Publication - Progress report

Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Volume 5 Number 16:The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines

Published: 3 Dec 2014
Part of:
Marine and fisheries
ISBN:
9781784129125

This study reviewed data that have been collected from offshore windfarms and considers how they can be used to derive appropriate avoidance rates for use in the offshore environment.

Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Volume 5 Number 16:The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines
Footnotes

Footnotes

1. Subject to some carcass recovery factor ( i.e. the potential to miss carcasses, removal by predators, etc.).

2. Table 15.1- Krijgsveld et al. 2011.

3. Table 9.3 - Krijgsveld et al. 2011.

4. Macro-avoidance = 100-((x/50)*100). Where x = % of birds that passed through the windfarm and 50 is the correction factor for surface area. Karen Krijgsveld pers. comm. Values of x for northern gannet and common scoter were 18 and 14 respectively (sum of the relative abundance inside and at the edge of the windfarm - see Table 9.3).

5. Taken from Figure 9.25.

6. Based on the average of northern gannet (0.64) and scoter spp (0.71) which was justified on the grounds of their avoidance behaviour being similar (based on their flight paths).

7. Figure 9.15 - Krijgsveld et al. 2011.

8. Table 9.6 - Krijgsveld et al. 2011

9. Figure 9.28- Krijgsveld et al. 2011.

10. Generalised Linear Model (t 2228 =3.4, p < 0.001) - Krijgsveld et al. 2011.

11. Table 48 - Peterson et al. 2006.

12. Table 55 - Peterson et al. 2006.

13. ANOVA analyses: distance F 14=18.93, p < 0.0001; wind direction F 1=57.49, p < 0.0001; time of day F 1=95.33, p < 0.0001; and distance*time of day F 14 = 3.27 , p < 0.0001)- Peterson et al. 2006.

14. Figure 170 - Peterson et al. 2006.

15. ANOVA analyses: distance F 14=25.38, p < 0.0001; wind direction F 1=13.37, p = 0.0003; time of day F 1=132.67, p < 0.0001; and distance*wind direction F 14 = 2.79 , p = 0.0004) - Peterson et al. 2006.

16. Figure 172 - Peterson et al. 2006.

17. Figure 5-14- Skov et al. 2012.

18. Figure 5-15- Skov et al. 2012.

19. GAM; Distance to radar F=321.5, p < 0.01 and distance to windfarm F=286.4 , p < 0.01. Overall deviance explained 18.6% - Skov et al. 2012.

20. Figure 5-23 - Skov et al. 2012.

21. Figure 5-26 -- Skov et al. 2012.

22. Assumed to be derived from the same data as Peterson et al. 2006.

23. Figure 121. Calculated as 1-(0.09/0.40) - Peterson et al. 2006.

24. Desholm and Kahlert (2005) reported the proportion of flocks entering the windfarm decreased from 40.4% during pre-construction to 8.9% during initial operation. Data collection methods were not extensively described - Peterson et al. 2006.

25. Calculated as 1-0.08/0.48 and 1-0.09/0.24 - Peterson et al. 2006.

26. Figure 122 - Peterson et al. 2006.

27. Table 41- Peterson et al. (2006).

28. Figure 119 - Peterson et al. (2006).

29. Table 42 - Peterson et al. (2006).

30. Figure 31 - Leopold et al. 2011.

31. 60 2 MW turbines which are evenly spaced (550 m apart) in area of 14 km 2 - Leopold et al. 2011.

32. Figure 34 - Leopold et al. 2011.

33. Figure 38 - Leopold et al. 2011.

34. Figure 3.55 - Natural Power 2014.

35. Figures 3.56-3.61- Natural Power 2014.

36. Figure 3.82 - Natural Power 2014.

37. Figure 3.83 - Natural Power 2014.

38. Figure 27 - Vanermen et al. 2013.

39. Figure 2 - Vanermen et al. 2013.

40. Figure 29 - Vanermen et al. 2013.

41. Table 18 - Vanermen et al. 2013.

42. Table 15 - Vanermen et al. 2013.

43. Table 27 and 29 - Peterson et al. 2006.

44. Table 28 and 30 - Peterson et al. 2006.

45. Project SOSS -02: see http://www.bto.org/science/wetland-and-marine/soss/projects

46. Strictly, equation (5) of the guidance refers to Q 2R derived from site survey, as used in the basic model (Option 1), rather than Q' 2R, derived from the assumed flight height distribution, as required here.


Contact