Publication - Statistics

Scottish fish farm production survey 2017

Published: 15 Oct 2018
Directorate:
Marine Scotland Directorate
Part of:
Marine and fisheries
ISBN:
9781787812826

This report is based on the returns of an annual survey questionnaire sent to all active authorised fish farming businesses in Scotland.

55 page PDF

4.2 MB

55 page PDF

4.2 MB

Contents
Scottish fish farm production survey 2017
2. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) - Ova and Smolts

55 page PDF

4.2 MB

2. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) - Ova and Smolts

Production survey information was collected from all 24 companies actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, farming 79 active sites. This figure represents the entire freshwater industry operating in Scotland.

Company and Site Data

Table 12: Number of companies and sites in production during 2008-2017

Year

No. of companies

No. of sites

2008

38

130

2009

30

105

2010

31

104

2011

28

98

2012

28

100

2013

27

102

2014

26

96

2015

25

87

2016

26

87

2017

24

79

In 2017 the number of companies authorised by the Scottish Government for freshwater production of Atlantic salmon decreased by two to 24. A total of 79 sites were actively engaged in commercial production, a decrease of eight from the 2016 figure.

Production and Staffing

Table 13: Number (000’s) of smolts produced, staff employed and smolt productivity during

2007-2017

Year

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Number (000’s) of smolts produced

38,125

36,450

36,868

36,872

43,626

44,324

40,457

45,004

44,571

42,894

46,152

Staffing

Full-time

217

209

216

233

225

235

237

244

239

252

250

Part-time

62

54

54

56

68

93

48

65

55

42

41

Total

279

263

270

289

293

328

285

309

294

294

291

Productivity, 000’s of smolts per person

136.6

138.6

136.5

127.6

148.9

135.1

142.0

145.6

151.6

145.9

158.6

Smolt production in 2017 increased by 8% compared to 2016. The number of staff employed in 2017 decreased by three and productivity increased by 8.7% to a figure of 158.6 smolts produced per person. Data for staffing and productivity in 2013 are shown, however, there are uncertainties with these data due to consolidation within the industry.

Smolts by Age Group

Table 14: Number of smolts (000’s) produced by type during 2005-2017

Year

S1

S1½

S2

Total

2005

12,639

22,197

1,489

1

36,326

2006

16,953

23,172

698

4

40,827

2007

15,431

22,694

0

0

38,125

2008

12,431

24,019

0

0

36,450

2009

13,837

23,031

0

0

36,868

2010

14,116

22,756

0

0

36,872

2011

17,233

26,393

0

0

43,626

2012

18,795

25,239

290

0

44,324

2013

19,024

21,279

154

0

40,457

2014

22,367

22,473

164

0

45,004

2015

23,850

20,711

10

0

44,571

2016

25,072

17,822

0

0

42,894

2017

28,072

18,080

0

0

46,152

In 2017, there was an increase in the number of S½ smolts (12.0%) and S1 smolts (1.4%) produced. There was no production of S1½ and S2 smolts in 2017.

Production Systems

Table 15: Number and capacity of production systems during 2013-2017

System

No. of sites with system

Total capacity, 000’s cubic metres

Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Cages

44

41

38

38

36

372

351

355

400

357

Tanks and Raceways

58

55

49

49

43

64

65

47

46

55

Total

102

96

87

87

79

436

416

402

446

412

The principal types of facility used for the production of smolts in freshwater are cages or tanks and raceways. In 2017, the number of farms using cages decreased by two and the number of farms using tanks and raceways decreased by six. In terms of volume, cage capacity decreased by 43,000 m³ while tank and raceway capacity increased by 9,000 m³. This resulted in a net decrease in volume of 34,000 m³ available for the production of smolts in Scotland during 2017.

Table 16: Number (000’s) of smolts produced and stocking densities by production system during

2013-2017

Number of smolts produced (000’s)

Stocking densities
(smolts/m3)

Year

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Cages

20,910

22,816

18,135

15,884

17,207

56

65

51

40

48

All others

19,547

22,188

26,436

27,010

28,945

305

341

562

587

526

Total

40,457

45,004

44,571

42,894

46,152

-

-

-

-

-

The average stocking densities of cages increased from 40 to 48 smolts per m³ in 2017 compared to 2016, while densities in tanks and raceways decreased from 587 to 526 smolts per m³.

Ova Production

Table 17: Number (000’s) of salmon ova produced during 2010-2017

Year

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

No. of ova

91,655

78,208

57,489

56,904

33,450

11,605

13,689

12,631

In 2017, 12.6 million ova were stripped, a decrease of 8% from the number of ova produced in 2016.

Table 18: Source, number (000’s) and previous year’s estimate of ova laid down to hatch during 2006-2018

Year

In-house broodstock

Out-sourced GB broodstock

GB wild broodstock

Foreign ova

Total

Previous year's estimate

2006

19,063

17,768

63

27,157

64,051

58,385

2007

18,837

14,366

78

42,022

75,303

68,032

2008

19,831

14,261

171

26,409

60,672

75,302

2009

17,148

20,158

65

30,200

67,571

64,693

2010

13,744

26,220

0

29,657

69,621

61,011

2011

15,664

14,630

0

34,322

64,616

54,526

2012

18,556

9,981

0

34,700

63,237

55,723

2013

16,996

8,263

0

41,315

66,573

49,249

2014

14,418

2,725

10

53,684

70,837

48,149

2015

6,479

223

10

61,463

68,175

65,284

2016

5,884

4

0

58,458

64,346

59,604

2017

6,228

360

0

59,158

65,746

60,673

2018

67,374

The number of ova laid down to hatch was 65.7 million, an increase of 1.4 million (2.2%) on the 2016 figure. The majority of the ova (90.0%) were derived from foreign sources, this being an increase of 0.7 million (1.2%) on the 2016 figure. Supplies derived from GB broodstock increased by 0.7 million, a 11.9% increase on the 2016 figure. No ova from GB wild broodstock were laid down in 2017, however, in previous years the ova derived from wild stocks were generally held and hatched for wild stock enhancement by the aquaculture industry in cooperation with wild fisheries managers.

Smolts Produced and Put to Sea

Table 19: Actual and projected smolt production and smolts put to sea (millions) during 2008-2019

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Actual smolts put to sea

36.6

38.5

38.5

42.7

41.1

40.9

48.1

45.5

43.0

46.1

Smolts produced

36.4

36.9

36.9

43.6

44.3

40.5

45.0

44.6

42.9

46.2

Estimated production

34.9

32.6

28.7

35.9

31.3

28.1

39.9

43.4

36.6

39.3

46.1

50.9

Ratio of ova laid down to smolts produced

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.5

1.4

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.5

1.4

The figure for the number of smolts put to sea includes smolts produced in England and smolts imported from elsewhere, whereas smolt production data relate only to those produced in Scotland. Smolt producers estimate putting 46.1 million smolts to sea in 2018. The ratio of ova laid down to hatch to smolts produced in 2017 was less than the ratio in 2016.

Scale of Production

Table 20: Smolt-producing sites grouped by numbers (000’s) of smolts produced during 2004‑2017

Year

Scale of production

No. of sites in production

Total smolts produced

1-10

11-25

26-50

51-100

101-250

251-500

501-1,000

>1,000

2004

3

3

9

14

31

22

18

7

107

39,999

2005

2

1

4

15

25

22

21

4

94

36,326

2006

1

4

2

9

19

21

18

10

84

40,827

2007

2

2

4

7

21

21

14

11

82

38,125

2008

2

1

5

8

21

20

15

9

81

36,450

2009

0

0

3

7

14

18

10

12

64

36,868

2010

1

0

4

4

16

15

10

14

64

36,872

2011

1

0

4

5

11

14

9

17

61

43,626

2012

0

0

1

3

19

14

11

13

61

44,324

2013

1

0

1

7

14

14

7

14

58

40,457

2014

0

0

2

1

11

9

14

13

50

45,004

2015

1

1

2

4

9

11

16

11

55

44,571

2016

1

1

0

3

7

11

13

12

48

42,894

2017

1

0

0

2

6

11

10

15

45

46,152

Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or parr are excluded.

The number of sites producing smolts in 2017 was 45. The number of sites producing less than 101,000 smolts has decreased by two and there has also been a decrease of four in the number of sites producing between 101,000 and one million smolts. The number of sites producing in excess of one million smolts per year increased by three.

Production of Ova and Smolt by Production Area

Table 21: Staffing in 2017, ova laid down to hatch in 2016-2017, smolt production in 2016-2017 and estimated production in 2018-2019 by region

Region

Number of staff employed in 2017

Ova laid down to hatch (000’s)

Smolt production (000’s)

Estimated smolt production (000’s)

F/T

P/T

2016

2017

2016

2017

2018

2019

North West

133

26

31,637

34,643

23,787

26,316

25,999

30,736

Orkney

2

2

0

159

150

145

130

130

Shetland

28

0

7,834

7,602

3,428

3,055

3,450

3,750

West

53

11

17,363

16,362

10,386

10,675

11,578

11,518

Western Isles

24

2

6,460

6,980

3,785

4,769

4,445

4,270

East and South

10

0

1,052

0

1,358

1,192

540

540

All Scotland

250

41

64,346

65,746

42,894

46,152

46,142

50,944

In 2017, the North West and the West were the main areas where ova were laid down to hatch. The North West and the West were the main smolt producing areas. The greatest number of staff were employed in the North West region.

International Trade in Ova

Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1st January 1993 and the associated Fish Health Regulations common to all EU member states, a trade in live salmon and ova has been established. In addition, the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement allows trade between the EU and the member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Trade is based on the same rules as are established within the EU regarding compartments and zones declared free from listed diseases.

Trade with Third Countries has also been established, but only from sites that have met the same health standards as are established within the EU regarding the approval of farms and zones for listed diseases. Exports to countries outside the EU are subject to the health conditions placed by the importing country. Marine Scotland Science advises potential exporters to ascertain with the importing country any specific health testing requirements that may be a condition of import.

Figure 2: The distribution of active Atlantic salmon smolt sites in 2017

Figure 2: The distribution of active Atlantic salmon smolt sites in 2017

Imports and Exports

Table 22a: Source and number (000’s) of salmon ova, parr and smolts imported during 2005-2017 derived from health certificates

Import Year

Ova

Parr and Smolts

EU Member States

EFTA

Third Countries

Total

EU Member States/ EFTA - Norway

Iceland

Norway

Australia

USA

2005

2,610

570

13,210

0

450

16,840

150 0

2006

11,575

300

15,940

2,400

0

30,215

375 0

2007

10,511

0

33,555

0

0

44,066

420 0

2008

5,600

0

22,703

0

0

28,303

519 0

2009

5,460

0

29,938

0

0

35,398

328 0

2010

2,150

0

26,533

0

0

28,683

452 0

2011

3,400

0

35,851

0

0

39,251

800 0

2012

10,134

0

23,849

0

0

33,983

0 0

2013

10,700

2,719

35,044

0

0

48,463

55 0

2014

5,218

3,813

49,831

0

0

58,862

1,602 1,748

2015

4,815

8,978

45,926

0

0

59,719

2,118 365

2016

5,444

5,324

38,602

0

0

49,370

1,956 0

2017

7,000

13,883

37,025

0

0

57,908

2,012 0

The numbers of ova imported increased by 17.3%. The number of parr and smolts imported increased from that observed in 2016, with just over 2 million parr and smolts imported from EU member states.

Table 22b: Destination and number (000’s) of salmon ova, parr and smolts exported during 2006-2017 derived from health certificates

Export year

Farmed origin ova

Total

Parr and Smolts

Chile

EU

Norway

Others

2006

26,930

4,312

0

0

31,242

998

2007

32,150

164

0

0

32,314

2,169

2008

62,185

130

0

15

62,330

551

2009

7,181

317

0

0

7,498

89

2010

0

189

600

0

789

130

2011

0

0

0

820

820

183

2012

0

0

0

0

0

55

2013

0

650

0

0

650

404

2014

0

0

0

0

0

259

2015

0

93

0

2

95

8

2016

0

335

0

23

361

173

2017

0

16

0

323

339

206

In 2017, 339,000 ova were exported. Parr and smolt exports increased by 33,000 fish on the 2016 figure.

Vaccines

Table 23: Number of sites using vaccines and number (millions) of fish vaccinated during 2009-2017

Year

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

No. of sites

68

70

67

63

63

56

55

47

46

No. of fish (millions) vaccinated

39.6

42.6

49.2

48.1

47.5

44.7

48.0

42.6

58.4

Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), ERM, vibriosis and salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The majority of fish were vaccinated against furunculosis and IPN, with smaller numbers of fish being vaccinated against ERM, vibriosis and SAV. A total of 58.4 million fish were vaccinated across 46 sites.

Escapes

In 2017, there was one incident involving the loss of 163 fish from a site rearing freshwater Atlantic salmon.


Contact

Lorna.Munro@gov.scot