Publication - Progress report

Draft Sectoral Marine Plans for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scottish Waters: Socio - Economic Assesment

Published: 25 Jul 2013
Part of:
Marine and fisheries
ISBN:
9781782567509

The study reported here provides a high level socio-economic appraisal of the potential costs and benefits to activities that may arise as a result of offshore wind, wave or tidal development within the Draft Plan Options as part of possible future Scotti

383 page PDF

4.7 MB

383 page PDF

4.7 MB

Contents
Draft Sectoral Marine Plans for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scottish Waters: Socio - Economic Assesment
B7. Military Interests

383 page PDF

4.7 MB

B7. Military Interests

B7.1 Overview

The military defence sector makes use of the Scottish coastline for the location of bases and training and use of the sea for training, test and evaluation activities and the surveillance and monitoring of waters to detect and respond to potential threats. In this assessment military interests comprise the use of the coast and seas by the Royal Navy (submarine bases, jetties and exercise areas), Army (training camps and firing ranges), Royal Air Force (bases, coastal Air Weapon Ranges and Danger Areas) and MOD (Defence Test and Evaluation Ranges to trial weapon systems) (Baxter et al, 2011). The location of military interests in relation to Draft Plan Option areas is presented in Figure B7. Information sources used in the assessment are listed in Table B7.1.

Table B7.1 Information Sources

Scale

Information Available

Date

Source

Scotland

Scottish Naval Exercise Areas Information

2010

www.rnopsscotland.com

Scotland

Defence Analytical Services and Advice. DASA Quad Service. 4

2010

www.dasa.mod.uk/

B7.2 Future Trends

Specific defence projects may provide significant employment opportunities. For example, with respect to future aircraft carriers, building the hull sections and outfitting the vessels will provide work for about 10,000 people, including 3,500 at the two Clyde yards and 1,600 at Rosyth, Fife at the project's peak ( UKMMAS, 2010).

Owing to the confidential nature of military defence activities it is difficult to assess likely future trends, however future employment will be governed by the forth coming spending cuts within the Ministry of Defence. In addition there are plans to build the next generation of submarines, which may be constructed in Scotland as in the past.

B7.3 Potential for Interaction

Table B7.2 shows potential interaction pathways between military activities and wind, wave and/or tidal arrays.

Explanation of column content:

Column 1: Describes the potential interaction between the activity and any renewable technology;

Column 2: Identifies the types of offshore renewable development (wind, wave or tidal) for which the interaction may arise;

Column 3: Identifies the potential socio-economic consequence associated with the interaction identified in Column 1;

Column 4: Indicates whether detailed assessment will or will not be required if activity is scoped in;

Column 5: Identifies how the socio-economic impact will be assessed.

Table B7.2 Potential for Interaction

1

2

3

4

5

Potential Interaction

Technology Relevance (Wind, Wave, Tidal)

Potential Socio-economic Consequence

Scoped in (√) or Out (X) of Assessment

How the Economic Impact will be Assessed

Competition for space

All arrays

Displacement of activity leading to increased costs

- only where Draft Plan Option areas or cable corridors overlap with Military Practice or Exercise Areas or coastal military locations/installations

Consultation with MOD to identify specific impacts and devise a methodology for assessing impacts.

Interference with radar systems

Wind arrays only

The need to provide radar mitigation for strategic en-route and low level radar interference.

X - if required, radar mitigation costs will be borne by the developer rather than the MOD.

Not required.

Qualitative assessment of potential issues undertaken (see Section B7.4)

Interference with underwater communications

All arrays

Displacement of activity leading to increased costs

Consultation with the MOD to identify any potentially significant risks to strategic communication systems and devise a methodology for assessing impacts.

B7.4 Scoping Methodology

B7.4.1 Competition for Space

Wind, wave and tidal arrays may cause displacement of military activity leading to increased costs where Draft Plan Option areas and/or cable corridors spatially overlap with military installations/locations [20] on the coast and/or Military Practice or Exercise Areas ( PEXA).

As such, the following scoping methodology was applied for proposed wind, wave and tidal Draft Plan Option areas and cable corridors:

Wind:

  • Draft Plan Option areas that do not intersect with any type of PEXA (aviation or non-aviation) were scoped out;
  • Draft Plan Option areas that intersect with any type of military location or PEXA (aviation or non-aviation) were considered to require a more detailed assessment;
  • Cable corridors that did not intersect with any military locations or non-aviation PEXA were scoped out; and
  • Cable corridors that intersected with any military locations or non-aviation PEXA were considered to require a quantitative impact assessment.

In addition, the DECC Aviation Safeguarding website was used to identify Draft Plan Option areas for wind arrays which were likely to cause interference with military low flying areas and the outputs of this scoping exercise was discussed further with the relevant stakeholder. The output of this scoping exercise is presented in Appendix C7.

Wave and Tidal:

  • Draft Plan Option areas that do not intersect with any type of non-aviation PEXA were scoped out;
  • Draft Plan Option areas that do intersect with any type of non-aviation PEXA were considered to require a quantitative impact assessment;
  • Cable corridors that do not intersect with any military locations or non-aviation PEXA were scoped out; and
  • Cable corridors that do intersect with non-aviation PEXA were considered to require a quantitative impact assessment.

It should be noted that the spatial overlap of wave and tidal Draft Plan Option areas and/or cable corridors with aviation PEXA was not used in the scoping method based on the assumption that only aircraft manoeuvres rather than missile firing/testing was undertaken in these PEXA, which would not conflict with wave or tidal energy development. However, it can also be noted that with one exception (Cape Wrath in the North-West/West regions) all 'aviation PEXA' fall within 'non-aviation' PEXA within which missile firing/testing is undertaken.

B7.4.2 Interference With Radar Systems

Wind turbines can adversely affect a number of MOD operations including radars, seismological recording equipment and communications facilities ( DECC website).

Mitigation for radar interference from offshore wind arrays will be required as a condition of consent if there is a potentially significant effect. This cost would be transferred to the developer and hence no quantitative assessment of this cost has been undertaken. However, stakeholders were consulted to assess whether there were any issues or concerns about any of the Draft Plan Option areas and the scale of any potential issues.

Prior to undertaking this consultation the data available on the DECC Aviation Safeguarding website was used to identify Draft Plan Option areas which were likely to cause interference with radar systems and the outputs of this scoping exercise was discussed further with stakeholders. The outcome of this scoping exercise and stakeholder consultation is provided in Appendix C7.

B7.4.3 Interference With Underwater Communication

Underwater communications refer to submarine listening devices, underwater communication systems (submarines) and sonar used by surface vessels. Such interference could lead to the displacement of activity leading to increased costs.

For the purpose of this assessment, this potential negative effect was only considered likely to occur for Draft Plan Option areas or export cable routes that were within 10km of non-aviation PEXA. Using this assumption:

Wind, wave and tidal Draft Plan Option areas:

  • Draft Plan Option areas which were > 10km from any non-aviation PEXA area were scoped out; and
  • Draft Plan Option areas which were < 10km from any non-aviation PEXA were considered to require a quantitative impact assessment (if sufficient information was available to undertake the assessment).

B7.5 Assessment Methodology

B7.5.1 Competition for Space, Interference with Radar Systems and Interference With Underwater Communications

Consultation was undertaken with the MOD Safeguarding Defence Infrastructure Organisation to establish whether there were any specific areas of concern, and the magnitude of any such concerns for the military defence sector, in relation to the proposed Draft Plan Option areas and export cable corridors. This consultation also sought to establish whether any impacts could be quantitatively assessed.


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