1. Home Office 2018, Policy Paper: The UK's future skills-based immigration system https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-uks-future-skills-based-immigration-system
2. Home Office 2020, Policy Paper: The UK's points-based immigration system: policy statement https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-uks-points-based-immigration-system-policy-statement/the-uks-points-based-immigration-system-policy-statement#annex-a-migrant-journey-from-january-2021
3. For more information on Tier 5 youth mobility see here: https://www.gov.uk/tier-5-youth-mobility
4. Home Office 2020, Policy Paper: The UK's points-based immigration system: policy statement https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-uks-points-based-immigration-system-policy-statement/the-uks-points-based-immigration-system-policy-statement#annex-a-migrant-journey-from-january-2021
5. Home Office 2019 UK announces 2-year post-study work visa for international students https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-announces-2-year-post-study-work-visa-for-international-students
6. Home Office 2019, Tier 5 (Temporary Worker) of the points-based system available here: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/795419/tier-5-temporary-worker-v19.0ext.pdf
7. Home Office 2020, Policy Paper: The UK's points-based immigration system: policy statement https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-uks-points-based-immigration-system-policy-statement/the-uks-points-based-immigration-system-policy-statement#annex-a-migrant-journey-from-january-2021
9. Scottish Government 2018, Farm workers in Scottish agriculture: case studies, https://www.gov.scot/publications/farm-workers-scottish-agriculture-case-studies-international-seasonal-migrant-labour/pages/2/
10. For more information, please see here: https://www.gov.scot/publications/contribution-eea-citizens-scotland-scottish-governments-response-migration-advisory-committee-9781788514057/pages/2/
11. More information on the Scottish Visa can be accessed here: https://www.gov.scot/publications/migration-helping-scotland-prosper/
12. This tension was brought to the fore in the development of the EUs seasonal worker directive. As originally conceived it was largely focused on providing a labour supply for the internal market to foster economic growth (advanced largely by the European Commission) without a firm commitment to equality (the European Parliament lobbied for the rights of migrant workers to avoid exploitation) (Fudge and Herzfeld Olsson 2014).
14. https://www.immigration.govt.nz/about-us/research-and-statistics/research-reports/recognised-seasonal-employer-rse-scheme; https://www.immigration.govt.nz/opsmanual-archive/I14808.HTM https://devpolicy.org/go-betweens-needed-troubleshoot-pacific-labour-mobility-schemes-20190206/;https://www.immigration.govt.nz/documents/statistics/rse-earnings-and-remittances-2017.pdf
15. For >six weeks, payment for 240 hours at the 'per hour' rate, regardless of the actual availability of work, or payment for an average of 30 hours per week at the 'per hour' rate for the period worked. For <six weeks payment for 40 hours per week, at the 'per hour' rate, over the period of work offered in the employment agreement, regardless of the actual availability of work
16. Working holiday visas are available to young people, usually aged 18 to 30, but 18 to 35 in a select few countries. They let you travel and work in New Zealand for up to 12 months, or 23 months if you are from the UK or Canada.
17. People who are already in New Zealand on a student or visitor visa can make a one-off application for a work visa to do seasonal work in the horticulture or viticulture industries. They can only apply if there are not enough New Zealanders available to do the work.
19. https://www.pressandjournal.co.uk/fp/news/politics/westminster/1734794/home-office-told-to-address-visa-delays-for-seasonal-agricultural-workers/; https://www.fwi.co.uk/business/business-management/staff/migrant-worker-scheme-falls-short-say-farm-leaders; https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/seasonal-workers-pilot-request-for-information/seasonal-workers-pilot-request-for-information; https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CDP-2018-0054
20. Unlike the A8 countries that were allowed unfettered access to the UK labour market when the joined the EU in 2004, full transitional controls (7 years) were imposed by the UK government on Bulgaria and Romania following the 2007 expansion of the EU which explains why workers had to come through the SAWS scheme.
21. Scottish Government 2018, Scotland's seafood processing sector: employment patterns https://www.gov.scot/publications/employment-scotlands-seafood-processing-sector-uk-european-economic-area-non/pages/2/
22. Rural Business Survey found that half of rural business owners were unsure how Brexit would affect them (Thomson and Atterton 2018)
23. Scottish Government 2020, Migration: helping Scotland prosper https://www.gov.scot/publications/migration-helping-scotland-prosper/pages/6/
24. These four sectors were: Hospitality and tourism; Construction; Au-pair and Agriculture
25. Defined as: managers and senior officials, professional occupations; associate professional and technical occupations; and administrative and secretarial occupations.
26. Defined as: skilled trades occupations
27. Defined as: personal service occupations; sales and customer service occupations; process, plant and machinery operatives; and elementary occupations.