Publication - Impact assessment

Offshore wind energy - draft sectoral marine plan: habitat regulations appraisal

Published: 18 Dec 2019
Marine Scotland Directorate
Part of:
Energy, Marine and fisheries

The habitats regulations appraisal is completed in accordance with the Habitats Regulations that implement the EC Habitats and Birds Directives in UK waters and has been completed for the sectoral marine plan for offshore wind.

Offshore wind energy - draft sectoral marine plan: habitat regulations appraisal
13 References

13 References

ABP Research & Consultancy Ltd. 2000.  Humber International Terminal (HIT) Ornithological Survey: Annual Monitoring Report 1999/2000, ABP Research & Consultancy Ltd, Research Report No. R.882.

ABP Research & Consultancy Ltd. 2001.  Immingham Outer Harbour, Environmental Statement, August 2001, ABP Research & Consultancy Ltd, Research Report No. R.903.

ABPmer, 2002.  ABP Teignmouth Quay Development Environmental Statement.  ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, Report No. R.984a.

ABPmer, 2008. Environmental Statement for Port of Southampton: Berth 201/202 Works. ABPmer Report No. R.1494.

ABPmer, 2009. Wet Renewable Energy and Marine Nature Conservation: Developing Strategies for Management. ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, Report No. R.1451.

ABPmer, 2010a. Screening and Scoping Review for the Pentland Firth Strategic Area (PFSA) Leasing Round Habitats Regulations Assessment. Report for The Crown Estate, ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, Report No: R.1601. January 2010.

ABPmer, 2011a. Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters. Report for the Scottish Government, ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, Report No: R.1722a-c. January 2011.

ABPmer, 2011b. Habitats Regulations Appraisal of National Infrastructure Renewables Plan (N-RIP). Report for the Scottish Government, A ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, Report No: R.1772a-b. January 2011.

ABPmer, 2013. Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Wave and Tidal Energy in Scottish Waters. Reports for Marine Scotland, ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, Report No: R.1863a-c. January 2013.

ABPmer 2013f. Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Wave and Tidal Energy (W&TE) in Scottish Waters.  Report for Marine Scotland 2013; ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, Final Report January 2013 Report Nos. R.1863a (Pre-Screening); R.1863b (Screening); and R.1863c (Report to Inform Appropriate Assessment); and R.1863d (PSG Comments Review).

ABPmer, 2017. Habitats Regulations Appraisal of the Draft Sectoral Marine Plans for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scottish Waters. Reports for Marine Scotland, ABPmer Report No: R.2121a-c. 5 May 2017.

Alabaster, J.S., 1993. River Usk Barrage Order 1993. Proof of Evidence on Pollution and Fisheries.

Arena, P.T., Jordan, L.K.B., Spieler, R.E. 2007. Fish assemblages on sunken vessels and natural reefs in southeast Florida. Hydrobiologia 580: 157-171.

Armstrong JD, Hunter DC, Fryer RJ, Rycroft P and Orpwood JE (2015) Behavioural Responses of Atlantic Salmon to Mains Frequency Magnetic Fields. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science, 6 (9) 22pp

Bailey, H., Senior, B., Simmons, D., Rusin, J., Picken, G., Thomson, P. 2010. Assessing underwater noise levels during pile-driving at an offshore windfarm

and its potential effects on marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 888-897.

Bailey, H., Brookes, K.L., Thompson, P.M. 2014. Assessing Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future. Aquatic Biosystems. 10:8.

Band, B. 2012. Using a collision risk model to assess bird collision risks for offshore windfarms. Project SOSS-02. Report to the Crown Estate. pp62.

Benjamins, S., Harnois, V., Smith, H.C.M., Johanning, L., Greenhill, L., Carter, C. and Wilson, B. 2014. Understanding the potential for marine megafauna entanglement risk from renewable marine energy developments. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 791.

BERR, 2008.  Review of cabling techniques and environmental effects applicable to the offshore wind farm industry - Technical Report. BERR. [cited in Entec UK Ltd, 2009a].

Blaxter, J. H. S., Gray, J.A.B and Denton, E.J. 1981. Sound and startle responses in herring shoals. J.mar.biol.Ass.UK. 61, 851-869.

Boorman, L.A. 2003. Saltmarsh Review. An overview of coastal saltmarshes, their dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation and management, JNCC, Peterborough.

Bowgen, K., and Cook, A. 2018. Bird collision avoidance: Empirical evidence and impact assessments. JNCC Report No. 614, JNCC, Peterborough, ISSN 0963-8091.

Bradbury, G., Trinder, M., Furness, B., Banks, A.N., Caldow, R.W.G., Hume, D. 2014. Mapping Seabird Sensitivity to Offshore Wind Farms.PLoS ONE 9(9): e106366.

Brandt, M. J., Diederichs, A., Betke, K., Nehls, G. 2011. Responses of harbour porpoises to pile driving at the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the Danish North Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 421: 205-216.

Brandt, M., Dragon, A., Diederichs, A., Bellmann, M., Wahl, V., Piper, W., Nabe-Nielsen, J., Nehls, G. 2018. Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 596:213-232.

Brawn V.M. 1969. Feeding behaviour of cod Gadus morhua. J. Fish. Res. Board Can 26, 583-596.

Bunker, F. 2004. Biology and video surveys of North Hoyle wind turbines 11-13th August 2004. A report to CMACS Ltd by Marine Seen, Estuary Cottage, Bentlass, Hundleton, Pembs. SA71 5RN.

Carter, C. 2007. Marine Renewable Energy Devices: A Collision Risk for Marine Mammals? MSc thesis University of Aberdeen.

Cattaneo-Vietti R., Benatti, U, Cerrano, C., Giovine, M., Tazioli, S and Bavestrello, G., 2003. A marine biological underwater depuration system (MUDS) to process waste waters. Biomolecular Engineering 20:291-298.

Clark, C. W., Ellison, W. T., Southall, B.L., Hatch, L., Van Parijs, S.M., Frankel, A., and D. Ponirakis, 2009. Acoustic masking in marine ecosystems: intuitions, analysis, and implication. Marine Ecology Progress Series 395: 201-222.

Clynick, B.G., 2008. Characteristics of an urban fish assemblage: distribution of fish associated with coastal marinas. Marine Environmental Research 65: 18-33.

CMACS. 2003. COWRIE Phase 1 Report. A Baseline Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Offshore Wind farm Cables. Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies (CMACS). COWRIE Report EMF - 01-2002 66.

Cochran, W.W., and Graber, R.R. 1958. Attraction of nocturnal migrants by lights on a television tower. Wilson Bulletin, 70: 378-380.

Cook, A.S., Humphreys, E.M., Masden, E.A., Burton, N.H. 2014. The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Volume 5 Number 16.

Cook, A.S., Johnston, A., Wright, L.J., and Burton, N.H. 2012. A review of flight heights and avoidance rates of birds in relation to offshore wind farms. Strategic Ornithological Support Services: Project SOSS-02. BTO and The Crown Estate.

Cook, A.S., Ward, R.M., Hansen, W.S., Larsen, L., 2018. Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 9 No 14, 59pp. DOI: 10.7489/12131-1.

Cui, G., Wardle, C. S., Glass, C.W., Johnstone, A.D.F and Mojsiewicz, W.R. 1991. Light level thresholds of visual reaction of mackerel, Scomber scombrus L. to coloured monofilament nylon gillnet materials. Fisheries Research 10, 255-263.

Cummings, J., 2003. Seismic surveys: what we don’t know can hurt. A report for Greenpeace by Acoustic Ecology Institute.

Dähne, M., Gilles, A., Lucke, K., Peschko, V., Adler, S., Krügel, K., Sundermeyer, J. and Siebert, U. 2013. Effects of pile-driving on harbour porpoises (Phococena phocoena) at the first offshore wind farm in Germany. Environmental Research Letters: 8 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/025002.

Daunt, F., Camphuysen, C.J., Humphreys, E.M., Hamer, K.C., Wanless, S. and Skov, H. 2005. Local/daily scale hydrography, prey and seabird interactions. In Understanding Marine Food-web Processes: an Ecosystem Approach to Sustainable Sandeel Fisheries in the North Sea: IMPRESS Final Report (e.d. C.J. Camphuysen), pp 163-180. NIOZ-rapport, 2005-5, NIOZ, Texel, Netherlands.

Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Peters, G., Benvenuti, S., Sharples, J., Grémillet, D. and Scott, B. 2006. Impacts of oceanography on the foraging dynamics of seabirds in the North Sea. In Top Predators in Marine Ecosystems: Their Role in Monitoring and Management (eds I. Boyd, S. Wanless & C.J. Camphuysen), pp 177-190. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

David, J. 2006. Likely sensitivity of bottlenose dolphins to pile-driving noise. Water and Environment Journal. doi:10.1111/j.1747-6593.2005.00023.x.

David Tyldesley and Associates, 2015. Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Plans. Guidance for Plan-making Bodies in Scotland Version 3.0, January 2015 SNH Ref 1739.

DECC, 2009. UK Offshore Energy Strategic Environmental Assessment. Future Leasing for Offshore Wind Farms and Licensing for Offshore Oil & Gas and Gas Storage. Environmental Report.

Defra, 2010. Accessing and developing the required biophysical datasets and data layers for Marine Protected Areas network planning and wider marine spatial planning purposes Report No 22 Task 3 Development of a Sensitivity Matrix (pressures-MCZ/MPA features) Final September 2010.

Dehnhardt, G., Mauck, B., Hanke, W. & Bleckmann, H. 2001. Hydrodynamic trail-following in harbor seals Phoca vitulina. Science, 293, 102-104.

Dempster T and Kingsford, M.J. 2004. Homing of pelagic fish to fish aggregation devices (FADs): The role of sensory cues. Marine Ecology Progress Series 258: 213-222.

Desholm, M and Kahlert, J. 2005. Avian Collision Risk at an Offshore Wind Farm. Biology Letters 1: 296-298.

Diederichs, A. Grünkorn and Nehls, G., 2008. Offshore windfarms-disturbance or attraction for harbour porpoises? First results of T-pod investigation in horns rev and nysted. In. Proceedings of the ASCOBANS/ECS workshop offshore windfarms and marine mammal. Impacts  and methodologies for assessing impacts. Ed. Evans, P.G.H.

Dirksen S., Spaans A.L. and Van der Winden J. 2000. Studies on Nocturnal Flight Paths and Altitudes of Waterbirds in Relation to Wind Turbines: A Review of Current Research in the Netherlands. In Proceedings of the National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting III, San Diego, California, May 2000. Prepared for the National Wind Coordinating Committee. Ontario: LGL Ltd.

Dirksen S., Van der Winden J. and Spaans A.L. 1998. Nocturnal collision risks of birds with wind turbines in tidal and semi offshore areas. In Ratto CF and Solari G (eds). Wind Energy and Landscape. Rotterdam: Balkema, 99-108pp.

Drewitt A.L. and Langston R.H. 2006. Assessing the impacts of wind farms on birds. Ibis 148, 29-42.

Dunlop, R. A., Noad, M. J., McCauley, R. D., Scott‐Hayward, L., Kniest, E., Slade, R., Cato, D. H. (2017). Determining the behavioural dose response relationship of marine mammals to air gun noise and source proximity. Journal of Experimental Biology, 220, 2878–2886.

EC, 2007. Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats (EUR27) Appendix 1

Ecology Consulting 2001 Assessment of the effects of offshore wind farms on birds.  ETSU W/13/00565/1434

Ellison, W.T., Southall B.L., Clark C.W., Frankel A.S., 2012. A new context-based approach to assess marine mammal behavioural responses to anthropogenic sounds. Conservation Biology 26: 21 8.

Enders, E.C., Boisclair, D and Roy A.G, 2003. The effect of turbulence on the cost of swimming for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 1149-1160.

Enstipp, M.R., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Humphreys, E.M., Hamer, K.C., Benvenuti, S. and Grémillet, D., 2006. Foraging energetics of North Sea birds confronted with fluctuating prey availability. Top Predators in Marine Ecosystems: Their Role in Monitoring and Management (eds I. Boyd, S. Wanless & C.J. Camphuysen), pp 191-210. Conservation Biology 12. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Entec 2011 Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2009-2020 Habitats Regulations Assessment - Screening Report and Appropriate Assessment (Final Report) June 2011.

Entec, 2009a. Habitats Regulations Assessment of the Round 3 Plan. Screening Report. Report for The Crown Estate. October 2009.

ERM, 1996.  South Humber Power Station, Pyewipe, Bird Monitoring Study, April 1996.

European Commission, 2001. Assessment of plans and projects significantly affecting Natura 2000 sites.

Evans, W. R. and Manville, A. M. 2000. Avian mortality at communication towers. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University.

FARL, 1995. Possible impacts of dredging on salmonids. Research Note for ABP Research. Fawley Aquatic Research Laboratories Ltd.

Faulkner, R., Farcas, A., Merchant, N. 2018. Guiding principles for assessing the impact of underwater noise. Journal of Applied Ecology 55, 2531-2536.

Fisher C and Slater M (2010) Effects of electromagnetic fields on marine species: A literature review. Report prepared on behalf of Oregon Wave Energy Trust. 26pp.  Available at:

Freon, P and Dagorn, L., 2000. Review of fish associative behaviour: toward a generalisation of the meeting point hypothesis. Rev. Fish. Biol. Fisheries 10: 183-207.

Furness, R.W.  & Tasker, M.L.  2000.  Seabird-fishery interactions: quantifying the sensitivity of seabirds to reductions in sandeel abundance, and identification of key areas for sensitive seabirds in the North Sea.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 202: 253-264.

Furness, R.W., Wade, H.M., & Masden E.A.  2013. Assessing vulnerability of marine bird populations to offshore wind farms. Journal of Environmental Management. 119; 56-66.

Garthe, S. & Hüppop, O. 2004. Scaling possible adverse effects of marine wind farms on seabirds: developing and applying a vulnerability index. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 724 - 734.

Gaston, A.J. & Jones, I.L. 1998. The Auks. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.

Gaston, A.J. 2004. Seabirds: A Natural History. Christopher Helm A & C Black, London, UK.

Gentle Giants. 2012. Top Encounter 2012. Gentle Giants - Visit the Gentle Giants of Husavik- Probably the best place in Iceland for whale watching - NEWS [Online]. Available from:

Gerstner, C.L. 1998. Use of substratum ripples for flow refuging by Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Environmental Biology of Fishes 51: 455-460.

Gill A.B., Gloyne-Phillips, I.T., Neal, K.J and Kimber J.A., 2005. The potential effects of electromagnetic fields generated by sub-sea power cables associated with offshore wind farm developments on electrically and magnetically sensitive marine organisms - a review. Report to COWRIE, London, 90pp.

Gill, A.B. & Bartlett, M. 2010. Literature review on the potential effects of electromagnetic fields and subsea noise from marine renewable energy developments on Atlantic salmon, sea trout and European eel. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.401.

Graham, I., Pirotta, E., Merchant, N., Farcas, A., Barton, T., Cheney, B., Hastie, G., Thomson, P. 2017. Responses of bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises to impact and vibration piling noise during harbor construction. Ecosphere, 8(5):e01793.10.1002/ecs2.1793.

Griffin L., Rees E., and Hughes B. 2010. The Migration of Whooper Swans in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Final Report to COWRIE Ltd. March 2010 (COWRIE Project Code: SWAN-06-08).

Guthrie, D.M., and Muntz, W.R.A. 1993. Role of vision in fish behaviour. In Behaviour of teleost fishes. Edited by T.J. Pitcher. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.

Hamer, K.  C., Humphreys, E.  M., Garthe, S., Hennicke, J., Peters, G., Grémillet, D., Phillips, R.  A., Harris, M.  P., & Wanless, S.  (2007).  Annual variation in diets, feeding locations and foraging behaviour of gannets in the North Sea: flexibility, consistency and constraint.  Mar Ecol Prog Ser 338: 295-305.

Hanke, W., Wieskotten, S., Marshall, C. & Dehnhardt, G. 2013. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 199, 421-440.

Harwood, J. 2001. Marine Mammals and their Environment in the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Mammalogy 82, 630–640.

Hastings, M.C., and Popper, A.N. 2005.  Effects of sounds on fish. Report to Jones and Stokes for California Department of Transportation, January 2005. 82pp.

Hawkins, A. D. & Myrberg Jr, A. A., 1983. Hearing and sound communication under water. In: Bioacoustics: A Comparative Approach (Ed. by B. Lewis), pp. 347-405: Academic Press.

Helvey, M., 2002. Are southern California oil and gas platforms essential fish habitat? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 266-271.

Hawkins, A., and Popper, A. 2016. A sound approach to assessing the impact of underwater noise in marine fishes and invertebrates. ICES Journal of Marine Science 74, 635-651.

Hawkins, A. D., and Popper, A. (2014). “Assessing the impacts of underwater

sounds on fishes and other forms of marine life,” Acoust. Today 10, 30–41.

Hawkins A. D., Pembroke A., Popper A. 2015. Information gaps in understanding the effects of noise on fishes and invertebrates. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries , 25: 39–64.

Hawkins, A.D., Roberts, L. & Cheesman, S., 2014. Responses of free-living coastal pelagic fish to impulsive sounds. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 135: 3101-3116.

Hendry, K and Cragg-Hine D .2003. Ecology of the Atlantic Salmon. Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers Ecology Series No. 7. English Nature, Peterborough.

Hockin, D., Ounsted, M., Gorman, M., Keller, V., and Barker, M.A. 1992.  Examination of the effects of disturbance of birds with reference to its importance in ecological assessments. Journal of Environmental Management, 36:253-286.

Hoelzel, R.A (ed). 2002. Marine Mammal Biology: An evolutionary approach. Blackwell Publishing. 452pp.

IAMMWG, 2015. Management Units for cetaceans in UK waters (January 2015).

IECS, 2007. The River Humber (Upper Burcom Tidal Stream Generator) Order. Environmental Statement, Final Draft. October 2007. A report produced by the Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, University of Hull.

Jepson, P.D., Tregenza, N and Simmonds, M.P. 2009. Disappearing bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

JNCC, 2008. The deliberate disturbance of marine European Protected Species: Interim guidance for English and Welsh territorial waters and the UK offshore marine area.

Johnson, L., Dorn, P., Muench, K., and Hood, M. 1976. An evaluation of fish entrapment associated with the offshore cooling water intake system at Redondo Beach Steam Generating Station Units 7 and 8. South. Calif. Edison Co. Res. Develop. Ser. 77-RD-12, Rosemead, Calif., 36 p.

Johnston, A., Cook, A., Wright, L., Humphreys, E., Burton, N. 2014. Modelling flight heights of marine birds to more accurately assess collision risk with offshore wind turbines. Journal of Applied Ecology 51, 31–41.

Jongbloed, R.H. 2016. Flight height of seabirds. A literature study IMARES. Report C024/16.

Kastelein, R. A., Verboom, W. C., Jennings, N., de Haan, D., & van der Heul, S. (2008). The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behaviour of harbor porpoises Phocoena phocoena in a floating pen. Marine Environmental Research, 66(3), 319-326.

Kastelein, R. A., Van Heerden, D., Gransier, R., Hoek, L. 2013. Behavioral responses of a harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena to playbacks of broadband pile driving sounds. Mar Environ Res. 92: 206-214.

Krijgsveld, K.L., R. Lensink, H. Schekkerman, P. Wiersma, M.J.M. Poot, E.H.W.G. Meesters & S. Dirksen, 2005. Baseline studies North Sea wind farms: fluxes, flight paths and altitudes of flying birds 2003 - 2004. Report 05-041. Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg.

Krijgsveld, K.L., R.C. Fijn, M. Japink, P.W. van Horssen, C. Heunks, M.P. Collier, M.J.M. Poot, D. Beuker & S. Dirksen, 2011. Effect studies Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee: Final report on fluxes, flight altitudes and behaviour of flying birds. Report 10-219. Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg

Larsen, J. K., and Guilemette, M. 2007. Effects of wind turbines on flight behaviour of wintering Common Eiders: implications for habitat use and collision risk. Journal of Applies Ecology 44:516-522.

Learmonth, J.A., Macleod, C.D., Santos, M.B., Pierce, G.J., Crick, H.Q.P and Robinson, R.A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography & Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 44, 431-464.

Lenhardt, M.L. and Sismour, E. 1995. Hearing in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the long nose gar (Lepisosteus spatula). Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abs: 259. The Association for Research in Otolaryngology.

Liao, J.C. 2007. A review of fish swimming mechanics and behaviour in altered flows. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society Series B 362: 1973-1993.

Linley, E.A.S., Wilding, T.A., Black K., Hawkins, A.J.S. and Mangi S, 2007. Review of the reef effects of offshore wind farm structures and their potential for enhancement and mitigation. Report from PML Applications Ltd and the Scottish Association for Marine Science to the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR), Contract No: RFCA/005/0029P.

Lucke, K., Siebert, U., Lepper, P.A. and Blanchet, M.A. 2009. Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds in a harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena after exposure to seismic airgun stimuli. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125: 4060 – 4070.

MacLeod, C.  D., Begoña Santos, M., Reid, R.J., Scott, B.E and Pierce G.J. 2007.  Linking sandeel consumption and the likelihood of starvation in harbour porpoises in the Scottish North Sea: could climate change mean more starving porpoises? Biol.  Lett.3, 185-188.

MacGillivray, A.O., Racca, R. and Zizheng, L., 2014. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources. Available at: (accessed 02/11/2018)

Maitland. P.S. 2003. Ecology of the River, Brook and Sea Lamprey. Conserving Natura 2000 Rivers Ecology Series No. 5. English Nature, Peterborough.

Mann, D., Popper, A., Lu, Z. 1997. A clupeid fish can detect ultrasound. Nature 389, 341. DOI: 10.1038/38636.

Marine Scotland. 2012. Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines. Prepared by MacArthur Green Ltd (Furness and Wade).

Martin, B., Zeddies, D. G., Gaudet, B., and Richard, J. 2016. Evaluation of three sensor types for particle motion measurement. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II, pp. 679–686. Ed. by A. N. Popper, and A. D. Hawkins. Springer, New York.

Marubini, F., Gimona, A., Evans, P.G.H., Wright, P.J. and Pierce, G.J. 2009 Habitat preferences and interannual variability in occurrence of the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in the north-west of Scotland. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 381: 297-310.

Masden, E. 2015. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 6 No 14: Developing an avian collision risk model to incorporate variability and uncertainty. Published by Marine Scotland Science. DOI: 10.7489/1659-1.

McCauley, R. D., Fewtrell, J., Duncan, A. J., Jenner, C., Jenner, M-N., Penrose, J. D., Prince, R. I. T., Adhitya, A., Murdoch, J. and McCabe, K. (2000). Marine seismic surveys – A study of environmental implications. Appea Journal, pp. 692-707.

McGregor, R., King, S., Donovan, C., Caneco, B., Webb, A. 2018. A Stochastic collision risk model for seabirds in flight.

Mendel, B., J. Kotzerka, J. Sommerfeld, H. Schwemmer, N. Sonntag & S. Garthe.  2014. Effects of the offshore test site Alpha Ventus on distribution patterns, behaviour and flight heights of seabirds. Chapter in StUK-plus publication.

Miller, L., Wahlberg, M., 2013. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: life in coastal waters. Frontiers in Physiology. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2013.00052.

MMO, 2013. East of England Marine Plans Habitats Regulations Assessment. Reports Prepared by ABPmer, Hartley Anderson and Hyder Consulting (UK) Ltd., ABPmer Report No. R.2020a-c. March 2013.

Nedelec, S. L., Campbell, J., Radford, A. N., Simpson, S. D., & Merchant, N. D. 2016. Particle motion: The missing link in underwater acoustic ecology. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 836–842.

Nedwell, J., Landworthy, J., Howell, D. 2003a. Assessment of sub-sea acoustic noise and vibration from offshore wind turbines and its impact on marine wildlife; initial measurements of underwater noise during construction of offshore windfarms, and comparison with background noise. Report No. 544 R 0424.

Nedwell, J. and Howell, D., 2004. A review of offshore wind farm related underwater noise sources. Report No. 544 R 0308.

Nedwell, J. R, Parvin, S. J., Edwards, B., Workman, R., Brooker, A.G and Kynoch, J. E. 2007a. Measurement and interpretation of underwater noise during construction and operation of offshore wind farms in UK waters. Subacoustech Report No. 544R0738 to COWRIE Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-9554279-5-4.

Nedwell, J.R., Turnpenny, A.W.H. Lovell, J., Parvin, S.J., Workman, R., Spinks, J.A.L. and Howell, D. 2007b.  A validation of the dBht as a measure of the behavioural and auditory effects of underwater noise. Subacoustech Report No. 534R1231.

NOAA (2018). 2018 Revisions to: Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing (Version 2.0): Underwater Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts. U.S. Dept. of Commer., NOAA. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-59, 167 p.

Odeh, M., Noreika, JF., Haro, A., Maynard, A., Castro-Santos, T., Cada, G.F. 2002. Evaluation of the effects of turbulence on the behaviour of migratory fish. In Final Report 2002, report to Bonneville Power Administration, Contract no. 00000022 p1-55.

Oakes, C., Pondella, D. 2009. The Value of a Net‐Cage as a Fish Aggregating Device in Southern California. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49, 1-21.

Pace D.S. Miragliuolo A., and Mussi B. 2006. Vessels and dolphins: scars that tell stories. Fins, p 19-2.

Packard, A., Karlsen, H. E., Sand, O. 1990. Low frequency hearing in cephalopods. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Vol. 166, 501 - 505.

Parvin, S.J., Nedwell, J.R and Harland, E. 2007. Lethal and physical injury of marine mammals, and requirements for Passive Acoustic Monitoring. Subacoustech Report No.565R0212.

Pearson, W. H., Skalski, J. R. and Malme, C. I. (1992). Effects of sounds from a geophysical survey device on behaviour of captive rockfish (Sebastes spp.). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49, pp. 1343-1355.

Pena, H., Handegard, N. O., and Ona, E. (2013). Feeding herring schools do not react to seismic air gun  surveys. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: 1174–1180.

Perrow, M.R., Gilroy, J.J., Skeate, E.R. and Tomlinson, M.L. 2011. Effects of construction of Scroby Sands offshore wind farm on the prey base of little tern Sternula albifrons at its most important UK colony. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 1661-1670.

Petersen, I.K., Clausager, I., and Christensen, T.J. 2004. Bird numbers and distribution on the Horns Rev. offshore windfarm area. Annual Status Report 2003. Report commissioned by Elsam Engineering A/S 2003. Rønde, Denmark: National Environmental Research Institute, 34pp.

Petersen, I.K., Fox, A.D., and Clausager, I. 2003. Distribution and numbers of birds in Kattegat in relation to the proposed offshore wind farm south of Læsø –Ornithological impact assessment.  Department of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity.  National Environmental Research Institute, Ministry of Environment, Denmark.

Pierpoint, C.  2008.  Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena foraging strategy at a high energy, near-shore site in south-west Wales, UK.  Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 2008, 88(6) 1167-1173.

PMSS Ltd, 2007. Wave Dragon Pre-Commercial Wave Energy Device. Environmental Statement. A report for Wave Dragon Wales Ltd.

Popper A. N., Hawkins A. D., Fay R. R., Mann D. A., Bartol S., Carlson T. J., Coombs S. 2014. Sound Exposure Guidelines. In ASA S3/SC1. 4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI , pp. 33–51. Springer, New York.

Popper, A.H. and Fay R.R. (2011). Rethinking sound detection by fishes. Hearing Research 273 (2011) 25-36.

Popper, A.N. and Fay, R.R. (2014). Perspectives on auditory research. Springer, NY.

Popper, A.N. and Hastings, M.C. (2009).  The effects of anthropogenic sources of sound on fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 75: 455-489.

Popper, A., Hawkins, A. 2018. The importance of particle motion to fishes and invertebrates. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 143, 470.

Raoux, A., Tecchio, S., Pezy, J., Lassalle, G., Degraer, S., Wilhelmsson, D., Cachera, M., Ernande, B., Guen, C., Haraldsson, M., Grangeré, K., Le Loc'h, F., Dauvin, J., Niquil, N. 2017. Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Ecological Indicators, 72, 33-46.

Radford, C .A., Montgomery, J. C., Caiger, P. & Higgs, D. M., 2012. Pressure and particle motion detection thresholds in fish: a re-examination of salient auditory cues in teleosts. Journal of Experimental Biology, 215(19), pp.3429-3481.

Reid JB, Evans PGH, Northridge SP. 2003. Atlas of Cetacean distribution in north-west European waters, 76 pages, colour photos, maps.  Paperback, ISBN 1 86107 550 2.

Richardson, W.J., Green Jr, C.R., Malme, C.I. and Thomson, D.H., 1995. Marine Mammals and Noise. Academic Press, New York.

Røstad, A., Kaartvedt, S., Klevjer, T.A, Webjørn, M. 2006. Fish are attracted to vessels. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63: 1431-1437.

Santos, M.B., Pierce, G.J., Learmonth, J.A.  2004.  Variability in the diet of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in Scottish waters 1992-2003.  Marine mammal science 20, 1-27.

Sayer, M.D.J., Magill, S.H, Pitcher, T.J., Morissette, L and Ainsworth C. 2005. Simulation-based investigations of fishery changes as affected by the scale and design of artificial habitats. Journal of Fish Biology 67: 218-243.

SCOS, 2009.  Scientific advice on matters related to the management of seal populations: 2009.  Special Committee on Seals, 100pp.

Scottish Executive, 2007. Scottish Marine Renewables: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).  Report prepared for the Scottish Executive by Faber Maunsell and Metoc PLC

Scottish Government, 2013. Draft Sectoral Marine Plans for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scottish Waters; 2013;

Sisneros, J. A., Popper, A. N., Hawkins, A. D., and Fay, R. R. (2016). Auditory Evoked Potential audiograms compared to behavioural audiograms in aquatic animals. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life, II, pp. 1049–1056. Ed. by A. N. Popper, and A. D. Hawkins. Springer ScienceþBusiness Media, New York.

Skov, H., Heinänen, S., Norman, T., Ward, R.M., Méndez-Roldán, S., Ellis, I. 2018. ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study. Final report – April 2018. The Carbon Trust. 247 pp.

SNH, 2010. Otter and Development- Scottish Wildlife Series. Online sites accessed January 2010.

Soanes, L., Votier, S., Wanless, S., and Bolton, M. 2017. Breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species. Ecological Applications 27, 2074-2091.

Southall, B. L., Bowles, A. E., Ellison, W. T., Finneran, J. J., Gentry, R. L., Greene Jr, C. R., Kastak, D., Miller, J.H., Nachigall, P.E., Richardson, W,.J., Thomas, J.A and Tyack, P.L., 2007. Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: initial scientific recommendations. Aquatic Mammals 33:411–521.

Southall, B.L., Finneran, J.J., Reichmuth, C., Nachtigall P.E., Ketten, D.R., Bowles, A.E., Ellison, W.T., Nowacek, D.P., Tyack, P.L., 2019. Marine Mammal Noise Exposure Criteria: Updated Scientific Recommendations for Residual Hearing Effects. Aquatic Mammals 45 (2): 125 DOI: 10.1578/AM.45.2.2019.125.

Thaxter, C.B., Daunt, F., Hamer, K.C., Watanuki, Y., Harris, M.P., Grémillet, D., Peters, G., Wanless, S. 2009.  Sex-specific food provisioning in a monomorphic seabird, the Common Guillemot Uria aalge: nest defence, foraging efficiency or parental effort? Journal of Avian biology 40:75-84.

Thaxter, C.B., Wanless, S., Daunt, F., Harris, M.P., Benvenuti, S., Watanuki, Y., Grémillet, D., Hamer, K.C.  2010.  Influence of wing loading on trade off between pursuit-diving and flight in Common Guillemots and razorbills.  J.Exp.  Biol.  213: 1018-1025.

Thaxter, C. B., Lascelles, B., Sugar, K., Cook, A. S. C. P., Roos, S., Bolton, M., Langston, R. H. W. and Burton, N.H.K. (2012). Seabird foraging ranges as a preliminary tool for identifying candidate Marine Protected Areas. Biological Conservation 156: 53-61.

Thompson, D., Hall, A. J., McConnell, B. J., Northridge, S. P. & Sparling, C. 2015. Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals and research requirements. Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, Report to Scottish Government, no. MR 1 & MR 2, St Andrews, 55pp.

Thomsen, F., Lüdemann, K., Kafemann, R., Piper W. 2006. Effects of offshore wind farm noise on marine mammals and fish. Biola, Hamburg, Germany on behalf of COWRIE Ltd. 62pp.

Tougaard, J, Carstensen, Jakob, Damsgaard Henriksen, O, and Teilmann, J.  Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef. Denmark: N. p., 2003b. Web.

Tougaard, J., Ebbesen, I., Tougaard, S., Jensen, T., Teilmann, J. 2003a. Satellite tracking of Harbour Seals on Horns Reef. Technical report to Techwise A/S, Biological Papers from the Fisheries and Maritime Museum, Esbjerg. No. 3.

URS Scott Wilson (2011). Green Port Hull Environmental Statement.

Vanerme, N., Onkelinx, T., Courtens, W., Van de walle, M., Verstraete, H., Stienen, E. 2015. Seabird avoidance and attraction at an offshore wind farm in the Belgian part of the North Sea, Hydrobiologia 756, 51-61.

Votier, S.C., Birkhead, T.R., Oro, D., Trinder, M., Grantham, M.J., Clark, J.A., McCleery, R.H. and Hatchwell, B.J., 2008. Recruitment and survival of immature seabirds in relation to oil spills and climate variability. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 974-983.

Wardle, C.S. 1986. Fish behaviour and fishing gear. In: Pitcher T.J. (ed) The behaviour of Teleost fishes. Croom Helm Ltd, London, UK, p 463-495.

WDCS, 2010. Toward Marine Protected Areas for Cetaceans in Scotland, England and Wales.  A scientific review identifying critical habitat and key recommendations.

Wernham, C.V., Peach, W.J. and Browne, S.J., 1997. Survival rates of rehabilitated guillemots. BTO Research Report 186. British Trust for Ornithology, Thetford.

Westerberg, H. 1999. Impact studies of sea-based windpower in Sweden. lecture held at "Technische Eingriffe in marine Lebensräume“ Bundesamt für Naturschutz .Internationale NaturschutzakademieInsel Vilm 27-29.10.99.

Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T., and Ŏhman, M., 2006. The influence of offshore wind power on demersal fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63, 775-784.

Wilson, B.; Batty, R.; Daunt, F.; Carter, C. 2007. Collision Risk Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds. Report by Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS). pp 110.

Wilson, J.C., Elliott M., Cutts N.D, Mander L., Mendão V., Perez-Dominguez 1 R., and Phelps, A. 2010. Coastal and Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Energies, Vol 3, pp. 1383-1422.

Winslade, P. 1974 Behavioural studies on lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus (Raitt). 2. Effect of light intensity on activity. Journal of Fish Biology, 6, 577-586.

Wright et al. 2007a. Do Marine Mammals Experience Stress Related to Anthropogenic Noise?, International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20, 274-316.

Wright et al. 2007b. Anthropogenic Noise as a Stressor in Animals: A Multidisciplinary Perspective International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20, 250-273.

WWT, 2014. Strategic assessment of collision risk of Scottish offshore wind farms to migrating birds. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Report Vol 5 No 12.

Zollett E.A., and Rosenberg A.A., 2005. A review of cetacean bycatch in trawl fisheries of New Hampshire. Literature review.