2015 Review of Public Health in Scotland: Strengthening the Function and re-focusing action for a healthier Scotland

The Public Health Review was asked to examine public health systems and functions and their contribution to improving population health and reducing (health) inequalities. This is the Report on behalf of the Review Group published with a Ministerial foreword from the Minister for Public Health

Annex G. Glossary of Terms

2020 Vision: Set out by the Scottish Government in 2011 to give the strategic narrative and context for taking forward the implementation of the Quality Strategy. The Vision is that by 2020 everyone is able to live longer healthier lives at home, or in a homely setting.

Chief Dental Officer (CDO): The professional advisor to the Scottish Government and civil service on all matters relating to dentistry.

Chief Medical Officer (CMO): The most senior advisor on health matters in a government. In the Scottish Government the CMO heads up a Chief Medical Officer Directorate responsible for working with Ministers, delivery partners and other stakeholders to protect and improve public health, promote sport and physical activity and to support the generation of robust evidence, and to oversee the clinical effectiveness of healthcare services in Scotland.

Communicable Disease: Any disease transmitted from one person or animal to another; also called contagious disease.

Community Planning Partnership (CPP): There is one CPP for each Local Authority area. Under the Community Empowerment (Scotland) Act 2015, public bodies work together and with the local community in CPPs to plan for, resource and provide services which improve local outcomes and reduce inequalities in the area. Public sector partners include the Local Authority, Health Board, enterprise body, Police Scotland, the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service, regional colleges, Skills Development Scotland, IJB and others.

Consultants in Dental Public Health: Dentists who complete specialist training in epidemiology strategic planning, statistics, health promotion, leadership and management. They fulfil a dual role of principal advisor to the NHS Boards on all matters relating to dentistry and improving the oral health of the public.

Consultants in Public Health Medicine/Specialists in Public Health: Professionals from medical and non-medical backgrounds who train to become consultants/specialists in public health through demonstrating knowledge and competency in nine key areas. Their competence and validity to practice is assessed by the Faculty of Public Health.

Core public health workforce includes DsPH, Consultants/Specialists and those who specialise in one or more of the Domains of Public Health.

Domains of Public Health: There are three key domains of Public Health, defined as Health Improvement, Improving Services and Health Protection. All are underpinned by public health intelligence (information and evidence).

Directors of Public Health (DPH): Heads of the Directorates of Public Health in each Scottish Health Board; chief source of expertise and advice to the Health Board about action needed to protect and improve the health of people in the area.

Engagement Responses: Responses to an engagement paper and through stakeholder engagement workshops. The engagement paper asked 5 questions on the subject of public health partnership, leadership and workforce. The responses were analysed by an independent external research company to inform the consideration of the Review Group. Stakeholder engagement workshops were also held to build on the themes identified in the engagement responses.

Environmental Health: Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health

Faculty of Public Health is the standard setting body for specialists in public health in the United Kingdom.

Health inequalities are systematic differences in health between different groups in society which are potentially avoidable and deemed unacceptable.

Healthy Life Expectancy: Life expectancy (LE) is an estimate of how many years a person might be expected to live, whereas healthy life expectancy (HLE) is an estimate of how many years they might live in a 'healthy' state.

Integration Joint Board: Established to bring together adult health and social care services, as required from April 2015 by the Public Bodies (Joint Working) (Scotland) Act 2014. The alternative integration model is the lead agency model adopted in Highland.

Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is, by definition, non-infectious and non-transmissible among people.

Public Health: the activity associated with "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organised efforts of society".

Public Health Practitioners work as part of the core public health workforce, often as part of a team led by someone working at a higher level, but also operating independently. They have responsibility for specific areas of work (e.g. smoking cessation, infection control) and work in a wide range of settings and sectors.

Quality Strategy: Scottish Government strategy - Healthcare Quality Strategy for NHS Scotland (Scottish Government, 2010).

Research analysis commissioned specifically for this Review to cover analysis of research literature, including a review of international evidence on health policies and different governance and accountability structures to inform the Review Group.

Scottish Directors of Public Health (Scottish DsPH): Group bringing together all Directors of Public Health in Scotland, regularly meeting with the CMO and Scottish Government.

Shared Services: portfolio of programmes, originating from the NHS Senior Leaders' (formerly the guiding coalition) and project managed by NSS, to provide vision for shared services (collaboration, partnership working, joint management arrangements, contractual arrangements to deliver services on behalf of others etc.) which includes within its scope public health and business intelligence (the latter having potential relevance to public health intelligence).

Single Outcome Agreement (SOA): A strategic document produced by each Community Planning Partnership based on the terms of a Scottish Government and COSLA agreed Statement of Ambition on community planning and reflects SOA guidance on priorities, issued by Scottish Government and agreed with COSLA. Under the Community Empowerment (Scotland) Act 2015 these will become known as Local Outcome Improvement Plans (LOIP).

Single Outcome Agreements: Collective term for Single Outcome Agreements of all CPPs. Under the Community Empowerment (Scotland) Act 2015 these will become known as Local Outcome Improvement Plans (LOIPs).

(Social) Determinants of Health: the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for health inequalities.

The public health function (or endeavour) can be defined as "a robust, adequately resourced system that can secure and sustain the public's health, addressing health and associated policy issues at a population level and leading a co-ordinated effort to tackle underlying causes of poor health".

The public's health, population health: The aggregate health status of people in a defined geographic area, as measured using standard indicators of health and wellbeing.

Wider public health function/workforce: In addition to the core public health workforce, many other professional groups, practitioners in different disciplines, organisations and individuals make an essential contribution to protecting and improving the public's health and wellbeing. Collectively these form the 'wider public health workforce'.


Email: Gareth Brown

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