2. Marine Economy Overview
This report presents a time series of GVA, turnover and employment for industrial categories defined as part of the marine sector. The data is provided for 2008 to 2016.
Oil and gas extraction is not included in these figures, although support services for oil and gas are included. This broadly aligns the figures with those provided by the onshore values in the National Accounts for Scotland.
The categories included in this analysis are detailed in Annex A. Summary data tables are included in the commentary, while more detailed supporting data tables are contained in the Tables Section on page 52.
2.2 Marine Economic Key Points
In 2016 the Scottish marine economy generated £3.8 billion GVA: accounting for 2.9 % of the overall Scottish economy. In terms of employment, the Scottish marine economy provided employment for a headcount of 75,300 people, contributing 2.9 % of the total Scottish employment.
The oil and gas services sector is the biggest contributor to the marine economy in terms of turnover and GVA. However, marine tourism employs for the most number of people in all the sectors. Oil and gas services provide 55 % of the marine economy GVA and 26 % of the employment while marine tourism provides 10 % of the GVA and 37 % of the employment (see Table 2 and Figure 1).
This indicates there are considerable variations in labour productivity (GVA per worker) across the marine economy, with freight water transport producing the highest GVA per worker in 2016 (£130,000), and marine tourism producing the lowest at just under £20,000.
Table 2 : Marine economic sectors – GVA, turnover, employment and GVA per head, 2016
|Description||GVA £M||Turnover £M||Employment Headcount 000’s||GVA Per Head £|
|Support for oil & gas||1,631||4,483||19.7||82,802|
|Construction and water transport services||422||672||4.0||105,600|
|Passenger water transport||63||168||1.4||45,286|
|Freight water transport||65||178||0.5||130,400|
|Renting and leasing of water transport equipment||8||14||0.1||82,000|
* Fishing and aquaculture figures were not sourced from SABS statistics.
Figure 1 : Scotland’s marine economy - distribution of GVA, turnover and employment across sectors, 2016
Sectors ranked in order of GVA contribution
Sea and coastal freight and passenger transport and Renting and leasing of water transport equipment have been combined to make the chart more readable.
2.3 Marine Economy Trends
Between 2015 to 2016 the marine sector GVA fell by 20% from £4.83 billion to £3.85 billion. Employment fell by 5%.
Table 3: Marine sector - GVA, turnover and employment, 2008 to 2016 (2016 prices)
|Year||GVA £M||Turnover £M||Employment Headcount 000's||GVA Per Worker £|
The longer term trend shows that between 2008 and 2016 the marine economy GVA (adjusted to 2016 prices) fell by 26% while employment increased by 11% (over 7,000 workers). This has had the effect of reducing the GVA per person from £77,000 to £51,000. The individual sectors driving these trends will be explored in subsequent chapters.
Figure 2: Marine sector - GVA and employment, 2008 to 2016 (2016 prices)
The detailed breakdown of the marine economy by industry is shown in Table 19 on page 52.
2.4 Marine Economy by geography
The values presented at local authority level are mostly based on SABS data. Marine Scotland specific analysis was used to estimate the geographic breakdowns for fishing and aquaculture sectors. The methodology for substituting the Marine Scotland fishing and aquaculture values is detailed in Annex B. Most marine economic totals can be provided by local authority, though some become disclosive at this level and are aggregated into the ‘unallocated’ category.
Table 4 : Marine sector - GVA, turnover and employment (headcount), by local authority, 2016
|% of Scotland's marine economy|
|GVA £M||Turnover £M||Employment 000's||GVA £M||Turnover £M||Employment 000's|
|Argyll & Bute||147||369||5.36||4%||4%||7%|
|Dumfries & Galloway||107||285||2.64||3%||3%||3%|
|Edinburgh, City Of||43||114||1.50||1%||1%||2%|
|Glasgow, City Of||-6||*||3.60||0%||0%||5%|
|Na H-Eileanan Siar||38||147||1.43||1%||1%||2%|
|Perth & Kinross||8||24||0.40||0%||0%||1%|
* = disclosive data
Figure 3: Marine sector – distribution of employment and GVA by local authority, 2016
Scottish Government (Marine Scotland) 2018
Contains National Statistics data ©
Crown copyright and database right
Aberdeen City accounted for 41% of the marine economy GVA for 2016, with Aberdeenshire the next highest with 18%. The City of Glasgow reported a negative GVA for 2016. This is likely to be due to the spasmodic nature of ship building and maintenance, and reflects the dominance of the industry in Glasgow’s marine sector. This is discussed in more detail in the section on Shipbuilding.
Employment was more evenly spread across Scotland, with Aberdeen City and Aberdeenshire contributing 24% and 14% respectively.