Non-agricultural seasonal and temporary migrant workers in urban and rural Scotland: report

Report providing an estimate of the proportion of seasonal migrant workers outside of the agricultural sector in Scotland and information on the living and working conditions of non-agricultural seasonal migrant workers in rural and urban Scotland.


Agunias, D (2013) What we know about Regulating the Recruitment of Migrant Workers. MPI Policy Brief. No. 6, September.

Anderson, B and Ruhs, M (2010). Migrant workers: Who needs them? A framework for the analysis of shortages, immigration, and public policy", Chapter 2. In M. Ruhs, & B. Anderson (Eds.), Who needs migrant workers? Labour shortages, immigration, and public policy. Oxford University Press.

Anderson, B and Blinder, S (2019). Who Counts as a Migrant? Definitions and Consequences. Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford.

Anthopoulou, T, Kaberis, N and Petrou, M (2017) Aspects and experiences of crisis in rural Greece. Narratives of rural Resilience Journal of Rural Studies 52, 1-11.

Ball, R (2010) Australia's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme and its interface with the Australian horticultural labour market: is it time to refine the policy?, Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 114-30.

Ball, R, Beacroft, L and Lindley J (2011) Australia's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme: Managing vulnerabilities to exploitation. Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice, No. 432, November.

Bailey, R (2019) New Zealand's Recognised Employer Scheme (RSE) 10 Year Longitudinal Case Study. Canberra, Australian National University, Department of Pacific Affairs.

Baum, T (2012) Migrant Workers in the International Hotel Industry. Working paper. International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Bedford, CE (2013) "Picking winners? New Zealand's Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) policy and its impacts on employers, Pacific workers and their island-based communities" (Unpublished doctoral thesis), University of Adelaide, Adelaide. Accessed 26th July, 2019

Bedford, R, Bedford, C, Wall, J and Young, M (2017) Managed Temporary Labour Migration of Pacific Islanders to Australia and New Zealand in the Early Twenty-first Century, Australian Geographer, 48:1, 37-57.

Binford, L (2002) Social and Economic Contradictions of Rural Migrant Contract Labor Between Tlaxcala, Mexico and Canada, Culture and Agriculture Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 1-19.

Boswell, C, Bell, D, Copus, A, Kay, R and Kulu, H (2018) UK Immigration policy after leaving the EU: Impacts on Scotland's Economy, Population and Society. Expert Advisory Group on Population and Migration

Brickenstein, C (2015) Impact Assessment of Seasonal Labor Migration in Australia and NewZealand: A win–win Situation? Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 24 (1): 107–129.

Calavita, K (2005) Immigrants at the Margins: Law, Race, and Exclusion in Southern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Calavita, K (2007) Law, Immigration and Exclusion in Italy and Spain. Papers Revisita Sociologia 85, 95–108.

Castles, S (1987) Temporary migrant workers - economic and social aspects. Centre for Multicultural Studies, University of Wollongong, Occasional Paper 9, 1987, 18.

Castles, S (2000) International migration at the beginning of the twenty-first century: global trends and issues. International Social Sciene Journal 52: 269-281

Castles, S (2006) Guestworkers in Europe: A Resurrection? International Migration Review 40 (4):741–766.

Castles, S, De Haas, H and Miller, MJ (2014) The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 5th ed. New York: Guilford Press.

Cloke, P (2004) Rurality and racialised others: out of place in the countryside? pp. 17-35 In: Chakraborti, P and Garland, J (Eds.), Rural Racism, William Publishing, Cullompton.

Collantes, F, Pinilla, V, Sáez, LA and Silvestre, J (2014) Reducing Depopulation in Rural Spain: The Impact of Immigration, Population, Space And Place 20, pp. 606–621.

Consterdine, E and Samuk, S (2018) Temporary Migration Programmes: the Cause or Antidote of Migrant Worker Exploitation in UK Agriculture International Migration and Integration 19:1005–1020

Crowley, M and Knepper, P (2018) Strangers in their hometown: Demographic change, revitalization and community engagement in new Latino destinations, Social Science Research.

Curtain R, Dornan M, Howes S, Sherrell H (2018) Pacific seasonal workers: Learning from the contrasting temporary migration outcomes in Australian and New Zealand horticulture. Asia Pacific Policy Studies 5:462–480. app5.261

Devlin, S (2016) Agricultural labour in the UK. London: Food Research Collaboration.

Doyle, J and Howes, S (2015) Australia's Seasonal Worker Program: Demand-Side Constraints and Suggested Reforms. Accessed July 14, 2015 , accessed 30th July 2019

Dias da Silva, A and Turrini, A (2015) Precarious and less well-paid? Wage differences between permanent and fixed-term contracts across the EU countries. European Commission Economic Papers 544

Eriksen, TH (2002) Ethnicity and Nationalism. 2nd ed. London: Pluto Press.

European Migration Network (2018) Annual Report on Migration and Asylum. Brussels: The European Commission.

Fernández-Reino, M and Rienzo, C (2019) Migrants in the UK Labour Market: An Overview. Migration Observatory at Oxford University.

Gabriel, C and Macdonald, L (2018) After the International Organization for Migration: recruitment of Guatemalan temporary agricultural workers to Canada, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44:10, 1706-1724,

Garland, J and Chakraborti, N. (2006) 'Race', space and place: examining identity and cultures of exclusion in rural England. Ethnicities 6 (2), 159–177.

Geddes, A., & Scott, S. (2010). UK food businesses' reliance on low-wage migrant labour: a case of choice or constraint? In A. Anderson & M. Ruhs (Eds.), Who needs migrant labour? (pp. 194–215). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gibson, J and McKenzie, D (2010) The Development Impact of a Best Practice Seasonal Worker Policy, accessed 30th July 2010

Gidwani, V and Sivaramakrishnan, K (2003) Circular Migration and Rural Cosmopolitanism in India. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 37.1–2 (2003): 339–67

Halej, JO (2014) Other Whites, White Others: East European Migrants and the Boundaries of Whiteness. School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London Available from:, last accessed 24 February 2019.

Hay, D and Howes, S (2012) Australia's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme: why has take up been so low," Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper #17, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University, Canberra.

Hepburn, E (2017) Options for Differentiating the UK's Immigration System. Culture, Tourism, Europe and External Relations Committee.

Hennebry, J (2008) Bienvenidos a Canadá? Globalization and the Migration Industry Surrounding Temporary Agricultural Migration in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population 35 (2): 339–356.

Hennebry, J (2012) Permanently Temporary?: Agricultural Migrant Workers and their Integration in Canada. Institute for Research on Public Policy, Montréal, Quebec., accessed 30th July 2019.

Hennebry, J. (2014). Transnational precarity. Women's migration work and Mexican seasonal agricultural migration. International Journal of Sociology, 44(3), 42–59.

Hennebry, J and Preibisch, K. (2012) A Model for Managed Migration? Re-Examining Best Practices in Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program. International Migration Vol. 50 (S1), e19-40.

Hirschman, C (2004) The Role of Religion in the Origins and Adaptation of Immi'ant Groups in the United States International Migration Review 38(3), 1206-1233.

Hoang, NTH and Hamid, MO (2016). 'A fair go for all?' Australia's language-in-migration policy. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education

Hoggart, K and Mendoza, C (2002) African immigrant workers in Spanish agriculture. Sociol. Rural. 39, 538e562

Howe, J and Reilly, A (2015). Meeting australia's labor needs: The case for new low-skill work visa. Federal Law Review, 43(2), 259-288.

Hugo, G (2008) Australia's State-Specific and Regional Migration Scheme: An Assessment of Its Impacts in South Australia. International Migration and Integration. 9, 125–145.

Hugo, G (2009) Best Practice in Temporary Labour Migration for Development: A Perspective From Asia and the Pacific. International Migration 47 (5): 23–74.

Immigration New Zealand INZ 1145 Guide to Becoming a Recognised Seasonal Employer

Immigration Factsheet

International Labour Organisation (2019) What is temporary employment?

Johnson, KM and Lichter, DT (2008) Natural Increase: A New Source of Population Growth in Emerging Hispanic Destinations." Population and Development Review 34:327–46.

Kritzinger, A, Barrientos, S and Rossouw, H (2004) Global production and flexible employment in South African horticulture: experiences of contract workers in fruit exports, Sociologia Ruralis, 44(1), pp. 17–39.

Kasimis, C and Papadopoulos, AG (2005) The Multifunctional Role of Migrants in the Greek Countryside: Implications for Rural Economy and Society. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies . 31 (1), 99–127.

Krivokapic-Skoko, B, Reid, C and Collins, J (2018) Rural cosmopolitism in Australia. Journal of Rural Studies 64 pp. 153–163

Krivokapic-Skoko, B and Collins, J (2014) Looking for Rural Idyll 'Down Under': International Immigrants in Rural Australia. International Migration 54 (1), 167–179.

Kyambi, S, Kay, R, Boswell, C, Taggart, K and Porteous, H (2018) Choices Ahead: Approaches to lower skilled labour migration after Brexit. Project Report, Centre on Constitutional Change. Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh.

Lenard, PT and Straehle, C (2012). Legislated inequality: temporary labour migration in Canada. Toronto and Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Lichter, DT (2012) Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America. Rural Sociology . 77 (1), 3–35.

Lindquist, J, Xiang,B and Yeoh, B (2012) Opening the Black Box of Migration: Brokers, The Organization of Transnational Mobility and the Changing Political Economy in Asia. Pacific Affairs 85 (1): 7–19.

Lotu-Iiga PS (2014) NZ Pacific Encouraged for New Seasonal Worker Scheme. Available at:

MacKrell, P and Pemberton, S (2018) New representations of rural space: Eastern European migrants and the denial of poverty and deprivation in the English countryside Journal of Rural Studies 59 (2018) 49–57.

Mayes, R and McAreavey, R (2017) Encountering education in the rural: migrant women's perspectives. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education: Special Issue: Rural Education: Social and Cultural Perspectives. Pages 1-13, Published online: 03 Apr 2017

McAreavey, R (2012) Resistance or Resilience? Tracking the Pathway of Recent Arrivals to a 'New' Rural Destination. Sociologia Ruralis . 52 (4), 488–507.

McAreavey, R (2015) Minority and majority community integration in Northern Ireland: a spectrum of tolerance in Honohan, I. and Rougier, N. (eds) Tolerance and Diversity in Ireland – North and South. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp.114-134.

McAreavey, R (2017a) Migrant Identities in a New Immigrant Destination: Revealing the Limitations of the 'Hard Working' Migrant Identity. Population, Space and Place.

McAreavey, R (2017b) New Immigration Destinations: Migrating to Rural and Peripheral Areas. London and New York: Routledge

McAreavey, R and Argent, N (2018) Migrant integration in rural New Immigration Destinations: an institutional and triangular perspective. Special Issue of the Journal of Rural Studies on New Immigrant Destinations, Vol. 64, pp. 267-275.

Missingham B, Dibden J and Cocklin C. (2006) A multicultural countryside? Ethnic minorities in rural Australia. Rural Society 16(2): 131–151.

Moore, H (2019): Perceptions of Eastern European migrants in an English village: the role of the rural place image, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2019.1623016

Nelson, L and Hiemstra, N. (2008) Latino immigrants and the renegotiation of place and belonging in small town America. Social and Cultural Geography 9, 319–342.

Owen, J, Thimont Jack, M, Iacobov, A and Christensen, E (2019) Managing Migration after Brexit. Institute for Government.

Panelli, R, Hubbard, P, Coombes, B and Suchet-Pearson, S (2009) Editorial: De-centring White ruralities: Ethnic diversity, racialisation and Indigenous countrysides. Journal of Rural Studies 25, pp. 355–364.

Papadopoulos, AG, Fratsea, L and Mavrommatis, G. (2018) Governing migrant labour in an intensive agricultural area in Greece: Precarity, political mobilization and migrant agency in the fields of Manolada, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol 64, pp.200-209

Peters, ME (2017). Trading barriers: immigration and the remaking of globalization. Princeton University Press.

Petrou, K and Connell J (2018) "We don't feel free at all": temporary ni-Vanuatu workers in the Riverina, Australia, Rural Society, 27:1, 66-79.

Popke, J (2011) Latino Migration and Neoliberalism in the U.S. South: Notes Toward a Rural Cosmopolitanism. Southeastern Geographer . 51 (2), 242–259.

Preibisch, K (2007) Local Produce, Foreign Labour: Labour Mobility Programs and Global Trade Competitiveness in Canada." Rural Sociology 72 (3): 418–449.

Preibisch, K (2010) Pick-your-own labor: migrant workers and flexibility in Canadian agriculture. Int. Migration Rev. 44 (2), 404–441.

Preibisch, K (2011) Migrant Workers and Changing Work-place Regimes in Contemporary Agricultural Production in Canada. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 19 (1) 62–82

Preibisch, K and Binford, L (2007) Interrogating Racialized Global Labour Supply: An exploration of the ethnic replacement of foreign agricultural workers in Canada. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 44(1):5–36.

Preibisch, K and Otero, G (2014) Does citizenship status matter in Canadian agriculture? Workplace health and safety for migrant and immigrant laborers. Rural Sociology 79(2): 174–199.

Reilly, A. (2011) The Ethics of Seasonal Labour Migration, Griffith Law Review, 20:1, 127-152.

Ramasamy, S, Krishnan, V, Bedford, R and Bedford, C (2008) The Recognised Seasonal Employer policy: seeking the elusive triple wins for development through international migration', Pacific Economic Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 171-86.

Ramirez, A., & Chun, J. (2016). Struggling against history: Migrant farmworkers organizing in British Columbia. In A. Chowdry & A. Smith, (Eds.), Unfree labour? Struggles of migrant workers in Canada (pp. 88–99). Oakland: PM Press.

Ruhs, M (2002) Temporary foreign worker programmes: Policies, adverse consequences and the need to make them work. Perspectives on Labour Migration 6. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Ruhs, M and Martin, P (2008) Numbers vs. rights: Trade-offs and guest worker programs. International Migration Review 42(1): 249–265.

Shortall, S and Brown, DL (2019) Guest editorial for special issue on rural inequalities: Thinking about rural inequalities as a cross-national research project. Journal of Rural Studies Vol 68 pp 213-218.

Smith, R (2015) The "hidden abodes" of temporary migration programs. FocaalBlog, 12 November. Retrieved from, accessed 31st October 2019.

Stenbacka, S (2018) A Breeding Ground for Rural Cosmopolitanism and Hospitality? Refugee Migration into Rural Areas in Sweden in Kordel, S., Jelen, I., Weidinger, T. (eds) Current immigration processes in European peripheries: status quo, implications and development strategies. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 25-45.

Strauss, K and McGrath, S (2018) Temporary migration, precarious employment and unfree labour relations: Exploring the 'continuum of exploitation' in Canada's Temporary Foreign Worker Program. Geoforum 78, 199–208

Trevena, P (2018) Attracting and retaining migrants in post-Brexit Scotland: is a social integration strategy the answer? SPiCE Briefing

Vargas-Silva, C and Rienzo, C (2019) Migrants in the UK: An Overview. Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford.

Zoeteweij-Turhan, MH (2017) The Seasonal Workers Directive: ' ... but some are more equal than others' European Labour Law Journal 2017, Vol. 8(1) 28–44.



Back to top