Exotic notifiable animal diseases contingency plans - Scottish Regional Resilience Partnerships' framework: August 2022

Information on how and when operational partners should respond to a suspect or confirmed exotic notifiable animal disease outbreak.

Appendix N: Swine fever (SF)


This appendix covers two separate diseases, classical swine fever (CSF) and African swine fever (ASF). Both can cause severe illness in pigs and wild boar, but do not infect other animals. The diseases are very similar and will be discussed together. The symptoms of both diseases are almost identical, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary to distinguish between them. Disease presentation can vary from pigs dying after a short illness with fever and discoloration of skin, through ill pigs with diarrhoea, respiratory and nervous signs, to pigs showing only mild signs. Currently there is no effective approved vaccine against ASF. Routine vaccination for CSF is prohibited and is unlikely to be considered as an appropriate control measure in the initial stages or during a controlled CSF outbreak, but may be considered during a prolonged epidemic.

The Scottish Government's response to a swine fever outbreak is outlined in the Scottish Government's Exotic Diseases of Animal Contingency Framework Plan. The Disease Control Strategy for African and Classical Swine Fever in GB contains a more detailed response to an outbreak of ASF or CSF. Further details on ASF and CSF can be found at gov.scot. During an outbreak of swine fever in Scotland or elsewhere in GB, those web pages on gov.scot will be supplemented with additional information specific to the disease outbreak.

Legislation and National Control Strategy

Year: 2014

Disease Orders: The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014

Statutory Instrument number: 1894

Year: 2014

Disease Orders: Disease Control Strategy for African and Classical Swine Fever in Great Britain (revised March 2020)

Possible Impact

The pig sector in Scotland is highly concentrated with around 56% of the total herd located in the North East. There are around 190,000 pigs, which are worth around £144 million to the Scottish economy. Due to the highly concentrated nature of the Scottish pig herd, the impact of either CSF or ASF could be considered high.

Public health

CSF and ASF do not affect humans.

Risk of introduction of infection and spread of disease

CSF is endemic in parts of Asia, Central and South America Africa, Sardinia and in wild boar in parts of Europe. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and also in Sardinia, and has reached multiple countries across Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, and the Pacific, affecting both domestic and wild pigs. The last outbreak of CSF in GB was in 2000; there has never been an outbreak of ASF in GB. The greatest risk factor for introduction of disease is pigs eating contaminated imported pork products. Disease can also enter the country via imported pigs, contaminated vehicles and personnel. Control measures are in place to prevent introduction of disease by restricting imports from high-risk areas. Smuggled goods (products of animal origin) may introduce infection.

Spread is often by pigs that are apparently healthy; that is, pigs incubating disease or pigs that have recovered and are now carriers. The viruses can survive for long periods (including up to a year in frozen meat). Pigs can become infected by trucks, lorries, market places, and loading ramps (in or over which infected animals have travelled) or boots, clothing, and the hands of a stockperson who has tended to diseased pigs.

Lead Responder Control Measures under Statutory and Regulatory Powers and Responsibilities

Local Authority Principal Role

  • Enforcing Animal Health and Welfare Legislation
  • Enforcing movement restrictions
  • Enforcing of C&D requirements
  • Erection of signage and dissemination of guidance and information
  • Stand down and recovery

Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) principal role

  • Respond to and investigate all reports of suspect notifiable disease
  • Lead agency in the instigation of the local response to a disease outbreak
  • Convene the NDCC, CDCC and FOB
  • Supervise the welfare of animals being culled
  • Surveillance and blood sampling of animals to demonstrate absence of disease and thus gain recognition of disease freedom

Scottish Government principal role

  • Ensure the necessary legislation is in place
  • Make and disseminate policy decisions
  • Make and disseminate guidance and information on disease control
  • Communicate with field staff and enforcement bodies (such as local authorities)
  • Handle policy issues as well as share disease control developments with SGoR, NDCC, and other UK Rural Affairs departments.

Following suspicion of disease

  • A restriction notice is served on the suspect premises while examination of animals is carried out. If veterinary examination cannot rule out swine fever, a Temporary Control Zone (TCZ) of 10 km may be imposed if considered necessary
  • The TCZ measures would restrict the movement of pigs and Government may restrict the movement of any equipment, animal or thing liable to transmit disease.

Following confirmation of disease

  • There is no requirement under existing legislation for a national movement ban
  • An Infected Area, consisting of a PZ and SZ will be established
  • The PZ will be at least 3 km from the IP and the outer boundary of the SZ will at least 10 km from the IP
  • The Infected Area measures will include movement restrictions and enhanced biosecurity
  • Some movements will be allowed under a general or specific movement licence according to risk assessment
  • A central C&D point would be necessary, but the throughput would be much less than that for an FMD outbreak
  • Public access to land will be prevented only on farms where disease is believed to exist. Footpaths in the Infected Area will remain "open"
  • All pigs on IPs and those considered to be Dangerous Contacts will be humanely euthanised. The preferred methods of disposal will by commercial rendering or incineration under official supervision of APHA

Control Zones that may be declared

Statutory Instrument: The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014

Zone: Temporary Control Zone (TCZ)

Stage declared: Suspicion (not mandatory)

Area: Any size considered by Scottish Ministers

Controls: Regulation 9

Statutory Instrument: The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014

Zone: Protection Zone (PZ)

Stage declared: Confirmation

Area: 3 km (minimum)


  • Regulation 23
  • Part I of Schedule 3
  • Schedule 4

Statutory Instrument: The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014

Zone: Surveillance Zone (SZ)

Stage declared: Confirmation

Area: 10 km (minimum)


  • Regulation 23
  • Schedule 3 Part 2 (except para 12)
  • Schedule 4

Statutory Instrument: The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014

Zone: Feral Pig Investigation Zone (FPIZ)

Stage declared: Suspicion in feral pigs

Area: Any size considered by Scottish Ministers


  • Regulation 20
  • Schedule 2 (some or all measures)

Statutory Instrument: The Diseases of Swine Regulations 2014

Zone: Feral Pig Control Zone (FPCZ)

Stage declared: Confirmation in feral pigs

Area: Any size considered by Scottish Ministers


  • Regulation 21
  • Schedule 2 (some or all measures)


Email: Animal.Health@gov.scot

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