Publication - Statistics

Scotland's People Annual Report: Results from 2012 Scottish Household Survey

Published: 28 Aug 2013
Part of:
Statistics
ISBN:
9781782568582

A National Statistics publication for Scotland, providing reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics, behaviour and attitudes of Scottish households and adults across a number of topic areas including local government, neighbourhoods and transport.

203 page PDF

5.6 MB

203 page PDF

5.6 MB

Supporting files

Contents
Scotland's People Annual Report: Results from 2012 Scottish Household Survey
3 Housing

203 page PDF

5.6 MB

Supporting files

3 Housing

Introduction and Context

The Scottish Government's vision for the future of housing aims to significantly enhance the quality and sustainability of our existing housing stock and the surrounding neighbourhoods with a housing system which provides an affordable home for all.[34] While the Scottish House Condition Survey (SHCS)[35] is the primary source of information about the physical condition of housing in Scotland, the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) also includes some questions on housing which are used to explore the relationships between living circumstances and the characteristics, attitudes and behaviours of Scottish households.

This chapter presents some basic information on housing tenure in Scotland, including changes over the past decade and how tenure varies with household type, rurality and deprivation. It also looks at the changing nature of housing tenure based on the length of time people have lived at their current address.

Main Findings

  • Owner occupation is the predominant tenure for most household types (63% of all households), the notable exception being for single parent households (where 45% are in social rented housing) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, single adult households (33% in the social rented sector).
  • The private rented sector has shown small but consistent signs of growth from 5% in 1999 to 13% in 2012, associated with a decline in the social rented sector from the turn of the Century though more notably a dip in owner occupation recently from a high of 66% up to 2009 decreasing to 63% in 2012.
  • The 15% most deprived areas in Scotland are characterised by high concentrations of social housing, with over half (55%) of households in the social rented sector; compared to 17% in the rest of Scotland.
  • Just over half (51%) of those who have lived at their current address for less than one year are from the private rented sector. Owner occupied households show more long-term stability in staying at a single address (81% of households who have lived at their current address for more than 10 years are owner occupied).

Housing Tenure

The last 50 years have seen a substantial change in housing tenure in Scotland. Historically, there has been a marked increase in the proportion of owner-occupier households, from a quarter in 1961[36] to close to two thirds in recent years (63% in 2012) (Table 3.1) although this is showing annual reductions from 66% in 2009. This was mirrored in the decline of the private and social rented sector, which in 1961 accounted for 34% and 41% of households respectively.

Reflecting changes in cultural attitudes toward home ownership, two structural factors have contributed to this shift: the introduction of the right to buy for public authority tenants in 1979 coupled with the decline of public authority new build, and the increased contribution of private sector building.

The more recent SHS data, from 2005 through to 2012, continues to give some indication that the rising trend in relation to owner-occupation may have hit a peak in the last decade, possibly in part due to increasing pressure in the housing market. While the private rented sector has shown small but consistent growth from 5% in 1999 to 13% in 2012, this has been mirrored through a decline in the social rented sector (32% to 23%) though more notably in the owner occupied housing (from a high of 66% in 2009 to 63% in 2012).

Table 3.1: Tenure of household by year

Column percentages, 1999-2012 data

Households 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Owner occupied 61 62 64 65 65 64 66 65 66 66 66 65 64 63
Social rented 32 30 28 28 26 27 25 25 23 23 22 23 23 23
Private rented 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13
Other 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 14,680 15,550 15,570 15,070 14,880 15,940 15,400 15,620 13,410 13,810 14,190 14,210 14,360 10,640

The decline in social housing has been accompanied by substantial changes in the profile of its tenants. Data from the Scottish Census show that in 1981, the profile of social sector tenants was similar to the profile of households in society generally in terms of their size, composition, and social and economic characteristics. This is no longer the case and tenure patterns show marked differences by household type, reflecting differences in life stage and household circumstances (Table 3.2).[37]

Owner occupation is the predominant tenure for most household types, the notable exception being for single parent households and, to a somewhat lesser extent, single adult households. Almost half of single parent households are in social housing (45%), which is the predominant tenure for this group. Single adult and pensioner households are both also somewhat overrepresented in the social sector relative to other groups (33% and 29% respectively). Those in the private rented sector are more likely to be single parent, single adult and small adult (between 20% and 25% for each household type) compared to other household types.

Table 3.2: Tenure of household by household type

Column percentages, 2012 data

Households Single adult Small adult Single parent Small family Large family Large adult Older smaller Single pensioner All
Owner occupied 41 64 28 69 70 76 82 64 63
Social rented 33 15 45 16 21 16 14 29 23
Private rented 23 20 25 14 9 8 3 4 13
Other 3 1 3 1 0 1 1 2 2
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 1,880 1,730 610 1,240 610 960 1,810 1,810 10,640

The patterns highlighted above reflect to some extent differences in access to resources. Young adults in the early stages of their working lives are more likely to move around more often, whilst single parents and pensioners may likely be more static in their housing usage.

There is a strong geographic component to the changing profile of the social housing sector and a link with deprivation. The 15% most deprived areas[38] are characterised by high concentrations of social housing (Table 3.3), with over half (55%) of households in the social rented sector; compared to 23% overall. More generally, there is a consistent and marked linear relationship between levels of social sector renting and deprivation, which is evident when looking at the differences between SIMD deciles.

Table 3.3: Tenure of household by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Column percentages, 2012 data

< 10% most deprived 10% least deprived >
Households 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Owner occupied 29 45 51 60 64 68 71 80 81 84
Social rented 59 42 31 25 21 16 14 6 5 1
Private rented 9 12 16 14 13 15 13 12 14 14
Other 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 1,030 1,000 1,040 1,170 1,140 1,150 1,180 1,110 940 900

Households 15% most deprived Rest of Scotland Scotland
Owner occupied 33 68 63
Social rented 55 17 23
Private rented 10 14 13
Other 2 2 2
Total 100 100 100
Base 1,510 9,130 10,640

Tenure also varies between urban and rural areas, although this is somewhat less marked (Table 3.4). Levels of owner-occupation are higher in rural areas and accessible small towns, the former due to the relatively small social rented sector in rural areas, while the latter reflects in part urban workers moving out of high pressure housing markets to more affordable areas. Private renting is somewhat more common in large urban areas (16%, compared to 13% overall).

Table 3.4: Tenure of household by Urban Rural Classification

Column percentages, 2012 data

Households Large urban areas Other urban areas Accessible small towns Remote small towns Accessible rural Remote rural Scotland
Owner occupied 57 63 68 58 71 73 63
Social rented 25 24 20 28 15 15 23
Private rented 16 12 10 12 12 9 13
Other 2 1 2 1 2 3 2
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 3,520 3,230 960 620 1,150 1,160 10,640

Table 3.5 shows that those adults who have lived at their current address for less than one year are typically those from the private rented sector (51%). As expected, those in owner occupied households are more likely to live at the same address for much longer; over four-in-five households of those residing at the same address for more than 10 years are owner occupied (81%). Those living within the social rented sector show a peak of residence at between 3 to 4 years (27%) before dropping back down.

Table 3.5: Tenure of household by how long lived at current address

Column percentages, 2012 data

Adults Less than one year 1 to 2 years 3 to 4 years 5 to 10 years More than 10 years All
Owner occupied 28 39 54 71 81 66
Social rented 19 25 27 23 16 20
Private rented 51 34 17 5 2 13
Other 2 2 1 1 1 1
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 990 1,080 940 2,150 4,740 9,890

Contact

Email: Nic Krzyzanowski