2 See for example:
Dickerson, S. and Ozden, C., 2018. Diaspora engagement and return migration policies. In Handbook of migration and globalisation. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Palop‐García, P. and Pedroza, L., 2021. Do Diaspora Engagement Policies Endure? An Update of the Emigrant Policies Index (EMIX) to 2017. Global Policy, 12(3), pp.361-371.
3 See for example: Koinova, M. and Tsourapas, G. (2018) “How do countries of origin engage migrants and diasporas? Multiple actors and comparative perspectives”, International Political Science Review, 39(3), pp. 311–321. doi: 10.1177/0192512118755843.
5 See: Chapter 4, Dovelyn Rannveig Agunias and Kathleen Newland, Developing a Road Map for Engaging Diasporas in Development, A Handbook for Policymakers and Practitioners in Home and Host Countries, International Organisation for Migration and Migration Policy Institute (2011). While the focus is on development, this publication’s findings are also generally relevant.
6 For definitions of these terms see: Gartner glossary. Online networking is the process of expanding and developing your network of social and business relationships through online communication channels, especially social media platforms like LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, see: "What is Online Networking?" by Greg Bahlmann.
8 The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland (2009), and a 2015 internal literature review into Diaspora Strategy/Diaspora Engagement, which looked at information from New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, America, Canada/Quebec, Belgium/Flanders, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Germany, and Poland.
9 Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim (2016) “Scotland’s Diaspora Strategy: The View from the current American Diaspora”, Scottish Affairs, 25(2): 186–208.
10 This is not necessarily the case – see for example: Michael Anderson, Migrants in Scotland’s population histories since 1850, Chapter 11, Scotland’s Population - The Registrar General’s Annual Review of Demographic Trends on the uniqueness of Scottish emigration patterns (2016): 79-106.
11 Agunias and Newland (2011).
12 OECD (2015), Connecting with Emigrants: A Global Profile of Diasporas 2015, OECD Publishing, Paris
15 See: United Nations Statistics Division - "International migration" (2019).
16 The United Nations defines net migration as the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants over a period, divided by the person-years lived by the population of the receiving country over that period. It is expressed as net number of migrants per 1,000 population. See: UN data – “Net migration rate”
17 Source: UN data - "Net migration rate"
18 Emigration rate is defined as the share of the native population of a country residing abroad at a specific time. Definition from OECD in "Emigration rates by country of origin, sex and educational attainment levels" release.
21 As above.
26 Source: Authors’ own analysis based on review of missions and activities of the non-diplomatic institutions, agencies, and civil society bodies supported by governments
27 Source: Authors’ own analysis based on review of official websites and papers
30 The OECD defines 3 levels of education, the highest being tertiary level – the level referred to here.
38 Cheng, J. (2016). Engaging Diasporas: The case of Australia and other key countries. Report for
Securing Australia’s Future project 11 ‘Australia’s Diaspora Advantage: Realising the potential for
building transnational business networks with Asia’ on behalf of the Australian Council of Learned
Academies, Melbourne Australia.
40 Literally translates as: “in the internal market, in the external”. The 'foro interno, foro externo' principle stipulates that the Belgian federated entities are responsible for the international aspects of their competences. See: Flanders Chancellery and Foreign Office - Coordination with Belgium
44 See: Flanders Investment and Trade
45 Taylor, J., Rubin, J., Giulietti, C., Giacomantonio, C., Tsang, F., Constant, A., Mbaye, L. and Naghsh Nejad, M., 2014. Mapping Diasporas in the European Union and the United States. IZA.
47 What is meant by global engagement in this context is set out here: Global Canada - Global Canadian Leaders Gathering (2017)
55 See, for example: Confucius Institute for Scotland - 'About us'
57 See for example: Oscar Almén (2020) The Chinese Communist Party and the Diaspora
58 BBC – Full text: China;s new party chief Xi Jingping’s speech, 15 November 2021
64 The phrase is used by the Hanban/Confucius Institute Headquarters, but their website is currently unavailable. The phrase however appears on partner sites such as: China Institute - Confucius Institute at China Institute (CI@CI)
65 See for example:
Ding S. (2015) Engaging Diaspora via Charm Offensive and Indigenised Communication: An Analysis of China’s Diaspora Engagement Policies in the Xi Era. Politics. 35(3-4): 230-244. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9256.12087
Hong Liu & Els van Dongen (2016) China’s Diaspora Policies as a New Mode of Transnational Governance, Journal of Contemporary China, 25:102, 805-821, DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2016.1184894
66 Cited in ‘The Danish Diaspora: An Untapped Resource’, Danes Worldwide, 2017
69 Diaspora: A Resource for Denmark, p.10, Task Force for Collaboration with Danes Abroad, 2020.
70 (Ibid.) p.20
71 See: Danmarkskanon - About
72 Birka, I. and Klavins, D. (2019) “Diaspora Diplomacy: Nordic and Baltic perspective”, Diapora Studies, DOI: 10.1080/09739572.2019.1693861
74 See: Jackson, J. (2018) De Gaulle. Harvard University Press.
75 See: Lafleur, J.M. and Vintila, D. (2020) Migration and Social Protection in Europe and Beyond (Vol. 2): Comapring Consular Services and Diaspora Policies. Springer.
76 See: Arrighi, J.T. and Lafleur, J.M. (2020) Diaspora Policies, Consular Services and Social Protection for French Citizens Abroad. Springer.
79 See for example: Irish Times editorial, "The Irish Times view on the diaspora strategy: extending a hand to the ‘global Irish’", 18 November 2020.
85 Sean Lemass, quoted in Government of Ireland - Global Ireland: Ireland’s Global Footprint to 2025, p.8
93 Based on previous work the author has carried out for Japan House London.
96 Figure cited in "Americans Abroad: A Disillusioned Diaspora" feature article by Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels in Migration Policy, July 2015.
97 See von Koppenfels, 2015
101 See: Sen B. (1965) Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad. In: A Diplomat’s Handbook of International Law and Practice. Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-8792-3_12
102 For the UK approach, see: FCDO Outcome Delivery Plan: 2021 to 2022
103 For a typology of institutions, see: Migration Data Portal - Diasporas
104 See for example the University of Edinburgh’s COVID-19 response.
106 Temporary migrants are defined by the European Commission: “Migration for a specific motivation and / or purpose with the intention that afterwards there will be a return to the country of origin or onward movement.”