Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) in Scotland: national overview report 2022-2023

The Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA), are a set of statutory partnership working arrangements introduced in 2007. This report provides an overview of the main national developments in relation to MAPPA during the reporting period from 1 April 2022 to 31 March 2023.

Appendix C: MAPPA National Data

This Appendix outlines patterns in information on Registered Sex Offenders (RSOs) extracted from the ViSOR database on 31 March of each year. This provides a snapshot at a point in time.

Numbers of Registered Sex Offenders in Scotland, 2022 to 2023

Category 2022 2023
RSOs managed in custody and in the community on 31 March 6,038 6,420
RSOs managed in the community on 31 March 4,520 4,747
RSOs managed at Level 1 in the community on 31 March 4,407 4,584
RSOs managed at Level 2 in the community on 31 March 111 140
RSOs managed at Level 3 in the community on 31 March 2 1
RSOs reported for breaches of notification 374 465
RSOs convicted of a further group 1 or 2 crime[9] 114 139
RSOs wanted on 31 March 16 13
RSOs missing on 31 March 0 0

On 31 March 2023, there were 6,420 RSOs in Scotland who were managed in custody or in the community. The total number of RSOs has increased by 6% compared with 2022 when there were 6,038 recorded.

On 31 March 2023, 74% of RSOs (4,747 RSOs) were being managed in the community, with the majority of these (4,584 RSOs) being managed at the lowest MAPPA management level, Level 1. The remaining RSOs (141) were being managed at level 2 or level 3.

In 2022-2023, 93% of RSOs (5,970 RSOs) complied with their notification requirements under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, compared to 94% (5,664 RSOs) in 2021-22. The proportion of RSOs who failed to comply with their notification requirements has increased to 7%, having been consistently at around 5%-6% for the previous six years.

Sex Offender Notification Requirements are robustly policed so that those who breach their terms are identified at the earliest opportunity. The RSO can receive a maximum penalty of 5 years' imprisonment for failing to comply with notification requirements.

The National Statistics on Recorded Crime in Scotland 2022-23 published in June 2023, illustrated that sexual crimes accounted for 5% of all crimes recorded in Scotland in 2022-23, as was the case in 2021-22. The report stated that sexual crimes recorded by the police in Scotland decreased by 3% from 15,049 in 2021-22 to 14,602 in 2022-23. Despite this decrease sexual crimes have been on a long-term upward trend since 1974, with some fluctuations, with historical reporting of sexual crimes continuing to play a role in this. As detailed in the report, information from Police Scotland suggests that just over a fifth (21%) of sexual crimes in 2022-23 were recorded at least one year after they occurred. The increase in sexual cyber-crimes has also had an impact on the trend of recorded sexual crimes over the past ten years.

The number of RSOs who have been convicted of a further Group 1 or 2 crime has increased in the last year (139 in 2022-23 compared to 114 in 2021-22). These convictions include offences detected as a result of proactive management and effective policing by the partner agencies. When individuals managed under MAPPA commit further serious offences, the significant case review process examines the MAPPA policies and processes in place for the management of the individual. It identifies areas of learning and good practice and so contributes to continuous learning to improve future policy and practice.

Wanted and Missing Registered Sex Offenders:

A Missing person is defined as anyone whose whereabouts is unknown and:

  • where the circumstances are out of character; or
  • the context suggests the person may be subject to crime; or
  • the person is at risk of harm to themselves or another.

Wanted Registered Sex Offenders are defined as those who are subject to the notification requirements of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 and who have a live warrant in force.

On 31 March 2023, of the 13 wanted RSO’s, 11 were assessed as having left the United Kingdom with no indication that they have returned and 2 were believed to be within the United Kingdom. The latest update from Police Scotland provides that of the 2 RSO’s who were wanted and believed to be within the United Kingdom, one has since been apprehended and the other has now been assessed as having left the United Kingdom. Police Scotland treat all missing and wanted RSOs with the utmost seriousness and carry out thorough enquiries to trace their whereabouts and to re-establish the management required to protect the public. On all occasions a Senior Investigating Officer of a rank no less than Inspector will be appointed to lead these investigations. Up to date figures are available via the Police Scotland Website.



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