Scottish connections (diaspora) work: literature review

Reports on findings from a literature review looking at international examples of engagement activities, initiatives and strategies in relation to various diasporic communities.


1 The Scottish Government - A Fairer, Greener Scotland: Programme for Government 2021-22

2 See for example:

Dickerson, S. and Ozden, C., 2018. Diaspora engagement and return migration policies. In Handbook of migration and globalisation. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Emigrant Policies Index (EMIX) Dataset

Palop‐García, P. and Pedroza, L., 2021. Do Diaspora Engagement Policies Endure? An Update of the Emigrant Policies Index (EMIX) to 2017. Global Policy, 12(3), pp.361-371.

3 See for example: Koinova, M. and Tsourapas, G. (2018) “How do countries of origin engage migrants and diasporas? Multiple actors and comparative perspectives”, International Political Science Review, 39(3), pp. 311–321. doi: 10.1177/0192512118755843.

4 European Commission glossary: “Temporary migration”

5 See: Chapter 4, Dovelyn Rannveig Agunias and Kathleen Newland, Developing a Road Map for Engaging Diasporas in Development, A Handbook for Policymakers and Practitioners in Home and Host Countries, International Organisation for Migration and Migration Policy Institute (2011). While the focus is on development, this publication’s findings are also generally relevant.

6 For definitions of these terms see: Gartner glossary. Online networking is the process of expanding and developing your network of social and business relationships through online communication channels, especially social media platforms like LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, see: "What is Online Networking?" by Greg Bahlmann.

7 IOM Glossary on Migration, 2019

8 The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland (2009), and a 2015 internal literature review into Diaspora Strategy/Diaspora Engagement, which looked at information from New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, America, Canada/Quebec, Belgium/Flanders, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Germany, and Poland.

9 Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim (2016) “Scotland’s Diaspora Strategy: The View from the current American Diaspora”, Scottish Affairs, 25(2): 186–208.

10 This is not necessarily the case – see for example: Michael Anderson, Migrants in Scotland’s population histories since 1850, Chapter 11, Scotland’s Population - The Registrar General’s Annual Review of Demographic Trends on the uniqueness of Scottish emigration patterns (2016): 79-106.

11 Agunias and Newland (2011).

12 OECD (2015), Connecting with Emigrants: A Global Profile of Diasporas 2015, OECD Publishing, Paris

13 See: OECD's database on immigrants in OECD and non-OECD countries

14 See: "International migration flows" on Migration Data Portal

15 See: United Nations Statistics Division - "International migration" (2019).

16 The United Nations defines net migration as the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants over a period, divided by the person-years lived by the population of the receiving country over that period. It is expressed as net number of migrants per 1,000 population. See: UN data – “Net migration rate”

17 Source: UN data - "Net migration rate"

18 Emigration rate is defined as the share of the native population of a country residing abroad at a specific time. Definition from OECD in "Emigration rates by country of origin, sex and educational attainment levels" release.

19 OECD - Connecting with Emigrants: A Global Profile of Emigrants 2015 (Chapter 4)

20 OECD - Connecting with Emigrants: A Global Profile of Diasporas 2015

21 As above.

22 See: The Scottish Government - A Scotland for the future: opportunities and challenges of Scotland's changing population (2021)

23 See: National Records of Scotland - Mid-2020 Population Estimates, Scotland

24 See: National Records of Scotland - Scotland's population growth slowest since 2003

25 See: National Records of Scotland - Migration between Scotland and Overseas

26 Source: Authors’ own analysis based on review of missions and activities of the non-diplomatic institutions, agencies, and civil society bodies supported by governments

27 Source: Authors’ own analysis based on review of official websites and papers

28 See: PWC - Out of sight, out of mind? Australia’s diaspora as a pathway to innovation (2018)

29 See: Australian Bureau of Statistics - Net overseas migration

30 The OECD defines 3 levels of education, the highest being tertiary level – the level referred to here.

31 See: Australian Bureau of Statistics - Net overseas migration, arrivals, departures and net, major groupings and visas

32 Advance – Website including digital postcards

33 Advance - Connecting Australians Globally

34 (Ibid.)

35 ABC News – “Why does everyone think ‘Advance Australia Fair’ is flawed?”

36 Warwick McFayden, “Advance Australia Fair is an anthem that is racist at so many levels” in the Sydney Morning Herald, 16 September 2018.

37 Creative Spirits – “National Anthem: Advanced, Aboriginal & Fair?”

38 Cheng, J. (2016). Engaging Diasporas: The case of Australia and other key countries. Report for

Securing Australia’s Future project 11 ‘Australia’s Diaspora Advantage: Realising the potential for

building transnational business networks with Asia’ on behalf of the Australian Council of Learned

Academies, Melbourne Australia.

39 See: "Flemish people" (2007 Schools Wikipedia selection)

40 Literally translates as: “in the internal market, in the external”. The 'foro interno, foro externo' principle stipulates that the Belgian federated entities are responsible for the international aspects of their competences. See: Flanders Chancellery and Foreign Office - Coordination with Belgium

41 See: Foreign Policy goals cited on the Delegation of Flanders in Southern Africa website

42 See: Vlaanderen - Vision 2050: A long-term strategy for Flanders

43 See: Vlamingen in de Wereld - Wonen, werken en studeren in het buitenland

44 See: Flanders Investment and Trade

45 Taylor, J., Rubin, J., Giulietti, C., Giacomantonio, C., Tsang, F., Constant, A., Mbaye, L. and Naghsh Nejad, M., 2014. Mapping Diasporas in the European Union and the United States. IZA.

46 See: Statistics Canada - Measuring Emigration in Canada: Review of Available Data Sources and Methods

47 What is meant by global engagement in this context is set out here: Global Canada - Global Canadian Leaders Gathering (2017)

48 Global Canada - "About Global Canada"

49 Government of Canada – Statistics Canada: Migration data

50 Québec's International Policy – Québec on the World Stage: Involved, Engaged, Thriving

51 Québec's International Policy – Québec on the World Stage: Involved, Engaged, Thriving

52 Québec International - À propos de Québec International

53 See: Daniel Goodkind - The Chinese Diaspora: Historical Legacies and Contemporary Trends, United States Census Bureau (2019)

54 (Ibid.)

55 See, for example: Confucius Institute for Scotland - 'About us'

56 Nikkei Asia - Full text of Xi Jingping's speech on the CCP's 100th anniversary

57 See for example: Oscar Almén (2020) The Chinese Communist Party and the Diaspora

58 BBC – Full text: China;s new party chief Xi Jingping’s speech, 15 November 2021

59 Brand Finance – China 500 2021: The annual report on the most valuable and strongest Chinese brands

60 Financial Times – “Inside China’s secret ‘magic weapon’ for worldwide influence”, 26 October 2017.

61 U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission - China's United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States

62 U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission - China's United Front Work: Background and Implications for the United States

63 The Jamestown Foundation - Reorganizing the United Front Work Department: New Structures for a New Era of Diaspora and Religious Affairs Work

64 The phrase is used by the Hanban/Confucius Institute Headquarters, but their website is currently unavailable. The phrase however appears on partner sites such as: China Institute - Confucius Institute at China Institute (CI@CI)

65 See for example:

Ding S. (2015) Engaging Diaspora via Charm Offensive and Indigenised Communication: An Analysis of China’s Diaspora Engagement Policies in the Xi Era. Politics. 35(3-4): 230-244. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9256.12087

Hong Liu & Els van Dongen (2016) China’s Diaspora Policies as a New Mode of Transnational Governance, Journal of Contemporary China, 25:102, 805-821, DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2016.1184894

66 Cited in ‘The Danish Diaspora: An Untapped Resource’, Danes Worldwide, 2017

67 DANIAS - 'Who we are'

68 (Ibid.)

69 Diaspora: A Resource for Denmark, p.10, Task Force for Collaboration with Danes Abroad, 2020.

70 (Ibid.) p.20

71 See: Danmarkskanon - About

72 Birka, I. and Klavins, D. (2019) “Diaspora Diplomacy: Nordic and Baltic perspective”, Diapora Studies, DOI: 10.1080/09739572.2019.1693861

73 Statista – Distribution of the number of French expatriates across the world in 2020, by geographical area

74 See: Jackson, J. (2018) De Gaulle. Harvard University Press.

75 See: Lafleur, J.M. and Vintila, D. (2020) Migration and Social Protection in Europe and Beyond (Vol. 2): Comapring Consular Services and Diaspora Policies. Springer.

76 See: Arrighi, J.T. and Lafleur, J.M. (2020) Diaspora Policies, Consular Services and Social Protection for French Citizens Abroad. Springer.

77 Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs - "The work of the Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs"

78 Assemblée Nationale - Debate on the report of the Commission d’évaluation des politiques publiques

79 See for example: Irish Times editorial, "The Irish Times view on the diaspora strategy: extending a hand to the ‘global Irish’", 18 November 2020.

80 Government of Ireland - Global Ireland: Ireland's Diaspora Strategy 2020-2025

81 Government of Ireland - Global Ireland: Ireland's Global Footprint to 2025

82 Government of Ireland - Project Ireland 2040: The National Planning Framework

83 United Nations Department of Social and Economic Affairs - International Migration Figures Estimates 2015

84 Government of Ireland - Global Ireland: Ireland's Diaspora Strategy 2020-2025, p.2

85 Sean Lemass, quoted in Government of Ireland - Global Ireland: Ireland’s Global Footprint to 2025, p.8

86 Government of Ireland - Global Ireland: Ireland’s Global Footprint to 2025, pp.24-25

87 Government of Ireland - Irish Educated Globally Connected an International Education Strategy for Ireland, 2016-2020

88 Discover Nikkei - "What is Nikkei?"

89 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan - Diplomatic Bluebook 2019: Cooperation with Emigrants and Japanese Descendants, Nikkei

90 MOFA - Report on the current situation of Communities of Japanese Immigrants and Descendants (“Nikkei”) in Central and South America (Summary)

91 See: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan - Recommendations of Overseas Emigration Council Future Policy Regarding Cooperation with Overseas Communities of Nikkei (2000)

92 Brand Finance – “Japan is world’s 3rd most valuabe nation brand”

93 Based on previous work the author has carried out for Japan House London.

94 OECD Economic Surveys – New Zealand (Chapter 2)

95 Kea New Zealand – “About us”

96 Figure cited in "Americans Abroad: A Disillusioned Diaspora" feature article by Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels in Migration Policy, July 2015.

97 See von Koppenfels, 2015

98 Migration Data Portal - Diasporas

99 (Ibid.)

100 OECD - Connecting with Emigrants: A Global Profile of Diasporas 2015

101 See: Sen B. (1965) Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad. In: A Diplomat’s Handbook of International Law and Practice. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-8792-3_12

102 For the UK approach, see: FCDO Outcome Delivery Plan: 2021 to 2022

103 For a typology of institutions, see: Migration Data Portal - Diasporas

104 See for example the University of Edinburgh’s COVID-19 response.

105 See: “International Relations” on the Scottish Government website.

106 Temporary migrants are defined by the European Commission: “Migration for a specific motivation and / or purpose with the intention that afterwards there will be a return to the country of origin or onward movement.”

107 See: The Scottish Government - Shortage occupation list 2020: Call for evidence - our response

108 Deloitte Insights – Digital Platform as a growth leaver

109 See: UNESCO - "What is Intangible Cultural Heritage?"



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