Elasticities relevant to tourism in Scotland: evidence review

An overview of estimates of price elasticities of demand (PED) and income elasticities of demand (YED) for tourists to destinations relevant to Scotland; price elasticities of supply (PES) of commercial accommodation relevant to Scotland and other factors influencing the demand and supply of tourism.


Aberdeen City Council (2017) An analysis for introducing a tourism levy in Aberdeen.

Agiomirgianakis, G., Bertsatos, G. and Tsounis, N. (2018) "Asymmetric responses in the tourism demand function", Journal of Economic Asymmetries, 18.

All-Party Parliamentary Group for Hospitality (2019) Tourist Tax.

Altin, M. and Uysal, M. (2014) "Economic sentiment indicator as a demand determinant", Tourism Analysis, 19(5). pp.581–597.

Álvarez-Díaz, M., D'Hombres, B., Ghisetti, C. and Pontarollo, N. (2020) "Analysing domestic tourism flows at the provincial level in Spain by using spatial gravity models", International Journal of Tourism Research.

Álvarez-Díaz, M., González-Gómez, M. and Otero-Giráldez, M.S. (2015) "Research note: Estimating price and income demand elasticities for Spain separately by the major source markets", Tourism Economics, 21(5). pp.1103–1110.

Álvarez-Díaz, M., González-Gómez, M. and Otero-Giráldez, M.S. (2019) "Low cost airlines and international tourism demand. The case of Porto's airport in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula", Journal of Air Transport Management, 79.

American Economics Group (2004) "Update 2003: Room taxes and economic impact of the lodging industry", American Hotel & Lodging Educational Foundation.

Athanasopoulos, G., Deng, M., Li, G. and Song, H. (2014) "Modelling substitution between domestic and outbound tourism in Australia: A system-of-equations approach", Tourism Management, 45. pp.159–170.

Balli, F., Balli, H.O. and Jean Louis, R. (2016) "The impacts of immigrants and institutions on bilateral tourism flows", Tourism Management, 52. pp.221–229.

Bonham, C. and Gangnes, B. (1996) "Intervention analysis with cointegrated time series: the case of the Hawaii hotel room tax", Applied Economics, 29. pp.1281-1293.

Callaghan, N. and Tol, R.S.J. (2013) "UK Tourists, the great recession and Irish tourism policy", Economic and Social Review, 44(1). pp.103–116.

Chang, J., Lu, L. and Hu, S. (2011) "Congestion externalities of tourism, Dutch Disease and optimal taxation: macroeconomic implications", Economic Record, 87(276). pp.90-108.

Chartered ABS (2018a) Academic Journal Guide 2018.

Chartered ABS (2018b) Academic Journal Guide 2018 Methodology.

Divisekera, S. (2010) "Economics of tourist's consumption behaviour: Some evidence from Australia", Tourism Management, 31(5). pp.629–636.

Divisekera, S. and Deegan, J. (2010) "An analysis of consumption behaviour of foreign tourists in Ireland", Applied Economics, 42(13). pp.1681–1697.

Dogru, T. and Sirakaya-Turk, E. (2018) "Modeling Turkish outbound tourism demand using a dynamic panel data approach", Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(4). pp.411–414.

Dwyer, L., Seetaram, N., Forsyth, P. and King, B. (2014) "Is the migration-tourism relationship only about VFR?", Annals of Tourism Research, 46. pp.130–143.

Emili, S., Figini, P. and Guizzardi, A. (2019) "Modelling international monthly tourism demand at the micro destination level with climate indicators and web-traffic data", Tourism Economics.

Engström, T. and Kipperberg, G. (2015) "Decomposing the heterogeneous discretionary spending of international visitors to Fjord Norway", Tourism Management, 51. pp.131–141.

Eugenio-Martin, J.L. and Campos-Soria, J.A. (2011) "Income and the substitution pattern between domestic and international tourism demand", Applied Economics, 43(20). pp.2519–2531.

European Commission (2017) The impact of taxes on the competitiveness of European tourism. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC).

Falk, M. (2013) "The sensitivity of winter tourism to exchange rate changes: Evidence for the Swiss Alps", Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(2). pp.101–112.

Gatt, W. and Falzon, J. (2014) "British tourism demand elasticities in Mediterranean countries", Applied Economics, 46(29). pp.3548–3561.

Goktas, L.S. and Polat, S. (2019) "Tourist Tax Practices in European Union Member Countries and Its Applicability in Turkey", Journal of Tourismology, 5(2). pp.145–158.

Gounopoulos, D., Petmezas, D. and Santamaria, D. (2012) "Forecasting Tourist Arrivals in Greece and the Impact of Macroeconomic Shocks from the Countries of Tourists' Origin", Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2). pp.641–666.

Greater London Authority (2017) Options for a tourism levy for London: A publication for the London Finance Commission.

Gunter, U. and Smeral, E. (2017) "European outbound tourism in times of economic stagnation", International Journal of Tourism Research, 19(3). pp.269–277.

Halicioglu, F. (2010) "An econometric analysis of the aggregate outbound tourism demand of Turkey", Tourism Economics, 16(1). pp.83–97.

Jeřábek, T. (2019) "Selected determinants of tourism demand- Panel cointegration analysis", Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series D: Faculty of Economics and Administration, 46(2). pp.67–78.

Ketenci, N. (2010) "Cointegration analysis of tourism demand for Turkey", Applied Econometrics and International Development, 10(1). pp.87–110.

Kristjánsdóttir, H. (2020) "Tax on tourism in Europe: Does higher value-added tax (VAT) impact tourism demand in Europe?", Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0). pp.1–4.

Li, H., Chen, J.L., Li, G. and Goh, C. (2016) "Tourism and regional income inequality: Evidence from China", Annals of Tourism Research, 58. pp.81–99.

Massidda, C. and Etzo, I. (2012) "The determinants of Italian domestic tourism: A panel data analysis", Tourism Management, 33(3). pp.603–610.

Nguyen, P. (2015) "The Long-Run Supply of Real Estate: An empirical study into the UK hotel market 2003 - 2013", Surrey Undergraduate Research Journal, 1(1).

Ordóñez, J.M., Ordóñez, M.C. and Torres, J.L. (2010) "Distance matters: An assessment of international tourism demand in Spain", Tourism Analysis, 15(2). pp.183–196.

Otero-Giráldez, M.S., Álvarez-Díaz, M. and González-Gómez, M. (2012) "Estimating the long-run effects of socioeconomic and meteorological factors on the domestic tourism demand for Galicia (Spain)", Tourism Management, 33(6). pp.1301–1308.

Peng, B., Song, H., Crouch, G.I. and Witt, S.F. (2015) "A Meta-Analysis of International Tourism Demand Elasticities", Journal of Travel Research, 54(5). pp.611–633.

Rey, B., Myro, R.L. and Galera, A. (2011) "Effect of low-cost airlines on tourism in Spain. A dynamic panel data model", Journal of Air Transport Management, 17(3). pp.163–167.

Salmasi, L., Celidoni, M. and Procidano, I. (2012) "Length of Stay: Price and Income Semi-Elasticities at Different Destinations in Italy", International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(6). pp.515–530.

Santos, A. and Cincera, M. (2018) "Tourism demand, low cost carriers and European institutions: The case of Brussels", Journal of Transport Geography, 73. pp.163–171.

Seetaram, N. (2012) "Estimating demand elasticities for Australia's international outbound tourism", Tourism Economics, 18(5). pp.999–1017.

Seetaram, N., Forsyth, P. and Dwyer, L. (2016) "Measuring price elasticities of demand for outbound tourism using competitiveness indices", Annals of Tourism Research, 56. pp.65–79.

Seetaram, N., Song, H. and Page, S.J. (2014) "Air Passenger Duty and Outbound Tourism Demand from the United Kingdom", Journal of Travel Research, 53(4). pp.476–487.

Serra, J., Correia, A. and Rodrigues, P.M.M. (2014) "A comparative analysis of tourism destination demand in Portugal", Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 2(4). pp.221–227.

Smeral, E. (1994) "Economic models", in Witt, S.F. and Moutinho, L. (eds.) Tourism Marketing and Management Handbook. 2nd edition. New York: Prentice Hall. pp.497–503.

Smeral, E. (2012) "International tourism demand and the business cycle", Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1). pp.379–400.

Smeral, E. (2014) "Forecasting international tourism with due regard to asymmetric income effects", Tourism Economics, 20(1). pp.61–72.

Smeral, E. (2019) "Seasonal forecasting performance considering varying income elasticities in tourism demand", Tourism Economics, 25(3). pp.355–374.

Song, H., Li, G., Witt, S.F. and Fei, B. (2010) "Tourism demand modelling and forecasting: How should demand be measured?", Tourism Economics, 16(1). pp.63–81.

Song, H. and Wong, K.K.F. (2003) "Tourism Demand Modeling: A Time-Varying Parameter Approach", Journal of Travel Research, 42(1). pp.57–64.

Surugiu, C., Leitão, N.C. and Surugiu, M.R. (2011) "A Panel data modelling of international tourism demand: Evidences for Romania", Ekonomska Istrazivanja, 24(1). pp.134–145.

The Scottish Parliament (2018) Transient visitor levy. Culture, Tourism, Europe and External Affairs Committee, 22nd Meeting, 2018 (Session 5) Thursday 13 September 2018. CTEEA/S5/18/22/1.

Thompson, A. (2013) "Research note: Greek tourism: Return to the drachma?", Tourism Economics, 19(6). pp.1475–1481.

Tribe, J. (2016) The economics of recreation, leisure and tourism. 5th edition. Oxon: Routledge.

Turrion-Prats, J. and Duro, J.A. (2017) "Tourist seasonality in Catalonia: The relevance of demand factors", Tourism Economics, 23(4). pp.846–853.

VisitScotland (2019) Key Facts on Tourism in Scotland 2018.

Xie, J. and Tveterås, S. (2020) "Economic decline and the birth of a tourist nation", Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism.

Yamaura, K. and Thompson, A. (2015) "Analysis of Tourism Demand Model Across European Source Countries", Tourism Planning and Development, 12(2). pp.145–154.

Yang, Y. and Fik, T. (2014) "Spatial effects in regional tourism growth", Annals of Tourism Research, 46. pp.144–162.


Email: juanmanuel.scarilli@gov.scot

Back to top