Evaluation of Scottish transitional employment services: interim report August 2018

How programme design impacted the quality of delivery and customers’ experience of Work First and Work Able Scotland services in the first 6 months after launch.


1. A "warm handover" referral occurs where the referral agent and the service provider share details of individuals' circumstances and may meet together with the customer ahead of an induction interview to explain how the service could meet their needs.

2. Providers felt it was likely that a proportion of these customers were working permitted hours, i.e. under 16 hours a week.

3. The Human Resources Administration funded core support services for addiction and mental health centrally and required all employability service providers to draw on these services for their clients to pool resources and lower unit costs.

4. See A National Action Plan for the delivery of the Scottish Government's vision for the management of Long Term Conditions, Scottish Government, June 2009.

5. Unsupported jobs are in the 'open' labour market and not dependent on public funding. Work Choice previously paid outcome payments for jobs that were supported by through other public funding. While the Scottish Government recognises the role supported employment plays in moving customers closer to the open labour market, it did not consider that these were ultimate outcomes for the service.

6. WAS data is drawn from SDS' Corporate Training System database. Data for WFS is held separately by each of the three providers. The WFS data in the following tables combine these data. It should also be recognised that not all variables are collected on the same basis, e.g. information on primary disabilities and long-term health conditions from the three providers identified 36, 65 or 9 categories.

7. Annual Population Survey data on Equality Act Disabled since December 2016 is currently being revised by ONS and is not available, so comparisons are made with Jan-Dec 2016.

8. By no means do all claimants of ESA WRAG have long-term health conditions. However, this group were the primary target client group for WAS in advance of the roll-out of Universal Credit in Scotland.

9. The Scottish Health Survey: 2016 Edition, volume 1 main report, Table 7.3 p131, CPC calculations to re-work result for 16-64s.

10. SDS CTS MIS data 1 April to 31 October 2017.

11. Work First Scotland Operational Guidance, Version 9, May 2017, p6.

12. SRO were established as part of the Work Choice programme and represent a range of organisations authorised to introduce potential customers to WFS providers. SROs were organisations that provide a service that helps disabled people with the highest support needs and were expected to help broaden the appeal of the service to those who may not attend JCP offices on a regular basis. The SRO introduces the customer to the provider who then liaises with JCP WCs who then make the referral to the programme.

13. We asked for a copy of the guidance but this is apparently a confidential document and not for publication.

14. The survey of WFS/ WAS customers found that 13% of WFS and 6% of WAS customers thought participation was mandatory but this may exclude those who knew it was voluntary but felt it prudent to explore the referral further. A further 8% on both programmes said their referral was because 'my adviser/coach at Jobcentre Plus encouraged me to do so'.

15. PRaP data for April to end of October 2017 as at end of October. A proportion of October referrals would not have had time to start WFS in this measure. The equivalent referrals to starts for April to end of September is 64%.

16. Work Choice Official Statistics, August 2017, Department of Work and Pensions.

17. Work Able Scotland Programme Rules, Skills Development Scotland, amended 23 May 2017, paragraph 7.2.

18. See Chapter 3 for more detail on the challenges of regular communications between JCP and provider staff.

19. Working Matters is a pilot initiative for people with health conditions on ESA WRAG or Universal Credit and funded by Glasgow City Region Deal in Glasgow and Clyde Valley local authority areas.

20. IFF WFS and WAS customer survey. Customers with health conditions that impacted on their daily lives and who had not had recent experience in the labour market were more likely to say this. Wider research (see background literature review in appendix 2) suggests that people with mental health conditions are more likely to have this concern.

21. IFF WFS and WAS customer survey found that 32% of WAS customers and 11% of WFS customers believe that their disability or health condition rules out work altogether. The frontline advisers did not suggest that this group was at anything like this scale however.

22. These offer certificates in Employability and Personal Development across a range of key skills, behaviours and attitudes in preparation for work.

23. For more detailed analysis see the literature review in appendix 2.

24. Evidence for WAS customers moving into work was more limited at the time fieldwork was undertaken.

25. We believe that this figure includes 'permitted work' where customers can work for less than 16 hours a week and retain their current benefits. Both JCP WCs and frontline advisers from providers reported that customers can become concerned about the uncertainty of moving into work and for some it is better that they commit to fewer hours as a stepping stone to moving off benefits entirely rather than not taking up the job opportunity at all.

26. It is unclear why this would occur. It is mostly likely that customers missed three consecutive meetings and so were exited from the programme but it could also be the case that customers were told that they had been returned to JCP because their maximum 6-month pre-employment support period had been completed.

27. Cohort of Work Choice starts, short job outcomes, job progressions and sustained job outcomes within 12 months of start. The starts/unsupported job outcomes for Q1-Q3 2016/17 are not measured for the full 12 month period and relate to starts in England and Wales only. Source DWP Work Choice Statistics August 2017.

28. It is likely that a proportion of these customers are working permitted hours, i.e. under 16 hours a week.

29. The Human Resources Administration funded core support services for addiction and mental health centrally and required all employability service providers to draw on these services for their clients as a mechanism to ensure high quality specialist services were available to all providers and pooling resources led to lower unit costs.

30. ONS Annual Population Survey 2016.

31. Family Resources Survey 2016/17 Disability Tables available at www.gov.uk/government/statistics/family-resources-survey-financial-year-201617.

32. Audit Scotland (2007) Managing long-term health conditions, August 2007.

33. NHS Scotland (2008) Measuring Long-Term Conditions in Scotland, Information Services Division, NHS Nations Services Scotland, June 2008.

34. The Scottish Health Survey: 2016 Edition, volume 1 main report, Table 7.3 p191.

35. Audit Scotland (2007).

36. Scope (2017), Disability facts and figures, (Online), Available at: https://www.scope.org.uk/media/ disability-facts-figures.

37. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2017) The disability pay gap, (Online), Available at: https:// www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/research-report-107-the-disability-pay-gap.pdf.

38. ONS, Annual Population Survey Jan-Dec 2016.

39. ONS, Annual Population Survey Jan-Dec 2016.

40. Gardinar and Gaffney (2016) Retention Deficit: A new approach to employment for people with health problems and disabilities, Resolution Foundation, June 2016.

41. Scottish Health Survey 2016, Table 6.3, p75.

42. ONS, Annual Population Survey Jan-Dec 2016.

43. Mujica-Mota et al. (2015). Common patterns of morbidity and multi-morbidity and their impact on health-related quality of life: evidence from a national survey, Quality of Life Research, 2015, Vol.24(4), pp.909-918.

44. Leonard Cheshire, December 2017, One in five employers say they would be less likely to employ a disabled person, (Online), Available at: < https://www.leonardcheshire.org/support-and-information/ latest-news/press-releases/one-five-employers-say-they-would-be-less-likely>.

45. Scope, November 2017, Let's Talk: Improving conversations about disability at work, (Online), Available at: < https://www.scope.org.uk/Get-Involved/Campaigns/Employment/Let-s-Talk>.

46. Scottish Government Closing the Disability Employment Gap: Options Appraisal, February 2018, included a review of evidence on the impact of different interventions to support disabled employment.

47. PHRC (2009). Helping chronically ill and disabled people into work: what can we learn from international comparative analyses? Final report, April 2009.

48. Greve, B. (2009). The Labour Market Situation of Disabled People in European Countries and Implementation of Employment Policies: a summary of evidence from country reports and research studies. Academic Network of European Disability experts ( ANED).

49. OECD (2010). Sickness, disability and work: breaking the barriers. A synthesis of findings across OECD countries. OECD.

50. OECD (2011). Sick on the job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work. OECD.

51. CFE (2015) Employment outcomes for people with long-term conditions – A rapid evidence assessment, Department of Health Policy Research Programme.

52. Roberts et al. (2010). Sick of work or too sick to work? Evidence on self- reported health shocks and early retirement from the BHPS. Economic Modelling, 27(4), pp. 866–880.

53. DLF, 2017, Key facts, (Online), Available at: < http://www.dlf.org.uk/content/key-facts>.

54. Gardinar and Gaffney (2016) Retention Deficit: A new approach to employment for people with health problems and disabilities, Resolution Foundation, June 2016.


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