Becoming Breastfeeding Friendly Scotland: report

Scotland's results and the key recommendations for the continued protection, promotion and support for breastfeeding.


1. BMA (2017) Are UK governments utilising the most effective evidence-based policies for ill-health prevention? BMA: London

2. Brown A (2016) What Do Women Really Want? Lessons for Breastfeeding Promotion and Education. Breastfeeding Medicine, 1 (3)

3. Carroll GJ, Buccini GS and Perez-Escamilla R (2018) Perspective: What Will It Cost to Scale-up Breastfeeding Programs? A Comparison of Current Global Costing Methodologies. Adv Nutr. 2018 Sep 1;9(5):572-580. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy041.

4. Citizens Advice Scotland. Equality Act 2010. Sex discrimination.

5. Commission Directive 2006/141/EC Of 22 December 2006 on infant formulae and follow-on formulae and amending Directive 1999/21/EC

6. Commission Directive 2006/125/EC of 5 December 2006 on processed cereal-based foods and baby foods for infants and young children

7. DiGirolamo A, Thompson N, Martorell R, Fein S, Grummer-Strawn L.(2005) Intention or experience? Predictors of continued breastfeeding. Health Educ Behav 2005; 32: 208-26. Cited in Rollins et al (2016)

8. Dombrowski SU, Campbell P, Frost H, Pollock A, McLellan J, MacGillivray S, Gavine A, Maxwell M, O'Carroll R, Cheyne H, Presseau J, Williams B (2016) - Interventions for sustained healthcare professional behaviour change: a protocol for an overview of reviews. Systematic Reviews (2016) 5:173

9. Dyson L, Renfrew MJ, McCormick F et al (2006) Promotion of Breastfeeding initiation and duration: Evidence into practice briefing HDA/NICE EU. Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 Of The European Parliament And Of The Council

10. EU. Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/127 of 25 September 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the specific compositional and information requirements for infant formula and follow-on formula and as regards requirements on information relating to infant and young child feeding

11. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2015) Pregnancy and Maternity-Related Discrimination and Disadvantage First findings: Surveys of Employers and Mothers.

12. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2016) Pregnancy and maternity discrimination in the workplace: Recommendations for Change

13. Equality and Human Rights Commission (2017) Employer toolkits: Understanding your responsibilities if your employee is expecting a baby

14. Equality Challenge Unit (2018) Athena SWAN is an initiative of the Equality Challenge Unit (ECU), which works to further and support equality and diversity for staff and students in higher education institutions across all four nations of the UK and in colleges in Scotland.

15. Fox R, McMullen S, Newburn M (2015) UK women's experiences of breastfeeding and additional breastfeeding support: a qualitative study of Baby Café services. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15:147.

16. Global Breastfeeding Collective (2017) A Call to Action.

17. Global Breastfeeding Collective (2017) Investment Case for Breastfeeding.

18. Gossrau-Breen D, Gilmore G, MacDonald L (2010) A review of the Northern Ireland breastfeeding strategy. Belfast: Public Health Agency, 2010.

19. Henderson L, Kitzinger J, Green J (2000) Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breastfeeding. Br Med J 2000;321:1196-8.

20. Hoddinott P, Britten J, Prescott G, Tappin D, Ludbrook A, Godden D (2009) Effectiveness of a policy to provide breastfeeding groups (BIG) for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers in primary care, BMJ 338:a3026.

21. Hoddinott P, Craig L, Maclennan G, Boyers D, Vale L (2012) The FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised, controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas. BMJ Open. 2012 Jan 1;2(2):e000652
(cited in PHE, 2018)

22. Infant Formula and Follow-on Formula (Scotland) Regulations 2007

23. Information Services Division Scotland (2018) Infant Feeding Statistics Scotland. Financial Year of Birth 2017/18

24. International Labour Organization (ILO) (2014) Maternity and paternity at work: Law and practice across the world. Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2014. Cited in Rollins et al (2016)

25. ILO C183 - Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183). Convention concerning the revision of the Maternity Protection Convention (Revised), 1952 (Entry into force: 07 Feb 2002)

26. ILO (2012) Maternity Protection Resource package (section on breastfeeding breaks: Module 10)

27. Kervin BE, Kemp L, Pulver LJ. (2010) Types and timing of breastfeeding support and its impact on mothers' behaviours. J Paediatr Child Health 2010; 46: 85-91. Cited in Rollins et al (2016)

28. Lancet (2016) Breastfeeding series.

29. Lawton R, Ashley L, Dawson S, Waiblinger D, Conner M (2012) Employing an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict breastfeeding intention, initiation, and maintenance in White British and South-Asian mothers living in Bradford. Br J Health Psychol 2012; 17: 854-71.

30. Maternity Action (2014). Accommodating breastfeeding

31. Maternity Action (2016) Breastfeeding at work. EasyJet case.

32. Maternity Action (2018) Continuing to breastfeed when you return to work.

33. Mangasaryan N, Martin L, Brownlee A, Ogunlade A, Rudert C, Cai X. (2012) Breastfeeding promotion, support and protection: review of six country programmes. Nutrients. 2012;4(8):990-1014.

34. McAndrew F, Thompson J, Fellows L et al. (2012) Infant Feeding survey 2010. Leeds: Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2012

35. McFadden A, Gavine A, Renfrew M, Wade A, Buchanan P, Taylor JL, Veitch E, Rennie A, Crowther SA, Neiman S, MacGillivray S (2017) Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001141. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001141.pub5

36. McGovern, M, Marra, G, Radice, R, Rokicki, R. (2018) Breastfeeding Promotion as an Economic Investment report for Northern Ireland

37. Morgan S, Waterston T, Kerac, M (2018) Infant formula advertising in medical journals: a cross-sectional study (and struggle to publish). Field Exchange.

38. NHS Health Scotland (2016) Off to a Good Start: all you need to know about breastfeeding. Edinburgh: NHS Health Scotland, 2016.

39. NICE (2011) NICE Public Health Guidance 11: Improving the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and children in low-income households, Quick Reference Guide: Maternal and child nutrition, Issued March 2008 (updated July, 2011).

40. NICE (2015) Postnatal Care up to 8 weeks after birth (CG37). Issued July 2006, updated July 2013 and January 2015

41. NICE (2015) Postnatal care Quality standard [QS37] Published date: July 2013; updated June 2015

42. NICE (2014) NICE Public Health Guidance 11: Improving the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women and children in low-income households. Issued March 2008, updated September 2014,

43. Pearce A, Li L, Abbas J, Ferguson B, Graham H, Law C, Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group. Childcare use and inequalities in breastfeeding: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Archives of disease in childhood. 2012 Jan 1;97(1):39-42

44. Pérez-Escamilla R, Hromi-Fielder A J, Bauermann Gubert M, Doucet K, Meyers S, dos Santos Buccini G (2018) Becoming Breastfeeding Friendly Index: Development and application for scaling‐up breastfeeding programmes globally. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 14, 3

45. Pérez-Escamilla R, Martinez JL and Segura-Perez S (2016) Impact of the Baby‐friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding and child health outcomes: a systematic review. Maternal and Child Nutrition,12, 402-411

46. Pérez-Escamilla R, Curry L, Minhas D, Taylor L, Bradley E (2012) Scaling Up of Breastfeeding Promotion Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: the "Breastfeeding Gear" Model. American Society for Nutrition. Adv. Nutr. 3: 790-800, 2012

47. PHE (2018) Cost Effectiveness and Return on Investment (ROI) of interventions associated with the Best Start in Life

48. PHE and Unicef UK (2016) Commissioning infant feeding services: a toolkit for local authorities (Part 2)

49. PHE and Unicef UK (2016) Monitoring infant feeding data support pack (Part 3)

50. Pokhrel S, Quigley M, Fox-Rushby J, McCormick F, Williams A, Trueman P, Dodds R, Renfrew M (2015) Potential economic impact from improving breastfeeding rates in the UK. Arch Di Child 2015; 100:334-340

51. Renfrew MJ, Dyson L, Wallace L, D'Souza L, McCormick F, Spiby H (2005) The effectiveness of public health interventions to promote the duration of breastfeeding, Systematic review 1st edition - May NICE

52. Renfrew M J, Pokhrel S, Quigley M, McCormic, F, Fox-Rushby J, Dodds R, Duffy S, Trueman P, Williams A (2012) Preventing disease and saving resources: the potential contribution of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK.

53. Renfrew MJ, McCormick FM, Wade A, Quinn B, Dowswell T (2012b) Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies (Review), The Cochrane Library, Issue 5.

54. Roe B, Whittington LA, Fein SB, Teisl MF (1999) Is there competition between breast-feeding and maternal employment? Demography 1999; 36: 157-71. Cited in Rollins et al (2016)

55. Rosin S I, Zakarija-Grković I (2016) Towards integrated care in breastfeeding support: a cross-sectional survey of practitioners' perspectives International Breastfeeding Journal (2016) 11:15

56. Rollins N C, Bhandari N, Hajeebhoy N, Horton S, Lutter C K, Martines J C, Piwoz E G, Richter L M & Victora C G (2016) Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices? The Lancet, 387, 491-504.

57. Ross S, Naylor C (2017) Quality improvement in mental health. London: The King's Fund.
Available at:

58. Save the Children (2018) Don't push it: Why the formula industry must clean up its act

59. Scottish Business Pledge. Balanced Workforce.

60. Scottish Government. Gender equality in the workplace: Pregnancy and maternity discrimination.

61. Scottish Government. Gender Equality policy: Ensuring fairer workplaces for women.

62. Scottish Government (2008) The Early Years Framework

63. Scottish Government (2011) Improving maternal and infant nutrition: a framework for action

64. Scottish Government (2017) The best start: five-year plan for maternity and neonatal care

65. Scottish Government (2018) Scottish maternal and infant nutrition survey 2017

66. Scottish Government (2018) A healthier future: Scotland's diet and healthy weight delivery plan.

67. Scottish Improvement Science Collaborating Centre

68. Stein A, Cooper PJ, Day A, Bond A. (1987) Social and psychiatric factors associated with the intention to breastfeed. J Reprod Infant Psychol 1987; 5: 165-71. Cited in Rollins et al (2016)

69. Stewart-Knox BJ (2013) British Nutrition Foundation Journal Compilation. Nutrition Bulletin, 38, 57-60

70. Sun Kyung Kim, Seyeon Park, Jiwon Oh, Jisoon Kim, Sukhee Ahn (2018) Interventions promoting exclusive breastfeeding up to six months after birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 80 (April) (2018) 94-105

71. The Foods for Specific Groups (Scotland) Regulations 2016

72. The Notification of Marketing of Food for Particular Nutritional Uses (Scotland) Regulations 2007

73. Trickey H, Thomson G, Grant A, Sanders J, Mann M, Murphy S, Paranjothy S (2018) A realist review of one-to-one breastfeeding peer support experiments conducted in developed country settings. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 14(1)

74. UNCRC. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

75. Unicef UK. How we protect Children's rights with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

76. Unicef UK (2013) The evidence and rationale for the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative standards.

77. Unicef UK (2016) A Call to Action on Breastfeeding /

78. Unicef and WHO (2015) Breastfeeding Advocacy Initiative. For The Best Start In Life

79. Unicef and WHO (2018) Implementation guidance: protecting, promoting and supporting BF in facilities providing maternity and new born services

80. Whitford H, Hoddinott P, Amir LH, Chamberlain C, East CE, Jones L, Renfrew MJ (2018) Routinely collected infant feeding data: Time for global action. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 14 (4) October 2018

81. WHO (2003) Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding

82. WHO (1981) International code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1981.

83. WHO (2013) Breastfeeding policy: a globally comparative analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2013;91:398-406

84. WHO (2014) WHA Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Breastfeeding Policy Brief

85. WHO (2017) Guidelines on protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in facilities providing new born services

86. WHO, IBFAN and UNICEF (2018) Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: national implementation of the international code, status report 2018.

87. Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJD, França GVA, Horton S, Krasevec J, Murch S, Sankar MJ, Walker N, Rollins NC (2016) Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanism, and lifelong effect. The Lancet 387, 475-490.

88. Visness CM, Kennedy KI. (1997) Maternal employment and breast-feeding: findings from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Am J Public Health 1997; 87: 945-50



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