Publication - Impact assessment

Scotland's careers strategy - moving forward: equality impact assessment

Published: 6 Apr 2020
Directorate:
Fair Work, Employability and Skills Directorate
Part of:
Work and skills
ISBN:
9781839606656

Equality impact assessment for the careers strategy for Scotland.

22 page PDF

227.5 kB

22 page PDF

227.5 kB

Contents
Scotland's careers strategy - moving forward: equality impact assessment
Key Findings (table)

22 page PDF

227.5 kB

Key Findings (table)

Characteristic[1]

Evidence gathered

Age

It is those at the younger (16 to 24 years) and older (generally categorised as
50 years and over) ends of the age spectrum who face inequalities and disadvantage in the labour market."

(SDS Careers Information, Advice and Guidance Equality Action Plan)

The increase in the population of older age groups has been much higher than younger age groups over the last 20 years. The largest increase has been in the
75 and over age group (+31%) whereas the population of children aged 0 to 15 has decreased the most (-8%).

(Mid-2018 Population Estimates Scotland. This is strengthened by the Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2018)

The Life chances of young people in Scotland: evidence review outlines that young mothers (those under 20-years-old) face particular disadvantages. They often have fewer qualifications and are less likely to be employed. They are more likely to be in the lowest income quintile and live in the most deprived areas. They are also more likely to experience mental health issues.

(SDS Careers Information, Advice and Guidance Equality Action Plan)

Young people (16-24) are also less likely to be in employment than older age groups – we know that employment status has a strong and direct impact on poverty outcomes.

(A Discussion Paper on the Drivers of Poverty (CAD, 2017))

In 2018, 57.2% of individuals aged 16-24 were in employment compared to 80.6% of individuals aged 25-34, 83.7% of individuals aged 35-49, and 69.7% of individuals aged 50-64 (APS, 2018)

(Regional employment patterns in Scotland: statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2018)

The risk of child poverty where a mother is aged less than 25 is double that for older mothers (44% compared to 22% for mothers aged 25 and over in 2013/14 - 2015/16). Younger mothers have had less time to gain progression in their employment, and are also more likely to have younger children, which impacts on their ability to take up employment opportunities.

(A Discussion Paper on the Drivers of Poverty (CAD, 2017))

It's worth noting that the lower employment rate of 16-24 year olds will partially be explained by individuals in this age band being more likely to be inactive in the labour market due to being students, but even with that considered, evidence on earnings shows that young employees are more likely to be earning less than the Living Wage than older age groups. More than half of employees aged 18-24 (53.8%) were earning less than the living wage in 2018 compared to 18.5% of 25-34 year olds, 12.4% of 35-49 year olds, and 17% of 50+ year olds.

(Annual Survey of Hours and Earning (ASHE) Slide Pack, 2018)

The research included in the 'PACE Services – experiences of clients aged 50+' participants recalled having faced several key barriers to finding new work following redundancy, including:

a perception that employers prefer to recruit younger workers (this was the most commonly cited barrier); a perceived lack of adaptability of older workers owing to it being considered more commonplace for older workers to have worked in the same job role, the same company, or the same industry, for many years in succession; a lack of practice in writing CVs and applying for jobs; and a narrow network of contacts − again due to having been in the same job or company for many years – making it harder to make use of professional contacts and word of mouth recommendation if having to apply for work in different industries.

(Partnership Action for Continuing Employment (PACE): clients aged 50+ (2017))

Disability

It is widely acknowledged that disabled people and those with ASN often have lower levels of qualifications and poorer employment outcomes than the general population.

(SDS Careers Information, Advice and Guidance Equality Action Plan)

Pupils with an additional support need are less likely to reach a positive destination or go on to higher education and are more likely to progress to further education or be unemployed. The employment rate for disabled people in 2018 was 45.6% compared to a rate of 81.1% for non-disabled individuals (APS, 2018). There is no employment rates data for disabled parents or for parents of disabled children, but given the disparity shown in the headline rates, it seems likely that these rates would fall short of the rates of their non-disabled counterparts too.

(Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2018)

Evidence indicated that disabled people have indicated that they want to be able to access the right support, at the right time, to develop the skills to enter fair work, and greater engagement with parents, carers and education providers to enhance the career aspirations of disabled young people.

(The Fairer Scotland for Disabled People Employment Action Plan)

Disabled 16-24 year olds: have the second lowest employment rate (43.2%) of any age group and the highest unemployment rate (20.8%); and are more than twice as likely to be unemployed than non-disabled 16-24 year olds.

(The Fairer Scotland for Disabled People Employment Action Plan)

Sex

Single mothers are more likely to be in poverty than other single working-age adults. Women are less likely to be in employment than men and face barriers in the labour market which leads to them being paid less than men on average.

Poverty and income inequality in Scotland: 2015-18

Women are also less likely to be in employment than men. In 2018, the employment rate of women in Scotland was 70.3% compared to a rate of 78% for men. Women are also more likely than men to be inactive in the labour market. In 2018, 26.7% of women were classified as inactive compared to 18.2% of men. Women are more likely to be inactive and looking after family/home than men. In 2018, looking after family/home accounted for 25.5% of inactive women compared to only 6.7% of inactive men.

Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2018

Women frequently limit their career options because they traditionally spend more time than men taking care of children and other family members. For example, they may have to work part-time or close to home or take time out of paid work. Women are over represented in some areas, often referred to as the 5 C's of caring, cashiering, catering, cleaning and clerical. These sectors have historically low pay, low progression and low status but can often provide more flexible working hours making them a practical option. There is also evidence that women tend to reach senior positions in work less often than men.

Gender Pay Gap Action Plan – Analytical Annex (2019)

The largest share of children in poverty for couple families is where one adult works full time and one is not in paid work. In around 90% of cases it is women who are not in work. Another large group of children in poverty are those in lone parent families. Lone parents are predominantly women. For children living in families where one parent works part-time, in over 80% of cases it is the woman who takes the part-time job.

Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Poverty in Scotland 2018.

"Men are more likely to be employed in STEM industries than women. Men have consistently accounted for 56-57% of employment in STEM sectors since 2010, in particular in the high concentrations of male employment in the construction and engineering industries (ekosgen, 2017)."

Developing a Scottish STEM Evidence Base: Final Report for Skills Development Scotland

Close the Gap (2018) state that efforts to reduce occupational segregation have been overwhelmingly focused on increasing the number of girls and women in STEM but there has been no work to address the inherent undervaluation of female-dominated work, such as care.

Close the Gap (2018) The Gender Penalty Exploring the causes and solutions to Scotland's gender pay gap

If more women are to be encouraged to view STEM careers as an attractive option, teachers, careers advisors, work experiences and families need to do more to counter gender differences from an early age.

Research Briefing: Looking at Gender Balance in STEM Subjects at School (2015)

Pregnancy And Maternity

The risk of women living in poverty increases with pregnancy. There are also indications that women can lose pay, status or even their jobs due to being pregnant.

Scottish Government Pregnancy and Maternity Evidence Review, 2013

There is evidence that pregnancy is one of the key triggers that increase the risk of women living in poverty, particularly where they are lone parents Scottish Government Pregnancy and Maternity Evidence Review, 2013

In terms of employment – the type of employer, form of employment and mother's socio-economic characteristics all play an important part in influencing the rate of return to employment after childbirth. Women who were highest qualified, had been in employment for more than 2 years prior to maternity leave, and were partnered, were more likely to return to work than lone mothers with no qualifications. There are many examples of women losing pay and status, and even their jobs, due to pregnancy.

Scottish Government Pregnancy and Maternity Evidence Review, 2013

Analysis of data from the Growing up in Scotland (GUS) study found that, compared to mothers aged 25 and over, those aged under 20 were less likely to have a qualification at Higher grade or above (17% vs. 80%) or to be employed (21% vs. 83%), and more likely to be in the lowest income quintile (72% vs. 12%) and to live in the most deprived areas. While mothers aged 20-24 were found to be relatively advantaged when compared with their younger counterparts, they are still at a significant disadvantage when compared with older parents (50% had a qualification at Higher grade or above, 55% were employed and 40% had a household income in the lowest quintile)."

SDS's Equality & Diversity Mainstreaming Report 2019 – 2021

Evidence presented by the Women's Employment Summit, (2014) for Scotland notes that women returning from maternity leave and looking after young families are often seeking part-time work which may be in low skilled employment with little training or prospects of progression. In addition, limited high-skilled part-time opportunities means women may have to "downgrade" their employment to jobs where their skills are not fully used.

SDS's Equality & Diversity Mainstreaming Report 2019 – 2021

Gender Reassign-Ment

Transgender individuals can face discrimination and harassment at work which can lead to many Transgender individuals being unemployed, underemployed or self-employed. This could have implications on average income earned for individuals in this group.

Information is not currently available on poverty relating to Transgender people, but there is evidence that Transgender people often face discrimination and harassment in the workplace. We know that employment status has a strong and direct impact on poverty outcomes.

Scottish Government: Equality Outcomes: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Evidence Review (2013)

The Scottish Transgender Alliance observes that the workplace is one of the most likely locations for transphobic discrimination and harassment to occur, and as a result many Transgender people are unemployed, under-employed or self-employed.

Scottish Government: Equality Outcomes: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Evidence Review (2013)

In an online survey of Transgender people in the UK in April 2011, employment was identified as being the second top area of concern for the Transgender community, with around a third (31%) of respondents selecting it as their priority. Difficulty in gaining and retaining employment was considered the most important challenge that Transgender people face, with two-thirds of respondents (66%) identifying it as the most important challenge.

Scottish Government: Equality Outcomes: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Evidence Review (2013)

Quality/strength of evidence

Limited evidence base to draw upon. No relevant Scottish Government statistics for this group.

Sexual Orientation

The available evidence presents a mixed, and sometimes contradictory, picture of the employment outcomes of LGBO individuals. No evidence on poverty available for this group. Evidence related to pay gaps for this group is inconclusive.

Information is not currently available on poverty relating to sexual orientation but there is evidence to draw upon in relation to employment.

LGBO adults were more likely to be unemployed in 2015 than heterosexual adults. The unemployment rate of LGBO individuals was three times higher than the rate for heterosexual adults (11% and 3% respectively). LBGO adults were also less likely to be employed – only 53 per cent were in employment compared to 57% of heterosexual adults.

Sexual Orientation in Scotland 2017 A Summary of the Evidence Base

Sexual Orientation in Scotland acknowledge that some research contrasts with the statistics described above, and that LGB men and women do no differ from heterosexual people in relation to employment, or show better outcomes. For example, some research indicates that LGB people may have similar rates of employment to heterosexual people. People in same sex couple households were shown to be more likely to hold professional, administration or managerial jobs (59%) than heterosexual men (40%) or heterosexual women (37%) in 2004/05 (Li et al, 2008).

Sexual Orientation in Scotland 2017 A Summary of the Evidence Base

Race

Minority ethnic children were more likely to be in poverty than white children. 'Mixed, Black or Black British and Other' were the group of people most likely to be in poverty. Minority ethnic individuals were less likely to be in employment than white individuals.

Poverty and income inequality in Scotland: 2015-18 (Supplementary Tables)

Which is backed up by Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2018

Minority ethnic children are more likely to be in poverty than white children. Looking at the latest 3-year average, 40% of minority ethnic children were in relative poverty compared to 23% of white children (2015/16-2017/18). For severe poverty, 32% of ethnic minority children were in severe poverty compared to 15% of white children.

Poverty and income inequality in Scotland: 2015-18 (Supplementary Tables)

Minority ethnic people are less likely to be in employment than white people. In 2018, the employment rate of minority ethnic individuals was 55.4% compared to a rate of 75.1% for white individuals. The minority ethnic employment gap (the gap in employment rates between minority ethnic and white individuals) was particularly large for women (26.8 percentage points) compared to the gap for men (11.2 percentage points).

Regional Employment Patterns in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2018

High educational attainment does not translate to labour market advantage for minority ethnic people.

Race Equality Framework for Scotland 2016-2030

Minority ethnic school leavers in Scotland have high rates of moving on to a positive destination‟ such as further or higher education, however the initial positive destination does not always lead to sustained, high quality employment.

The results of our stakeholder engagement work also suggest that more could be done to encourage minority ethnic young people to consider wider ranges of potential post-school education and career paths. This could help to tackle occupational segregation affecting minority ethnic groups.

Race Equality Framework for Scotland 2016-2030

Religion Or Belief

Some religious groups are at a higher risk of poverty than other groups. The latest statistics for Scotland find that Muslim adults were the group at highest risk of relative poverty and there are indications that this is the case after controlling for ethnicity. Muslims in Scotland were also the religious group least likely to be in employment.

JRF Reducing poverty in the UK: a collection of evidence reviews (2014).


Contact

Email: sgcareersstrategy@gov.scot