11/5671/14
88. Scottish Transport Statistics http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Transport-Travel/TablesPublications/ScottishTransportStats
89. Cycling Action Plan for Scotland – www.transport.gov.scot/publication/cycling-action-plan-for-scotland-2017-2020
90. Let's get Scotland Walking – The National Walking Strategy – www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/06/5743
91. Transport Scotland, Smarter Choices, Smarter Places https://www.transport.gov.scot/our-approach/active-travel/smarter-choices-smarter-places/#
92. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Potential in the Scottish Transport Sector From Recent Advances in Transport Fuels and Technologies – www.transport.gov.scot/publication/greenhouse-gas-emissions-reduction-potential-scottish-transport-sector
93. Designing Streets – A Policy Statement for Scotland – www.gov.scot/Publications/2010/03/22120652/0
94. The impact of the UK's exit from the European Union on the role of emissions trading is not factored into the Plan, since the UK Government has not yet taken a position on the UK's future relationship with the EU Emissions Trading System. The EU ETS remains a fundamental part of UK and Scottish climate change legislation. Powers exist under the Climate Change Act 2008, to create emissions trading schemes in the UK.
95. European Commission, Carbon Leakage http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/allowances/leakage/index_en.htm
96. The CCC, Scottish Emissions Targets 2028-2032 https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Scottish-Emissions-Targets-2028-2032.pdf
97. Figures for Phase V of the ETS (post-2030), covering the Scottish carbon budget to 2032 are not available, since the EU's contribution to the Paris Agreement is currently only set out to 2030. We can expect further tightening of the ETS cap beyond 2030 to meet the EU's 2050 target of 80% emissions reduction.
98. Scotland's manufacturing action plan https://www.scottish-enterprise.com/knowledge-hub/articles/insight/scotlands-manufacturing-action-plan
99. Scotland's Energy Efficiency Programme ( SEEP) - Phase 2 http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Business-Industry/Energy/Action/lowcarbon/LCITP/SEEP
100. Making Things Last - A Circular Economy Strategy for Scotland http://www.gov.scot/makingthingslast
102. The EU Emissions Trading System ( EU ETS) https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets_en
103. The impact of the UK's exit from the European Union on the role of emissions trading is not factored into the Plan, since the UK Government has not yet commenced negotiations with the EU, and has not yet taken a position on the UK's future relationship with the EU Emissions Trading System. The EU ETS remains a fundamental part of UK and Scottish climate change legislation. Powers exist under the Climate Change Act 2008, to create emissions trading schemes in the UK.
104. UK Clean Growth Strategy, 2017 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/clean-growth-strategy
105. Scottish Energy Strategy: The Future of Energy in Scotland http://www.gov.scot/energystrategy
106. Actions required to develop a roadmap towards a Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Strategy for Scotland http://www.evaluationsonline.org.uk/evaluations/Search.do?ui=basic&action=show&id=606
107. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Opportunities for Growth – A Roadmap for the UK http://www.e4tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/UKHFC-Roadmap-Final-Main-Report-171116.pdf
108. Resource Efficient Scotland http://www.resourceefficientscotland.com/
109. Making Things Last: A Circular Economy Strategy for Scotland http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0049/00494471.pdf
110. Charter for Household Recycling http://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/content/charter-household-recycling
111. Resource Efficient Scotland http://www.resourceefficientscotland.com/
112. The Courtauld Commitment 2025 http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/courtauld-commitment-2025
113. The Courtauld Commitment 2025 http://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/circular-economy/investment-fund
114. Scotland and the Circular Economy http://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/sites/default/files/Scotland%20and%20the%20Circular%20Economy%20%28a%20report%20for%20the%20Scottish%20Government%29.pdf
115. 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/wetlands/
116. Energy and emissions projections https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/energy-and-emissions-projections
117. The increase in the scale of the sink in the LULUCF sector between 2018 and 2020 is due to the alignment of 2015 GHG inventory data to the updated LULUCF projections. This is to ensure that all sectors start from a consistent basis, in line with the 2015 GHGI Inventory.
118. The economic contribution of forestry in Scotland http://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/supporting/forest-industries/economic-contribution-report
119. UK Forestry Commission, Forestry Statistics 2017 https://www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/Ch2_Timber_FS2017.pdf/$FILE/Ch2_Timber_FS2017.pdf
120. UK Forestry Standard https://www.forestry.gov.uk/ukfs
121. Forestry Commission, Forestry Statistics 2016 https://www.forestry.gov.uk/website/forstats2016.nsf/LUContents/898C4678E271A30980257FE0004B2D20
122. Forestry and Land Management (Scotland) Bill http://www.parliament.scot/parliamentarybusiness/Bills/104491.aspx
123. The Forestry (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Scotland) Regulations 2017 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2017/113/contents/made
124. The Scottish Forestry Strategy http://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/supporting/strategy-policy-guidance/forestry-strategy
125. The Scottish Rural Development Programme ( SRDP) 2014‑2020 http://www.gov.scot/Topics/farmingrural/SRDP
126. Scottish Government, Policy on control of woodland removal http://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/supporting/strategy-policy-guidance/woodland-expansion/control-of-woodland-removal
127. The Scottish Plant Health Strategy http://www.gov.scot/Topics/farmingrural/Agriculture/plant/PlantHealth/ScottishPlantHealthStrategy
128. Biodiversity Scotland, The 2020 Challenge for Scotland's Biodiversity http://www.biodiversityscotland.gov.uk/doing/strategy/
129. Forestry Commission Scotland http://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/
130. The Woodland Carbon Code www.forestry.gov.uk/carboncode
131. Forestry Commission Scotland, Forestry Grant Scheme http://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/supporting/grants-and-regulations/forestry-grants
132. Forestry Commission Scotland, Sheep and Trees http://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/supporting/grants-and-regulations/sheep-and-trees
133. Forestry Commission, Carbon Code https://www.forestry.gov.uk/carboncode
134. Forestry Commission Scotland, Timber Development Programme 2014-2015 http://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/images/corporate/pdf/timber-development-programme-report-2014-15.pdf
135. Wood for Good https://woodforgood.com/
136. Modern Timber House https://woodforgood.com/training-and-development/publications/the-modern-timber-house
137. Burrows et al. 2014 http://www.snh.org.uk/pdfs/publications/commissioned_reports/761.pdf
138. Burrows et al. 2017 https://risweb.st-andrews.ac.uk/portal/en/researchoutput/assessment-of-blue-carbon-resources-in-scotlands-inshore-marine-protected-area-network(61658325-51d1-4345-803a-e4539a208071).html
139. Smeaton et al. 2016 https://www.biogeosciences.net/13/5771/2016/bg-13-5771-2016.pdf
140. Marine Scotland, Topic Sheet 64, Blue Carbon http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0053/00531293.pdf
141. Scotland's National Peatland Plan https://www.snh.scot/climate-change/taking-action/carbon-management/restoring-scotlands-peatlands/scotlands-national-peatland-plan
142. Agricultural Land Use In Scotland http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Agriculture-Fisheries/agritopics/LandUseAll
143. The difference between the Inventory and TIMES is down to the Related Land Use component of Agriculture which is captured in the Agriculture and Related Land Use category in the Inventory and in the LULUCF sector envelope in TIMES.
144. Historical emissions profiling is based upon the TIMES definition
145. Land Capability for Agriculture in Scotland http://www.hutton.ac.uk/sites/default/files/files/soils/lca_leaflet_hutton.pdf
146. Rural Payments and Services, Beef Efficiency Scheme https://www.ruralpayments.org/publicsite/futures/topics/all-schemes/beef-efficiency-scheme/
147. Scotland's Farm Advisory Service https://www.fas.scot/
148. Monitor Farm Programme http://www.qmscotland.co.uk/monitorfarms
149. Soil and Nutrient Network https://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120605/soil_and_nutrients/1355/soil_and_nutrient_network
150. Farming For A Better Climate http://www.gov.scot/Topics/farmingrural/Agriculture/Environment/climatechange/Advice
151. Ireland's food and drink sustainability programme, Origin Green https://www.origingreen.ie/
152. Soil and Nutrient Network https://www.sruc.ac.uk/info/120605/soil_and_nutrients/1355/soil_and_nutrient_network
153. ScotEID - Scottish EID Livestock Traceability Research https://www.scoteid.com/
154. Scotland Rural Development Programme ( SRDP) 2014-2020 Stage 2: Final Proposals http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/12/7550/291113
156. The Scottish Government's SEA Database http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/environmental-assessment/sea/SEAG