Publication - Independent report

Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights - anti-racist policy making: review

Published: 14 Sep 2021

Findings of a research programme into Scottish race equality strategies since 2000. The Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights (CRER) was commissioned to support the implementation of this review, with a focus on exploring opportunities for better practice.

Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights - anti-racist policy making: review
Footnotes

Footnotes

1. Scottish Government (2020) Protecting Scotland, Renewing Scotland: The Government's Programme for Scotland 2020-2021

2. Scottish Government (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland 2016-2030

3. For information on development of internal anti-racist strategies, see CIPD (2020) Developing an Anti-Racist Strategy

4. Scotland is bound by the terms of ICERD as part of the wider UK, and current tentative plans for incorporation include several other human rights treaties. However, the potential to enact law which explicitly deals with race equality is ostensibly limited by the fact that the Scotland Act 1998 prevents the Scottish Parliament from enacting equality law. Currently, powers are limited to The Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties) (Scotland) Regulations 2012, which is permitted as a result of provisions in the Equality Act 2010, and the as-yet untested additional power to make 'additional provision' on equal opportunities (provided this does not go beyond what the Equality Act 2010 allows and relates only to Scottish devolved public bodies) under the Scotland Act 2016.

5. A further document was identified during collation, Working Together for Equality: Equality Strategy 2000. This could not be accessed as it is unavailable in electronic format and access to the hard copy held by National Libraries of Scotland was not possible due to Coronavirus restrictions.

6. Expert Reference Group on Covid-19 and Ethnicity

7. Availability of comparable data was not consistent, and so the time periods used in analysis vary throughout. For the sake of brevity, only a selection of high priority statistics are explored at each section. The variety of statistics explored varies according to availability. Figures referred to are available at Appendix 3.

8. Terminology regarding ethnic groups used throughout the sections on change over time matches the source; replication here does not indicate endorsement by CRER

9. HMICS (2015). Joint Research Paper: Policing Ethnic Minority Communities in Scotland.

10. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland: Community Cohesion and Safety

11. Law Society of Scotland (2018) Profile of the Profession

12. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland: Community Cohesion and Safety

13. Ibid

14. Ibid

15. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2018) Is Scotland Fairer?

16. Scottish Government (2020) Scottish Prison Population Statistics 2019-20

17. Angiolini, E. (2020) Policing - complaints handling, investigations and misconduct issues: independent review

18. Duff, C. and Young, C. (2017) What works? Eight principles for meaningful evaluation of anti-prejudice work

19. CRER (2015) Political parties and ethnic monitoring

20. CRER (2017) Minority Representation in Scottish Politics (or rather a lack of)

21. Equalities and Human Rights Commission (2019) Diversity of candidates and elected officials in Great Britain

22. Scottish Government (2014) Overcoming Barriers to Equality and Diversity Representation on Public, Private and Third Sector Boards in Scotland

23. OSCR (2018) The Scottish Charity Regulator Equality Strategy 2016-2018

24. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland: Community Cohesion and Safety

25. CRER (2019) Charity Trustee Ethnicity in Glasgow: An audit of BME representation on Voluntary Sector Boards

26. Sported (2020) Tackling racism at the grassroots

27. The Scottish Government (2013) Ethnicity Evidence Review

28. EHRC (2018) Is Scotland Fairer?

29. Sportscotland (no date) Ethnicity and sport

30. Sportscotland (2020) Equality and Sport Research 2020

31. Arshad, R. (2019) Teaching in a diverse Scotland: increasing and retaining minority ethnic teachers

32. Scottish Government (2020) Teacher census supplementary statistics [data set]

33. Rowena Arshad (2021) Teaching in a Diverse Scotland: Increasing and Retaining Minority Ethnic Teachers – 3 years on Progress and Final Report

34. Ibid

35. CRER (2013) The State of the Nation: Race & Racism in Scotland, Education

36. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland: Education and Lifelong Learning

37. Scottish Government (2018) Improving educational outcomes for children and young people from travelling cultures

38. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland: Education and Lifelong Learning

39. Equalities and Human Rights Committee (2017) Prejudice based bullying and harassment of children and young people in schools

40. CRER (2012) Racist Incident Reporting in Scotland's Schools

41. CRER (2018) Racist Incident Reporting in Scotland's Schools

42. BBC Scotland (2013) Figures show racist incidents in schools

43. The Scotsman (2020) Thousands of racist incidents in Scottish schools

44. School leavers who are engaged in higher education, further education, training, voluntary work, employment or activity agreements are classified as having a 'positive destination'.

45. 'All other categories' includes 'Other - other' and 'Other - Arab'

46. Scottish Government (2019) Revised ACEL 1819 Tables and Charts

47. Scottish Government (2021) Summary Statistics for Attainment and Initial Leaver Destinations

48. The Scottish Government (2017) The Life Chances of Young People in Scotland: Evidence Review.

49. Skills Development Scotland (2020) Annual Participation Measure for 16 – 19 year olds in Scotland 2020

50. Skills Development Scotland (2015) Participation Measure for 16 – 19 year olds in Scotland

51. Scottish Government (2020) Scotland's Labour Market: People, Places, and Regions - Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2019

52. CRER (2020) Ethnicity and Poverty in Scotland 2020

53. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2011) Poverty and ethnicity in Scotland

54. Scottish Government (2021) Summary Statistics for Attainment and Initial Leaver Destinations

55. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland, Education and Lifelong Learning

56. Ibid

57. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2019) Tackling racial harassment: universities challenged

58. University of Glasgow (2021) Understanding Racism, Transforming University Cultures

59. Scottish Government (2018) Improving educational outcomes for children and young people from travelling cultures.

60. Ibid

61. Scottish Government (2013) Growing Up in Scotland: Birth Cohort 2 – Results from the first year

62. Scottish Government (2018) Early Learning and Childcare - Additional Tables - 2018

63. Skills Development Scotland (2019) Achieving Diversity in the Scottish Early Learning and Childcare Workforce

64. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2016) Poverty and ethnicity: key messages for Scotland

65. Close The Gap (2018) Still Not Visible: Research on Black and minority ethnic women's experiences of employment in Scotland

66. Skills Development Scotland (2015) Equalities action plan: For Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland

67. Skills Development Scotland (2020) Apprenticeship Equality Action Plan Annual Report 2020

68. Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee (2016) Removing Barriers: race, ethnicity and employment

69. Scottish Government (no date) Business, Enterprise and Tourism

70. CRER (2016) Employability, Employment and Income

71. EHRC (2016) Healing a divided Britain: the need for a comprehensive race equality strategy

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. Office for National Statistics (2020) Self-employment by NUTS1 (region)

75. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2016). Poverty and Ethnicity: Key messages for Scotland.

76. Scottish Government (2010) Growing up in Scotland: The Circumstances of Persistently Poor Children

77. Cabinet Office (2017-revised March 2018) Race Disparity Audit

78. EHRC (2018) Is Scotland Fairer?

79. Scottish Government (2015) Census 2011 equality results: analysis, part two

80. Scottish Government (no date) Ethnicity

81. Scottish Government (2015) Census 2011 equality results: analysis, part two

82. Social Security Scotland administer devolved benefits such as Best Start Grant, Best Start Foods, Funeral Support Payment, and Young Carer Grant, with the majority (89%) of applicants applying for Best Start Grant and/or Best Start Foods.

83. Scottish Government (2020) Social Security Scotland client diversity and equalities analysis to December [2019]

84. Runnymede Trust and the Women's Budget Group (2017) Intersecting Inequalities: the impact of austerity on BME women

85. CoDE (2014) Geographies of Deprivation and Diversity in Glasgow

86. NHS Scotland (2001) Fair for All

87. CRER (2020) Scotland's National Performance Framework: Measuring outcomes for minority ethnic communities

88. Expert Reference Group on Ethnicity and Covid-19 (2020) Improving Data and Evidence on Ethnic Inequalities in Health

89. The University of Edinburgh (no date) Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study

90. NHS (2017) Measuring use of health services by equality group

91. Scottish Government's independent adviser on race equality in Scotland (2017) Addressing race inequality in Scotland: the way forward

92. South Asian Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Task Force (2016) Mobilising the Scottish South Asian communities in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

93. Scottish Government's independent adviser on race equality in Scotland (2017) Addressing race inequality in Scotland: the way forward

94. Scottish Government (2015) Which ethnic groups have the poorest health?

95. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland, Health and Home

96. EHRC (2018) Is Scotland Fairer?

97. Scottish Government (2019) Inpatient Census 2019: parts one and two

98. University of Edinburgh (2013) Disparate patterns of hospitalisation reflect unmet needs and persistent ethnic inequalities in mental health care: the Scottish health and ethnicity linkage study

99. Scottish Government's independent adviser on race equality in Scotland (2017) Addressing race inequality in Scotland: the way forward

100. Scottish Government (2013) Growing up in Scotland: Birth Cohort 2

101. CRER (2020) Scotland's National Performance Framework: Measuring outcomes for minority ethnic communities

102. Public Health Scotland (2019) Child Health 27-30 Month Review Statistics. Scotland 2017/18

103. A. M. Bowes and N. S. Dar (2000) Researching Social Care for Minority Ethnic Older People: Implications of Some Scottish Research

104. Expert Reference Group on Ethnicity and Covid-19 (2020) Improving Data and Evidence on Ethnic Inequalities in Health

105. Scottish Government (2015) Analysis of equality results from the 2011 Census part 2

106. CRER (2020) Minority Ethnic Communities and Housing in Scotland - Room for Improvement?

107. Scottish Government (2015) Analysis of equality results from the 2011 Census part 2

108. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2011) A review of poverty and ethnicity in Scotland

109. Scottish Government (2015) Analysis of equality results from the 2011 Census part 2

110. CRER (2020) Minority Ethnic Communities and Housing in Scotland - Room for Improvement?

111. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2011) A review of poverty and ethnicity in Scotland

112. The Scottish Government (2015) Scotland's People Annual Report: Results from the 2014 Scottish Household Survey; Scottish Government (2019) Scottish Household Survey 2018: Annual report Data from 2001-2005 discussed in Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2011) A review of poverty and ethnicity in Scotland

113. Netto, G., Fancy, C., Pawson, H., Lomax, D., Singh, S., Power, S. (2004) Black and Minority Ethnic Communities and Homelessness in Scotland. Scottish Government.

114. Scottish Government (2021) Housing needs of minority ethnic groups: evidence review

115. EHRC (2016) Healing a divided Britain: the need for a comprehensive race equality strategy

116. Scottish Government (2021) Housing needs of minority ethnic groups: evidence review

117. Netto, G., Fancy, C., Pawson, H., Lomax, D., Singh, S., Power, S. (2004) Black and Minority Ethnic Communities and Homelessness in Scotland. Scottish Government.

118. CRER (2016) Race Equality Framework for Scotland: Health and Home

119. CRER (2020) Minority Ethnic Communities and Housing in Scotland - Room for Improvement?

120. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2012) Poverty and ethnicity in Scotland

121. Ibid

122. Ibid

123. Scottish Government (2021) Housing needs of minority ethnic groups: evidence review

124. McKee, K., Pearce, A., Leahy, S. (2020) The Unequal Impact of COVID-19 on Black, Asian, Minority Ethnic and Refugee Communities

125. Scottish Executive (2002) Working Together for Race Equality

126. Scottish Government (2020) Expert Reference Group on Covid-19 and Ethnicity

127. CRER / Equality and Human Rights Commission (2018) Effectiveness of the PSED Specific Duties in Scotland

128. UK Joint Committee on Human Rights (2020) Black People, Racism and Human Rights

129. CRER / Equality and Human Rights Commission (2018) Effectiveness of the PSED Specific Duties in Scotland

130. CRER / Equality and Human Rights Commission (2018) Effectiveness of the PSED Specific Duties in Scotland

131. Scottish Parliament Equality and Human Rights Committee (2020) Race Equality, Employment and Skills: Making Progress?

132. ODS Consulting (2015) Evaluation of the Improving Equality Outcomes Project

133. Scottish Executive / Blake Stevenson (2003) Focus Groups with Minority Ethnic Communities

Scottish Government / CRER (2015) Community Ambassadors Programme – Findings Summary

134. See What Works Scotland (2015) Policy Making: Does Anyone Care?

135. Meer, N. (2020) Race Equality Policy Making in a Devolved Context: Assessing the Opportunities and Obstacles for a 'Scottish Approach', in Journal of Social Policy Volume 49 , Issue 2 , April 2020.

136. CRER (no date) The Community Ambassadors Programme

137. Rae, R., Hepburn. E. and Bloss, L. (2019) Gender Equality in Scotland: Policy Coherence and Systems Mapping

138. 'Bounded rationality' describes how a variety of limitations (including bias, cognitive processes and time limitations) lead to decision making shortcuts, creating solutions which are simply 'good enough' as opposed to effective and meaningful.

139. For an exploration of policy incoherence from a gender perspective, see Cairney, P., St. Denny, E. and Kippen, S. (2020) Policy learning to reduce inequalities: the search for a coherent Scottish gender mainstreaming policy in a multilevel UK

140. See, for example Meer, N. (2019) The Opportunities and Obstacles for a 'Scottish Approach' to Race Equality, Arshad, R. (2020) Lessons Learned About Race in Scotland, in Taking Stock: Race Equality in Scotland

141. What Works Scotland (2019) Key Messages About Public Service Reform in Scotland

142. Ashe, S. (2021) SHF Race Report: 40 Years of Tackling Racial Inequality in Britain

143. Arshad, R. (2016) Race Equality in Scotland: Forwards and Backwards? In Scotland and Race Equality: Directions in Policy and Identity

144. Expert Reference Group in Covid-19 and Ethnicity (2020) Systemic Issues and Risk

145. Arshad, R. (2020) Lessons Learned About Race in Scotland, in Taking Stock: Race Equality in Scotland

146. This term is widely misused; although it can be useful in talking about some other combinations of protected characteristic, it is not the same thing as multiple discrimination. It was developed because Black women face a unique set of stereotypes and discriminations that do not apply to either Black men or white women.

147. Rae, R., Hepburn. E. and Bloss, L. (2019) Gender Equality in Scotland: Policy Coherence and Systems Mapping

148. For more information on the basis for these principles, see, for example:

CRER (2016) Changing the Race Equality Paradigm

Runnymede Trust (2016) Scotland and Race Equality: Directions in Policy and Identity

Runnymede Trust (2020) Taking Stock: Race Equality in Scotland

Davidson, N., Liinpää, M., McBride, M. and Virdee, S. (2018) No Problem Here? Understanding Racism in Scotland

Ashe, S. (2021) Writing Recommendations in Search of Social Justice

BERA (2011) Resources for Research: Critical Race Theory

149. Young, C. (2016) Race Equality in Scotland's Public Sector: Five Missing Links, in Scotland and Race Equality: Directions in Policy and Identity

150. This issue was explored in detail in relation to UK level race equality policy making in a recent report for the Stuart Hall Foundation, examining recommendations made between 1981 and 2017. Ashe, S. (2021) SHF Race Report: 40 Years of Tackling Racial Inequality in Britain

151. Scottish Executive (2002) Working Together for Race Equality

152. Scottish Government (2008) Race Equality Scheme 2008-2011

153. Coutts, P. and Brotchie, J. (2017) The Scottish Approach to Evidence

154. Duff, C. and Young, C. (2017) What works? Eight principles for meaningful evaluation of anti-prejudice work

155. Developed by CRER and available on the CRER website

156. A useful exploration of the balance between evidence from involvement and from statistical or research sources can be found in Coutts, P. and Brotchie, J. (2017) The Scottish Approach to Evidence (of particular relevance to race equality is the tendency for over-reliance on 'stories' in stakeholder engagement, which often leads to a narrow and unrepresentative understanding of issues; there are broader anti-racist implications of the reliance on 'stories', in that people should not be required to continually justify their experiences of well-evidenced discrimination and inequalities)

157. Scottish Government (2020) Expert Reference Group on Covid-19 and Ethnicity

158. See, for example, CRER (2020) Scotland's National Performance Framework – Measuring outcomes for minority ethnic communities

159. Scottish Government (2008) Race Equality Scheme 2008-2011

160. Expert Reference Group on Covid-19 and Ethnicity (2020) Improving Data and Evidence on Ethnic Inequalities in Health

161. Scottish Government (2017) Equality Outcomes and Mainstreaming Report 2017

162. For more information, see CRER (2020) Scotland's National Performance Framework – Measuring outcomes for minority ethnic communities

163. An overview of planning practice that can support robust race equality work is provided in the Equality and Human Rights Commission's What Works? Eight Principles for Meaningful Evaluation of Anti-Prejudice Work (2017), developed under contract by CRER.

164. Works Scotland (2017) Outcomes Based Approaches in Public Service Reform

165. Scottish Government (2005) Outcome of the Review of Race Equality

166. Meer, N. (2019) The Opportunities and Obstacles for a 'Scottish Approach' to Race Equality

167. See, for example, Close the Gap (2019) Still Not Visible

168. Open letter on race and racism in Scotland (2019)

169. Misframing and misunderstandings regarding race equality within the Scottish public sector policy environment have been explored in previous CRER publications and articles; see, for example, CRER (2016) Changing the Race Equality Paradigm and Young, C. (2016) Race Equality in Scotland's Public Sector: Five Missing Links, in Scotland and Race Equality: Directions in Policy and Identity

170. REAF (2001) Making It Real: A Race Equality Strategy for Scotland

171. Scottish Government (2017) Race Equality Action Plan 2017-2021

172. See, for instance, the Equality and Human Rights Commission's research into the relative effectiveness of different types of unconscious bias training. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2018) Unconscious bias training: an assessment of the evidence for effectiveness

173. Young, C. (2016) Race Equality in Scotland's Public Sector: Five Missing Links, in Scotland and Race Equality: Directions in Policy and Identity

174. Scottish Government (2021) Race recruitment and retention - an instigation for change: action plan

175. For an exploration of outcomes based policy making, including factors impacting its effectiveness, see What Works Scotland (2017) Outcomes Based Approaches in Public Service Reform

176. Coutts, P. and Brotchie, J. (2017) The Scottish Approach to Evidence

177. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2019) Effectiveness of the PSED Specific Duties in Scotland

178. It should be noted that responsibility for achieving targets and milestones must belong to senior staff in positions of influence and power. If these prove challenging to achieve through delivery mechanisms, it must be their responsibility to identify why and support staff at lower grades to redress this. Dr. Stephen Ashe has identified that "…the pressure to meet certain targets will be pushed downwards onto staff, many (if not most of whom), will endure the daily realities of racism and other modes of oppression." See Ashe, S. (2021) Writing Recommendations in Search of Social Justice

179. Scottish Government (2021) Race recruitment and retention - an instigation for change: action plan

180. Davidson, N., Liinpää, M., McBride, M. and Virdee, S. (2018) No Problem Here? Understanding Racism in Scotland

181. Duff, C. and Young, C. (2017) What works? Eight principles for meaningful evaluation of anti-prejudice work

182. This term is widely misused; although it can be useful in talking about some other combinations of protected characteristic, it is not the same thing as multiple discrimination. It was developed because Black women face a unique set of stereotypes and discriminations that do not apply to either Black men or white women.

183. Duff, C. and Young, C. (2017) What works? Eight principles for meaningful evaluation of anti-prejudice work

184. For more information, see CRER (2020) Scotland's National Performance Framework – Measuring outcomes for minority ethnic communities

185. It should be noted that responsibility for achieving targets and milestones must belong to senior staff in positions of influence and power. If these prove challenging to achieve through delivery mechanisms, it must be their responsibility to identify why and support staff at lower grades to redress this. Dr. Stephen Ashe has identified that "…the pressure to meet certain targets will be pushed downwards onto staff, many (if not most of whom), will endure the daily realities of racism and other modes of oppression." See Ashe, S. (2021) Writing Recommendations in Search of Social Justice

186. Scottish Household Survey Data Explorer

187. Scottish Government (2003) Attitudes to Discrimination in Scotland, Scottish Government (2006) Attitudes to Discrimination in Scotland 2006, Scottish Government (2010) Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2010: Attitudes to Discrimination and Positive Action and Scottish Government (2015) Scottish Social Attitudes 2015: Attitudes to discrimination and positive action

188. No question asked on this issue in this year.

189. Scottish Household Survey Data Explorer, Scottish Government (2017) Scotland's People Annual Report, Scottish Government (2016) Scotland's People Annual Report, Scottish Government (2015) Scotland's People Annual Report

190. Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service (2020) Hate Crime in Scotland 2019-20

191. Scottish Government – Scottish Crime and Justice Survey [dataset]

192. From 2016, responses from two survey years are combined to provide more robust estimates

193. Scottish Government – Scottish Crime and Justice Survey [dataset]

194. From 2016, responses from two survey years are combined to provide more robust estimates

195. Scottish Government (2020) Equality Evidence Finder

196. Scottish Government (2010) Pupil census 2010 supplementary tables [dataset]

197. Scottish Government (2019) Pupil census 2019 supplementary tables [dataset]

198. Scottish Government (2020) Summary Statistics for Attainment, Leaver Destinations and Healthy Living

199. Data extracted from NOMIS based on Annual Population Survey, Scotland: April 2004 – March 2020

200. Missing figures for 2010-2011.

201. Data extracted from NOMIS based on Annual Population Survey, Scotland: April 2004 – March 2020

202. Missing figures for 2010-2011.

203. Data extracted from NOMIS based on Annual Population Survey, Scotland: April 2004 – March 2020

204. Missing figures for 2010-2011.

205. Data extracted from NOMIS based on Annual Population Survey, Scotland: April 2004 – March 2020

206. Missing figures for 2010-2011.

207. Scottish Government (2020) Equality Evidence Finder

208. The Scottish Government (2020) Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland 2016-19; The Scottish Government (2019) Poverty and income inequality in Scotland: 2015-2018; The Scottish Government (2021) Poverty All Data [dataset]

209. Scottish Government (2018) Number, proportion and composition of people in poverty by ethnic group [dataset]

210. Scottish Government (2019) Every Child Every Chance, First Year Progress Report 2018-19, Annex C; Scottish Government (2020) Tackling Child Poverty Delivery Plan Second year progress report 2019-20

211. Ibid

212. Ibid

213. There are 6,505 data zones in Scotland and those ranked 1-976 make up the 15 percent most deprived areas.

214. Scottish Government (2014) Overview of Equality Results from the 2011 Census Release 2

215. Scottish Government (various dates) Scottish Survey Core Questions

216. Relative poverty after housing costs minus relative poverty before housing costs

217. The Scottish Government (2020) Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland 2016-19


Contact

Email: charlie.goodwin-smith@gov.scot