Publication - Strategy/plan

Out of hospital cardiac arrest: strategy 2021 to 2026

Scotland’s out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) Strategy 2021 to 2026 reflects progress made since throughout the lifetime of the previous strategy (2015 – 2020), and sets out the next steps we will take to ensure as many people as possible survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Scotland.

Out of hospital cardiac arrest: strategy 2021 to 2026
Footnotes

Footnotes

1. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020) pp.5

2. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020) pp. 4

3. Wissenberg, M., Lippert, F.,, Folke, F., Weeke, P., Hansen, C., Christensen, E., Jans, H., Hansen, P., Lang-Jensen, T., Olesen, J., Lindhardsen, J., Fosbol, E., Nielsen, S., Gislason, G., Kober, L., Torp-Pedersen, C., 'Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest' Journal of American Medical Association (2013) 310, pp. 1377–1384.

4. Lindner, T., Søreide, E., Nilsen, O., Torunn, M., Lossius, H., 'Good outcome in every fourth resuscitation attempt is achievable — An Utstein template report from the Stavanger region' Resuscitation (2011) 82, pp.1508–13

5. Save A Life For Scotland, Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Strategy for Scotland (Edinburgh, 2015)

6. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020) pp. 4

7. Global Resuscitation Alliance, Improving Survival from Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Acting on the call (Seattle, 2018)

8. Scottish Government (Social Research), The Scottish Approach: A case study of the Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Strategy (Edinburgh, 2017)

9. American Heart Association, 'Improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest: the "chain of survival" concept. A statement for health professionals from the Advanced Cardiac Life Support Subcommittee and the Emergency Cardiac Care Committee' Circulation (1991) 83 (5) pp. 1832 – 1847

10. Save A Life For Scotland, Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Strategy for Scotland (Edinburgh, 2015) pp. 13

11. Scottish Government 'Scottish Health Survey webpage' Scottish Health Survey - gov.scot (www.gov.scot) [accessed 02/03/21]

12. Dobbie, F., Uny, I., Eadie, D., Duncan, E., Stead, M., Bauld, L., Angus, K., Hassled, L., MacInnes, L. & Clegg, G. 'Barriers to bystander CPR in deprived communities: Findings from a qualitative study' PLOS ONE (2020)15(6)

13. Chamberlain, R. C., Barnetson, C., Clegg, G. R. & Halbesma, N. 'Association of measures of socioeconomic position with survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review' Resuscitation (2020) 157, pp. 49–59 .

14. Global Resuscitation Alliance, Improving Survival from Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Acting on the call (Seattle, 2018)

15. Deakin, C., 'The Chain of Survival: Not All Links Are Equal' Resuscitation (2018) 126 pp. 80–82,

16. Larsen, M.P., Eisenberg, M.S., Cummins, R.O., Hallstrom, A.P. 'Predicting survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A graphic model' Annals of Emergency Medicine (1993) 22(11),pp.1652-8.

17. The Scottish Government (Social Research), Exploring the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the general public to responding to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (Edinburgh 2016)

18. Dobbie, F., Uny, I., Eadie, D., Duncan, E., Stead, M., Bauld, L., Angus, K., Hassled, L., MacInnes, L. & Clegg, G. 'Barriers to bystander CPR in deprived communities: Findings from a qualitative study' PLOS ONE, (2020) 15(6)

19. Public Health Scotland 'The right to health: tackling inequalities' Overview of the right to health - The right to health - Health inequalities - Public Health Scotland [accessed 05/03/2021]

20. Chamberlain, R. C., Barnetson, C., Clegg, G. R. & Halbesma, N., 'Association of measures of socioeconomic position with survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review' Resuscitation (2020)157, pp. 49–59

21. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020) pp. 7

22. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020) pp. 21

23. Scottish Government, Rural Scotland: key facts (Edinburgh, 2018)

24. Save A Life For Scotland, Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A strategy For Scotland Data Linkage Report 2015/2016 (Edinburgh, 2016) pp. 5

25. British Heart Foundation, 'South Asain Background and heart health' South Asian background and heart health (bhf.org.uk)[accessed 18 February 2021]

26. Blewer, A. L., McGovern, S. K., Schmicker, R. H., May, S., Morrison, L. J., Aufderheide, T. P., Daya, M., Idris, A., Callaway, C., Kudenchuk, P., Vilke, G., and Abella, B. 'Gender Disparities Among Adult Recipients of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Public' Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 11 (2018) pp. 2

27. Save A Life For Scotland, Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A strategy For Scotland Data Linkage Report 2015/2016 (Edinburgh, 2016)

28. Perman, S., Shelton, S., Knoepke, C., Rappaport, K., Matlock, D., Adelgais, K., Havranek, E., and Daugherty, S., 'Public Perceptions on Why Women Receive Less Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Than Men in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest' Circulation, (2019) 139, pp. 1060 - 1068

29. GoodSAM https://www.goodsamapp.org/medical [accessed 8 March 2021]

30. Resuscitation Council (UK), 'CPR in Schools' CPR in Schools | Resuscitation Council UK [accessed 5 March 2021]

31. British Heart Foundation and Resuscitation Council (UK), A guide to automated external defibrillators (AEDS), Resuscitation Council UK and BHF (London, 2019)

32. Comilla, S., A.M., R. M., Jason, D. & L., K. A., 'Predictors of Survival From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest' Circulation (2010) 3 (1), pp.63–81

33. Valenzuela, T., Roe, D., Nichol, G., Clark, L., Spaite D., Hardman, R., 'Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos' New England Journal of Medicine (2000) 343, pp. 1206-9.

34. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020)

35. The Scottish Government (Social Research), Exploring the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the general public to responding to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (Edinburgh 2016)

36. Dobbie, F., Uny, I., Eadie, D., Duncan, E., Stead, M., Bauld, L., Angus, K., Hasseld, L., MacInnes, L., Clegg, G., 'Barriers to bystander CPR in deprived communities: Findings from a qualitative study' PLOS ONE (2020) 15 (12)

37. The Scottish Government (Social Research), Exploring the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the general public to responding to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (Edinburgh 2016)

38. Rios, M. D., Han, J., Cano, A., Ramirez, V., Morales, G., Campbell, T. L. & Hoek, T. V. 'Pay it forward: High school video-based instruction can disseminate CPR knowledge in priority neighborhoods' Scopus (2018)19(2) 423–429

39. Isbye, D. L., Rasmussen, L. S., Ringsted, C. & Lippert, F. K., 'Disseminating Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training by Distributing 35 000 Personal Manikins Among School Children' Circulation (2007)116, pp.1380–1385 .

40. Fleischhackl, R., Nuernberger, A., Sterz, F., Schoenberg, C., Urso, T., Habart, T., Mittlboeck, M. & Chandra-Strobos, N., 'School children sufficiently apply life supporting first aid: a prospective investigation' Critical Care (2009)13(4)

41. Resuscitation Council (UK), NHS England and British Heart Foundation, 'Consensus Paper on Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest In England' OHCA_consensus_paper.pdf (resus.org.uk) [accessed 5 March 2021]

42. Community Empowerment (Scotland) Act 2015

43. Smith, C. M., Keung, S. N. L. C., Khan, M. O., Arvanitis, T. N., Fothergill, R., Hartley-Sharpe, C., Wilson, M. H. & Perkins, G. D. 'Barriers and facilitators to public access defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review' European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes (2017) 3(4) pp. 264–273

44. Hawkes, C. A., Brown, T. P., Booth, S., Fothergill, R. T., Siriwardena, N., Zakaria, S., Askew, S., Williams, J., Rees, N., Ji, C. & Perkins, G. D. 'Attitudes to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillator Use: A Survey of UK Adults in 2017' Journal of the American Heart Association (2019) 8(7)

45. Krammel, M., Schnaubelt, S., Weidenauer, D., Winnisch, M., Steininger, M., Eichelter, J., Hamp, T., Tulder, R. van & Sulzgruber, P. 'Gender and age-specific aspects of awareness and knowledge in basic life support' PLOS ONE (2018)13(6)

46. Pg 12, Scottish Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project 2018-2019.

47. Hindle, E., Dunn, M., Gillies, M. & Clegg, G. 'Neuroprognostication following out of hospital cardiac arrest - a retrospective study of departmental practice' Intensive Care Medicine Experimental (2015) 3 (Suppl 1)

48. Nolan, J., Laver, S., Welch, C., Harrison, D., Gupta, V., and Rowan, K., 'Outcome Following Admission to UK Intensive Care Units after Cardiac Arrest: A Secondary Analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database', Anaesthesia (2007) 62 (12) pp. 1207–16

49. Weslien M., Nilstun, T., Lundqvist A., and Fridlund B., 'When the unreal becomes real: family members' experiences of cardiac arrest' Nursing in Critical Care (2005) 10, pp. 15-22

50. Pusswald, G., Fertl, E., Faltl, M., and Auff, E. 'Neurological rehabilitation of severely disabled cardiac arrest survivors. Part II. Life situation of patients and families after treatment' Resuscitation (2000) 47, pp. 24-241

51. an Wijnen, H., Rasquin, S., van Heugten, C., Verbunt, J., and Moulaert, V., 'The impact of cardiac arrest on the long-term wellbeing and caregiver burden of family caregivers: a prospective cohort study' Clinical Rehabilitation (2017) 31, pp. 1267-1275

52. Wallin, E., Larsson, I., Rubertsson, S., and Kristoferzon, M., 'Relatives' experiences of everyday life six months after hypothermia treatment of a significant other′s cardiac arrest' Journal of Clinical Nursing (2013) 22, pp. 1639-1646

53. Ingles, J., Spinks, C., Yeates, L., McGeechan, K., Kasparian, N., Semsarian, C., 'Post-traumatic Stress and Prolonged Grief After the Sudden Cardiac Death of a Young Relative' Journal of the American Medical Association - Internal Medicine. (2016) 176(3), pp. 402–405

54. van't Wout Hofland, J., Moulaert, V., van Heugten, C., Verbunt, J., 'Long-term quality of life of caregivers of cardiac arrest survivors and the impact of witnessing a cardiac event of a close relative' Resuscitation (2018) 128, pp. 198-203

55. Wilder Schaaf, K., Artman, L., Peberdy, M., Walker, W., Ornato, J., Gossip, M., and Kreutzer, J., 'Anxiety, depression, and PTSD following cardiac arrest: A systematic review of the literature' Resuscitation (2013) 84 (7) pp. 873-877

56. Weslien M., Nilstun T., Lundqvist A., and Fridlund B. 'When the unreal becomes real: family members' experiences of cardiac arrest. Nursing in Critical Care (2005) 10, pp. 15-22

57. Haywood, K., and Dainty, K., 'Life after cardiac arrest: The importance of engaging with the 'forgotten patient'' Resuscitation, (2018) 128

58. McNally, B., 'The Importance of Cardiac Arrest Registries' Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine (2014) 22 (1)

59. Perkins, G. and Brace-McDonnell, S., 'The UK Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcome (OHCAO) Project', BMJ Open (2015) 5 (10)

60. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2015/2016 results (Edinburgh, 2017)

61. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020)

62. Hope, A., and Munro, C., 'Understanding and Improving Critical Care Survivorship', American Journal of Critical Care (2019) 28 (6) pp.410–12

63. Iwashyna, T., 'Survivorship Will Be the Defining Challenge of Critical Care in the 21st Century' Annals of Internal Medicine (2010) 153 (3)

64. Clegg, G., McGivern, G., Bywater, D., Short, S., and Kent, A., Scottish Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Data Linkage Project: 2018/2019 results (Edinburgh, 2020)

65. Cokljat, M., Lloyd, A., Clarke, S., Crawford, A., Clegg, G., 'Identifying patients at risk of futile resuscitation: palliative care indicators in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest' BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care (2019)


Contact

Email: Clinical_Priorities@gov.scot