1. General Health, Mental Wellbeing & Caring

Judith Mabelis

Summary

  • In 2012, around three-quarters (74%) of adults described their health as either 'good' or 'very good', while 9% described it as 'bad' or 'very bad'. The proportion of adults rating their health as good or very good declined with age.
  • There has been little change, since 2008, in how men describe their health in general. There has, however, been a significant decline in the proportion of women describing their health as good or very good since 2009 (from 77% to 73% in 2012).
  • In 2012, the mean score for adults on the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) was 49.9. Men had a significantly higher score than women (50.4 and 49.4 respectively). Mean scores have not changed significantly since 2008 (50.0 in 2008).
  • WEMWBS scores were highest for those aged 16-24 (50.7) and those aged 65-74 (51.1), whilst those aged 45-54 (49.0) and 75 and over (49.2) had the lowest average scores.
  • In 2012, one in six (15%) adults exhibited signs of a possible psychiatric disorder (a GHQ12 score of 4 or more). Women were significantly more likely than men to have a score of 4 or more (17% and 13% respectively).
  • GHQ12 scores have remained fairly stable since 1995 with only minor fluctuations over the years.
  • Mean life satisfaction scores were identical for men and women in 2012 (7.7).
  • Adult life satisfaction levels have not changed significantly since 2008 (7.6).
  • Life satisfaction varied with age, with the highest scores found among those aged 16-24 (7.8) and those aged 65-74 (8.1), and the lowest among those aged 45-54 (7.4).
  • In 2012, around one in five adults (18%) reported that they provide regular care to others. Women were more likely than men to provide care for others (20% and 17% respectively).
  • Caring prevalence increased in line with age up until age 55-64 (9% of those aged 16-24 provided regular care for someone compared with 31% of those aged 55-64).
  • Between 2011 and 2012 there was a significant increase in the proportion of adults providing regular care (from 11% to 17% among men and from 14% to 20% among women). This increase may, however, in part be due to a change in the wording of this question between these years.
  • In 2012, 5% of children aged 4 to 15 provided regular care for someone else, with no significant difference in prevalence among boys and girls. Older children (aged 12 to 15) were most likely to provide care (10% compared with 2% of those aged 4 to 11).

1.1 Introduction

One of the Scottish Government's national outcomes is the overall strategic objective for health: We live longer, healthier lives[11]. This is supported by a number of national indicators. The data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) is used to monitor a number of these national indicators, including two which relate specifically to the topics covered in this chapter: 'improve self-assessed general health'[12] and 'improve mental wellbeing.'[13]

Mental health and wellbeing has been, and remains, a key focus of government policy. The Mental Health Strategy for Scotland: 2012-2015,[14] published in August 2012, sets out the Scottish Government's key commitments in relation to improving the nation's mental health and wellbeing and for ensuring improved services and outcomes for individuals and communities. It adopts three Quality Ambitions for Scotland: that health and care is person-centred, safe and effective. There is also a strong focus, throughout the strategy, on actions that individuals and communities can take to maintain and improve their own health.

The strategy supports the Scottish Government's overall purpose and builds upon the work of a number of other key policy documents. Delivering for Mental Health[15] was published in 2006, and contained a series of targets relating to the care and treatment of people with mental ill-health. Towards a Mentally Flourishing Scotland[16] was published in 2009, and was aimed at promoting good mental wellbeing, reducing the prevalence of common mental health problems, suicide and self-harm, and improving the quality of life of those experiencing mental health problems and mental illnesses.

A commitment to monitoring the nation's mental health was established via the Scottish Government's National Programme for Improving Mental Health and Wellbeing,[17] and, in 2004, NHS Health Scotland was commissioned by the Scottish Government to establish a core set of national, sustainable indicators for mental health. These were published in 2007, with the aim of enabling national monitoring of adult mental health and associated contextual factors[18]. Data from the SHeS was used to inform 28 of these indicators, and this chapter reports on indicators relating to mental wellbeing, life satisfaction and common mental health problems. The most recent of the NHS Health Scotland reports on the indicators, Scotland's Mental Health: Adults 2012[19] provides an updated picture of adult mental health in Scotland, monitoring change over time as well as by key equality measures.

This chapter also reports on the prevalence of unpaid carers in the general population in Scotland. Carers are defined as those who look after or give any regular help or support to family members, friends, neighbours or others because of either a long-term physical, mental ill-health or disability, or problems related to old age. Caring which is done as part of any paid employment is not asked about on SHeS. Concerns about the health and wellbeing of unpaid carers have been addressed in a number of Scottish Government policy documents. The most recent is Caring Together: The Carers Strategy for Scotland 2010-15,[20] published in July 2010. Building on the work of an earlier publication, The Future of Unpaid Care in Scotland,[21] the strategy sets out actions to support carers and ensure their health and wellbeing.

Through the implementation of Caring Together, the health and wellbeing of carers is being addressed nationally through a range of measures, such as the Scottish Government's commitment to the voluntary sector Short Breaks Fund[22], and the inclusion of an indicator on carers in the core part of the GP contract[23]. Moreover, the Reshaping Care for Older People Change Fund[24] is supporting the carers of older people in many different ways.

Caring Together highlights the need for key data on the characteristics of Scotland's carers in order to plan for and deliver support to them. One of the strategy's action points is for the Scottish Government to make information on carers from surveys such as the Scottish Household Survey and the Scottish Health Survey available to the research community, care providers and the public through its publications and website.

Data on carers has been collected by the SHeS since 2008, with other sources of such data including the Census and the Scottish Household Survey. Data from these sources have highlighted that carers themselves report poor health and suffer from the effects of illness and disability[25]. Previous analysis of SHeS data showed that carers aged 16 and over had slightly lower mental wellbeing than those without caring responsibilities[26].

Recognising that children and young people may also be in a caring role and may have particular needs, the Scottish Government, along with COSLA, published a separate strategy to support them: Getting it Right for Young Carers[27]. Young carers have been defined within the Strategy as a child or young person aged under 18 who has a significant role in looking after someone else who is experiencing illness or disability. Questions to ascertain the prevalence of young carers were introduced to SHeS in 2012, and this chapter includes data on young carers aged 4 to 15.

In summary, this chapter presents updated trends for self-assessed general health and mental health and wellbeing among adults, both key indicators of the mental health of the population. Additionally, the chapter includes data on the prevalence of carers in the general population in Scotland, a group who are concerned with the health and wellbeing of others, but at the same time are at risk of poor health and wellbeing themselves[28].

1.2 Self-Assessed General Health

1.2.1 Introduction

In this section data on self-assessed general health for adults aged 16 and over are reported. Within the survey, all participants are asked to rate their general health as either 'very good', 'good', 'fair', 'bad', or 'very bad'. Self-assessed health is a useful measure of how individuals regard their own overall health status. Assessments have been shown to be strongly related to the presence of chronic and acute disease, as well as being a good predictor of hospital admission and mortality[29,30].,

Data from this question are used to monitor the national indicator 'improve self-assessed health' and one of the Scottish Government's adult mental health indicators: 'percentage of adults who perceive their health in general to be good or very good[12,18]. 12,18

1.2.2 Trends in self-assessed general health since 2008

Self-assessed general health remained largely unchanged for adults between 2008 and 2012 (Table 1.1). Over this period the proportion of adults describing their health as either good or very good fluctuated between 74% and 77%. Similarly, there has been no significant change in the proportion of adults reporting their health as bad or very bad. In 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, 7% of adults described their health negatively: in 2012 9% did.

Male and female trends in self-assessed general health were largely similar to that discussed above for all adults. The only significant change has been a small decline (between 2009 and 2012) in the proportion of women describing their general health positively (from 77% to 73%). This decline is explained by a drop in the proportion describing their health in general as very good (36% in 2009 and 32% in 2012). Table 1.1

1.2.3 Self-assessed general health, 2012, by age and sex

In 2012, around three-quarters (74%) of adults described their health as either good or very good. While men appeared slightly more likely than women to rate their health positively (75% compared with 73%) this difference was not significant and was not true of all age groups.

In line with previous years, in 2012, the proportion of adults reporting good or very good general health declined with age. This was coupled with an increase, by age, in the proportion describing their health negatively. Nine in ten (89%) 16-24 year olds rated their health as good or very good compared with five in ten (52%) of those in the oldest age group (aged 75 and over). As might be expected, the opposite was true for prevalence of self-assessed bad health; just 1% of the youngest age group (16-24) classed their health as bad or very bad compared with 17% of those aged 75 and over. These age-related patterns were observed for both men and women. Table 1.2

1.3 Wellbeing

1.3.1 Introduction

Three indicators of wellbeing are included in the survey and described in this section: the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS)[31]; the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12)[32]; and life satisfaction score[33].

WEMWBS is used to monitor the national indicator 'improve mental wellbeing.'[13]13 It comprises 14 items designed to assess: positive affect (optimism, cheerfulness, relaxation); satisfying interpersonal relationships; and positive functioning (energy, clear thinking, self-acceptance. personal development, mastery and autonomy). Statements are positively worded and a five-item scale ranging from '1 - none of the time' to '5 - all of the time' is used. The lowest score possible is 14 and the highest score possible is 70. As WEMWBS was not designed to identify individuals with exceptionally high or low levels of positive mental health, cut-off points have not been developed, and it is mean scores that are presented in this chapter[34].

GHQ12[32]is a widely used standard measure of mental distress and psychological ill-health consisting of 12 questions on concentration abilities, sleeping patterns, self-esteem, stress, despair, depression, and confidence in the previous few weeks. Responses to each of the GHQ12 items are scored, with one point allocated each time a particular feeling or type of behaviour is reported to have been experienced 'more than usual' or 'much more than usual' over the previous few weeks. These scores are combined to create an overall score of between zero and twelve. A score of four or more (referred to as a high GHQ12 score) has been used here to indicate the presence of a possible psychiatric disorder. A score of zero on the GHQ12 questionnaire can, in contrast, be considered to be an indicator of psychological wellbeing. GHQ12 measures deviations from people's usual functioning in the previous few weeks and therefore cannot be used to detect chronic conditions.

Life satisfaction is measured by asking participants to rate, on a scale of 0 to 10, how satisfied they are with their life in general. On the scale, 0 represented 'extremely dissatisfied' and 10 'extremely satisfied' (the intervening scale points were numbered but not labelled). This measure has been used in numerous international surveys. There are no pre-defined cut-off points within the scale to distinguish between different levels of satisfaction. However, a summary measure was used in this analysis which identified three groups of interest based on the overall distribution of scores in the whole population: people with the highest levels of satisfaction (scores of 9 or 10), people with an average satisfaction level (score 8), and those with below average scores (0-7).

1.3.2 Trends in WEMWBS mean scores since 2008

There has been no significant change in the mean WEMWBS score for adults in Scotland since the scale was first included in the survey in 2008 (50.0 in 2008 and 49.9 in 2012). In the intervening years scores fluctuated between 49.7 and 49.9. The lack of change in average wellbeing scores over this period was true for both men and women. Table 1.3

1.3.3 WEMWBS mean scores, 2012, by age and sex

In 2012, the mean WEMWBS score for adults in Scotland was 49.9. In line with results from previous years, the average scores for men were significantly higher than for women (50.4 and 49.4 respectively).

The association between mean WEMWBS scores and age was complex. Younger people (aged 16-24) and those aged 65-74 had the highest mean WEMWBS scores (50.7 and 51.1 respectively). Conversely, mean scores were lowest among 45-54 year olds (49.0) and those aged 75 and over (49.2). This pattern of low self-reported wellbeing among the middle aged and oldest age groups is consistent with findings from earlier years of the survey[35]. For men, the pattern by age was similar to that seen for all adults. The exception for women was that the mean score for the youngest age group (16-24 year olds) was one of the lowest observed (48.9). Table 1.4

1.3.4 Trends in GHQ12 scores since 1995

Prevalence scores for GHQ12 are shown in Table 1.5 for adults aged 16 to 64 from 1995 onwards and for all adults aged 16 and over since 2003. The proportion of 16 to 64 year olds with a GHQ12 score of 4 or more (indicating the presence of a possible psychiatric disorder) has remained fairly constant since 1995 (15%-16%). This was true for both men and women, with the proportion exhibiting signs of a possible psychiatric disorder ranging between 12% and 14% for men since 1995 and between 17% and 19% for women since then.

A score of zero on the GHQ12 is indicative of psychological wellbeing with no symptoms of medical distress evident. Between 1995 and 2003 the proportion of 16 to 64 year olds scoring zero increased significantly from 57% to 64%. This increase was not sustained in 2008, when 60% did not indicate any symptoms of medical distress. Since then, there has been some minor fluctuations, but no significant changes, in the proportion indicating psychological wellbeing. Again, this trend was evident among both men and women.

Since 2003 there has been no significant change in GHQ12 scores for all adults (aged 16 or above). In both 2003 and 2012, 15% had a GHQ12 score of 4 or more. The proportion of men and women indicating some symptoms of medical distress has also remained the same since 2003 (13% in 2003 and 2012 for men and 17% for women in both years). Table 1.5

1.3.5 GHQ12 scores, 2012, by age and sex

In 2012, 15% of adults (aged 16 and above) exhibited signs of a possible psychiatric disorder (GHQ12 score of 4 or more) (Table 1.6). As seen in previous years, women were significantly more likely to than men to have a score of four or more (17% compared with 13%). Conversely, a higher proportion of men than women had a score of zero for GHQ12 (66% and 59% respectively).

It is difficult to discern a clear pattern to GHQ12 scores across age groups, as illustrated in Figure 1A. Prevalence of high GHQ12 scores was greatest for those aged 25-34 (20%) and lowest for those aged 65-74 (11%). The pattern by age was slightly different for men and women. Among women, the proportion with a high score was very similar for those aged under 65 (between 18% and 19%), but was lower for those aged 65 and above (14%). Whereas for men, those aged 25-34 were most likely to have a score of four or more (21%), while the youngest (aged 16-24) and oldest age groups (aged 65 and over) were least likely (7% and 8%-10% respectively). Figure 1A, Table 1.6

Figure 1A GHQ12 scores of 4 or more, 2012, by age and sex

Figure 1A GHQ12 scores of 4 or more, 2012, by age and sex

1.3.6 Trends in life satisfaction since 2008

There has been no significant change in mean life satisfaction scores for all adults since the question was first introduced in 2008. Since then, the average score has ranged from 7.5 (in 2010) to 7.7 (in 2012). The separate trends for men and women followed a similar pattern to the all adult trend.

In line with the trend in mean scores, there have been some minor fluctuations in the proportions of adults scoring above average (a score of 9 or 10), average (a score of 8) or below average (a score of 0-7) since 2008 but none have been significant. Between 2008 and 2012, the proportion of adults scoring their life satisfaction as 9 or 10 (where 10 is classified as extremely satisfied) fluctuated between 30% and 32% (32% in 2012). Thirty-seven percent had below average life-satisfaction (score of 0-7) in 2012; the equivalent figure in previous years ranged between 38% and 40%). The proportion of adults with below average scores have not changed significantly since 2008 and the same was true for men. There has, however, been a significant drop in the proportion of women with a life satisfaction score of 0-7 from 41% in 2008 to 36% in 2012. Table 1.7

1.3.7 Life satisfaction, 2012, by age and sex

Men and women had identical mean life satisfaction scores in 2012 (7.7) and the proportions with above average (33% of men and 32% of women), average (30% of men and 31% of women) and below average (37% of men and 36% of women) scores were also similar.

Life satisfaction did, however, vary significantly by age. While adults aged 16-24 had a mean life satisfaction score of 7.8. The average score dipped to 7.4 for adults aged 45-54. However, as seen with the WEMWBS wellbeing score, life satisfaction levels then increased among older people (peaking at 8.1 among those aged 65-74), and dropping thereafter for those aged 75 and over (7.6). This is illustrated in Figure 1B, which also shows that the age group most likely to have above average scores (9 or 10) were those aged 65-74 (45%), while the group most likely to score below average (0-7) were those aged 45-54 (42%). The age-related pattern to life satisfaction was broadly similar for men and women. Figure 1B, Table 1.8

Figure 1B Life satisfaction scores, 2012, by age and sex

Figure 1B Life satisfaction scores, 2012, by age and sex

1.4 Caring Prevalence

1.4.1 Introduction

In the survey, caring prevalence is measured by asking participants if they look after, or give any regular help or support to family members, friends, neighbours or others because of either a long-term physical condition, mental ill-health or disability; or problems related to old age. This question has been asked of adults aged 16 and over since 2008. Children aged 4 to 15 were asked about their caring responsibilities for the first time in 2012.

1.4.2 Trends in the prevalence of caring since 2008

Between 2008 and 2012 there was an increase in the proportion of adults (aged 16 and over) that reported regularly caring for someone (Table 1.9). In 2008, around one in ten (11%) reported doing so and by 2012 this had increased to nearly two in ten (18%). The biggest increase (five percentage points) occurred between 2011 and 2012 when prevalence rose from 13% to 18%. It is, however, important to note that the wording for this question changed between 2011 and 2012[36]. Consequently, any increase in caring prevalence between these years may be partly due to this change in wording. It will be necessary to look at future data in the series to see if this upward trend continues.

Trends in caring prevalence were similar for men and women, with both undergoing a significant increase between 2011 and 2012 (from 11% to 17% for men and from 14% to 20% for women), although, as mentioned above, this may be partly related to a change in question wording. Prior to 2012 prevalence among women remained steady at 14%, while for men it increased slightly between 2008 and 2011 (from 9% to 11%). Table 1.9

1.4.3 Caring prevalence, 2012, by age and sex

In 2012, for the first time, the questions on caring prevalence were extended to children. As patterns of care differ for adults and children, results for both are discussed separately here.

Caring prevalence among adults (aged 16 and above)

One in six adults reported providing regular care in 2012, with women significantly more likely than men to do so (20% compared with 17%). As demonstrated in Figure 1C, for adults, there was also a clear association between caring and age. The proportion of men and women caring regularly steadily increased with age, peaking among those aged 55-64 and then dropping thereafter. One in ten (9%) 16-24 year olds provided regular care, compared with three in ten (31%) of those aged 55-64 and one in ten (9%) of those in the oldest age group (aged 75 and over). The gender difference in care provision, highlighted above, was most apparent among 35 to 64 year olds with little difference in prevalence across other age groups.

Figure 1C Prevalence of providing regular care, 2012, by age and sex

Figure 1C Prevalence of providing regular care, 2012, by age and sex

Caring prevalence among children (aged 4 to 15)

In 2012, the first year these data were collected on SHeS, 5% of children aged 4 to 15 provided regular care for someone else. In contrast to adult caring rates, there were no significant differences between the prevalence of caring among boys and girls (both 5%).

The proportion of boys and girls with caring responsibilities did however vary significantly by age. Older children (aged 12-15), were five times as likely as younger children (aged 4-11) to provide regular care for someone else (10% compared with 2%). Figure 1C, Table 1.10

Table list

Table 1.1 Self-assessed general health, 2008 to 2012

Table 1.2 Self-assessed general health, 2012, by age and sex

Table 1.3 WEMWBS mean scores, 2008 to 2012

Table 1.4 WEMWBS mean scores, 2012, by age and sex

Table 1.5 GHQ12 scores, 1995 to 2012

Table 1.6 GHQ12 scores, 2012, by age and sex

Table 1.7 Life satisfaction mean scores, 2008 to 2012

Table 1.8 Life satisfaction mean scores, 2012, by age and sex

Table 1.9 Caring prevalence, 2008 to 2012

Table 1.10 Caring prevalence, 2012, by age and sex

Table 1.1 Self-assessed general health, 2008 to 2012

Aged 16 and over 2008 to 2012
Self-assessed general health 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
% % % % %
Men
Very good 37 37 35 37 36
Good 39 40 41 41 39
Fair 16 16 17 16 17
Bad 6 6 5 5 6
Very Bad 2 1 2 2 2
Very good/good 76 77 76 77 75
Bad/very bad 7 7 7 7 8
Women
Very good 35 36 35 36 32
Good 40 41 39 39 41
Fair 19 17 18 18 18
Bad 5 6 6 6 7
Very Bad 2 1 2 2 2
Very good/good 75 77 74 74 73
Bad/very bad 7 7 8 8 9
All adults
Very good 36 36 35 36 34
Good 39 40 40 40 40
Fair 17 16 18 17 17
Bad 5 6 6 6 7
Very Bad 2 1 2 2 2
Very good/good 75 77 75 76 74
Bad/very bad 7 7 7 7 9
Bases (weighted):
Men 3087 3598 3464 3608 2309
Women 3376 3926 3775 3932 2504
All adults 6463 7524 7239 7541 4813
Bases (unweighted):
Men 2840 3285 3112 3279 2127
Women 3622 4241 4128 4262 2686
All adults 6462 7526 7240 7541 4813

Table 1.2 Self-assessed general health, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over 2012
Self-assessed general health Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % %
Men
Very good 59 38 43 32 28 19 17 36
Good 32 47 39 41 38 39 34 39
Fair 7 12 12 15 25 29 31 17
Bad 2 1 4 9 6 10 15 6
Very Bad - 2 1 3 4 3 4 2
Very good/good 91 85 83 73 66 58 50 75
Bad/very bad 2 3 6 11 10 13 19 8
Women
Very good 36 44 37 35 28 21 18 32
Good 51 42 41 38 39 41 35 41
Fair 12 12 12 17 21 26 31 18
Bad 1 1 7 8 10 11 14 7
Very Bad - 0 3 2 1 2 3 2
Very good/good 87 86 78 73 67 62 53 73
Bad/very bad 1 2 10 11 12 13 16 9
All Adults
Very good 48 41 40 33 28 20 17 34
Good 41 44 40 40 38 40 35 40
Fair 9 12 12 16 23 27 31 17
Bad 1 1 6 9 8 11 14 7
Very Bad - 1 2 2 2 2 3 2
Very good/good 89 85 80 73 66 60 52 74
Bad/very bad 1 3 8 11 11 13 17 9
Bases (weighted):
Men 339 383 380 420 362 251 173 2309
Women 326 376 414 456 383 285 263 2504
All adults 665 760 795 876 745 536 435 4813
Bases (unweighted):
Men 170 228 346 409 364 385 225 2127
Women 228 329 474 500 443 386 326 2686
All adults 398 557 820 909 807 771 551 4813

Table 1.3 WEMWBS mean scores, 2008 to 2012

Aged 16 and over 2008 to 2012
WEMWBS scoresa 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Men
Mean 50.2 49.9 50.2 50.2 50.4
SE of the mean 0.20 0.16 0.19 0.19 0.24
Standard deviation 8.55 8.02 8.37 8.35 8.34
Women
Mean 49.7 49.7 49.6 49.7 49.4
SE of the mean 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.22
Standard deviation 8.48 8.51 8.67 8.37 8.63
All Adults
Mean 50.0 49.7 49.9 49.9 49.9
SE of the mean 0.14 0.12 0.14 0.14 0.18
Standard deviation 8.52 8.28 8.54 8.36 8.50
Bases (weighted):
Men 2785 3282 3171 3191 2063
Women 3026 3586 3478 3540 2256
All adults 5812 6868 6649 6731 4319
Bases (unweighted):
Men 2539 2994 2842 2900 1909
Women 3248 3886 3805 3845 2431
All adults 5787 6880 6647 6745 4340
a WEMWBS scores range from 14 to 70. Higher scores indicate greater wellbeing. Mean WEMWBS score is part of the national mental health indicator set for adults.

Table 1.4 WEMWBS mean scores, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over 2012
WEMWBS scoresa Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
Men
Mean 52.5 49.2 50.1 49.2 50.5 51.8 50.1 50.4
SE of the mean 0.64 0.65 0.56 0.47 0.50 0.53 0.73 0.24
Standard deviation 6.89 8.34 8.79 8.34 8.21 8.64 8.72 8.34
Women
Mean 48.9 50.0 49.1 48.8 50.1 50.4 48.7 49.4
SE of the mean 0.70 0.52 0.54 0.49 0.51 0.56 0.50 0.22
Standard deviation 8.25 8.18 9.36 8.97 8.90 8.25 7.59 8.63
All Adults
Mean 50.7 49.6 49.6 49.0 50.3 51.1 49.2 49.9
SE of the mean 0.53 0.42 0.41 0.34 0.40 0.40 0.44 0.18
Standard deviation 7.78 8.26 9.10 8.67 8.57 8.46 8.06 8.50
Bases (weighted):
Men 293 341 345 388 332 231 133 2063
Women 272 347 382 420 359 260 216 2256
All adults 565 688 727 808 691 491 349 4319
Bases (unweighted):
Men 150 202 316 382 333 351 175 1909
Women 192 303 441 462 414 353 266 2431
All adults 342 505 757 844 747 704 441 4340
a WEMWBS scores range from 14 to 70. Higher scores indicate greater wellbeing. Mean WEMWBS score is part of the national mental health indicator set for adults.

Table 1.5 GHQ12 scores, 1995 to 2012

Aged 16 and over 1995 to 2012
GHQ12 scorea 1995 1998 2003 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
% % % % % % % %
Men
16+
0 n/a n/a 67 64 65 65 65 66
1-3 n/a n/a 20 23 23 22 23 22
4 or more n/a n/a 13 12 11 13 13 13
16-64
0 60 62 68 63 65 64 64 65
1-3 27 25 20 24 23 22 23 22
4 or more 13 13 13 13 12 14 13 14
Women
16+
0 n/a n/a 61 58 58 57 57 59
1-3 n/a n/a 23 25 25 25 26 24
4 or more n/a n/a 17 17 17 17 17 17
16-64
0 55 55 61 58 58 58 57 58
1-3 26 26 22 24 25 24 25 23
4 or more 19 19 17 18 18 18 18 18
All adults
16+
0 n/a n/a 64 61 62 61 60 62
1-3 n/a n/a 21 24 24 24 25 23
4 or more n/a n/a 15 15 14 15 15 15
16-64
0 57 59 64 60 61 61 60 62
1-3 26 26 21 24 24 23 24 22
4 or more 16 16 15 16 15 16 16 16
Bases (weighted):
Men 16+ n/a n/a 3614 2819 3301 3177 3196 2073
Women 16+ n/a n/a 4057 3079 3589 3498 3559 2257
All adults 16+ n/a n/a 7672 5898 6890 6674 6755 4329
Men 16-64 3825 3900 3007 2336 2738 2621 2648 1707
Women 16-64 3924 3955 3203 2448 2868 2768 2830 1781
All adults 16-64 7749 7855 6209 4785 5606 5389 5477 3488
Bases (unweighted):
Men 16+ n/a n/a 3380 2569 3007 2849 2904 1915
Women 16+ n/a n/a 4285 3301 3893 3823 3867 2436
All adults 16+ n/a n/a 7665 5870 6900 6672 6771 4351
Men 16-64 3448 3315 2618 1901 2239 2128 2183 1386
Women 16-64 4326 4173 3326 2497 3019 2902 2944 1815
All adults 16-64 7774 7488 5944 4398 5258 5030 5127 3201

Table 1.6 GHQ12 scores, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over 2012
GHQ12 scorea Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % %
Men
0 63 59 68 62 74 73 63 66
1-3 30 21 20 24 14 19 27 22
4 or more 7 21 12 14 12 8 10 13
Women
0 49 56 61 59 65 64 55 59
1-3 32 26 20 23 18 23 31 24
4 or more 19 19 19 18 18 14 14 17
All adults
0 57 57 64 60 69 68 58 62
1-3 31 23 20 24 16 21 29 23
4 or more 13 20 16 16 15 11 13 15
Bases (weighted):
Men 294 345 347 389 333 230 135 2073
Women 270 347 385 420 359 257 219 2257
All adults 565 692 732 808 692 487 354 4329
Bases (unweighted):
Men 150 205 316 383 332 350 179 1915
Women 191 303 444 463 414 349 272 2436
All adults 341 508 760 846 746 699 451 4351
a GHQ12 scores range from 0 to 12. Scores of 4 or more indicate low wellbeing / possible psychiatric disorder.

Table 1.7 Life satisfaction mean scores, 2008 to 2012

Aged 16 and over 2008 to 2012
Life satisfactiona 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
% % % % %
Men
Above average (9-10) 32 30 30 30 33
Average (8) 30 31 31 32 30
Below average (0-7) 39 39 39 38 37
Mean score 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.6 7.7
SE of mean 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05
Women
Above average (9-10) 30 32 30 31 32
Average (8) 30 32 30 31 31
Below average (0-7) 41 37 40 38 36
Mean score 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.6 7.7
SE of mean 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04
All adults
Above average (9-10) 31 31 30 31 32
Average (8) 30 31 31 31 31
Below average (0-7) 40 38 40 38 37
Mean score 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.6 7.7
SE of mean 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04
Bases (weighted):
Men 3074 3588 3458 3602 2302
Women 3368 3913 3771 3923 2502
All adults 6442 7502 7229 7525 4804
Bases (unweighted):
Men 2825 3278 3105 3270 2121
Women 3613 4226 4122 4250 2683
All adults 6438 7504 7227 7520 4804
a Life satisfaction was assessed using a 0-10 scale where 0 was 'extremely dissatisfied' and 10 'extremely satisfied'.

Table 1.8 Life satisfaction mean scores, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 16 and over 2012
Life satisfactiona Age Total
16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % %
Men
Above average (9-10) 37 31 30 25 32 47 32 33
Average (8) 30 27 31 33 32 28 31 30
Below average (0-7) 33 43 40 42 36 26 37 37
Mean score 7.9 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.6 8.2 7.6 7.7
SE of mean 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.10 0.15 0.05
Women
Above average (9-10) 27 36 33 28 31 44 29 32
Average (8) 37 28 31 31 32 26 34 31
Below average (0-7) 36 36 37 41 37 30 37 36
Mean score 7.8 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.5 8.0 7.6 7.7
SE of mean 0.12 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.04
All adults
Above average (9-10) 32 33 31 27 32 45 30 32
Average (8) 34 28 31 32 32 27 33 31
Below average (0-7) 34 39 38 42 36 28 37 37
Mean score 7.8 7.7 7.6 7.4 7.6 8.1 7.6 7.7
SE of mean 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.04
Bases (weighted):
Men 338 381 380 419 362 249 172 2302
Women 326 375 414 455 382 287 262 2502
All adults 664 755 795 874 744 537 434 4804
Bases (unweighted):
Men 169 227 346 408 364 383 224 2121
Women 228 328 474 499 441 388 325 2683
All adults 397 555 820 907 805 771 549 4804
a Life satisfaction was assessed using a 0-10 scale where 0 was 'extremely dissatisfied' and 10 'extremely satisfied'.

Table 1.9 Caring prevalence, 2008 to 2012

Aged 16 and over 2008 to 2012
Regular carera 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
% % % % %
Men
Provides regular care 9 10 10 11 17
Women
Provides regular care 14 14 14 14 20
All adults
Provides regular care 11 12 12 13 18
Bases (weighted):
Men 3083 3598 3466 3610 2309
Women 3376 3926 3776 3932 2506
All adults 6459 7524 7242 7542 4815
Bases (unweighted):
Men 2838 3285 3113 3280 2127
Women 3622 4241 4129 4262 2688
All adults 6460 7526 7242 7542 4815
a Provides regular help or care for any sick, disabled or frail person (excluding caring done as part of paid employment). In 2012, the question was amended to specifically mention problems related to old age.

Table 1.10 Caring prevalence, 2012, by age and sex

Aged 4 and over 2012
Regular carera Age Total 16+
4-11 12-15 Total 4-15 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+
% % % % % % % % % % %
Males
Provides regular care 3 10 5 8 10 14 24 26 20 10 17
Females
Provides regular care 2 11 5 9 10 21 28 35 18 9 20
All
Provides regular care 2 10 5 9 10 18 26 31 19 9 18
Bases (weighted):
Males 439 237 676 339 383 380 420 362 251 173 2309
Females 420 217 637 326 376 414 456 383 287 263 2506
All persons 858 454 1313 665 760 795 876 745 539 435 4815
Bases (unweighted):
Males 421 222 643 170 228 346 409 364 385 225 2127
Females 433 220 653 228 329 474 500 443 388 326 2688
All persons 854 442 1296 398 557 820 909 807 773 551 4815
a Provides regular help or care for any person for reasons of long-term ill-health, disability, or problems relating to old age (excluding caring done as part of paid employment).

Contact

Email: Julie Landsberg