Information

International climate justice, conflict and gender: scoping study

Scottish Government funded research report with ClimateXChange which concluded in 2022. It identifies areas of opportunity for policy makers to develop a gender responsive approach to international climate justice.


Footnotes

1. Scottish Government, 'First Minister: Scotland to Show Leadership on Climate Justice', 1 November 2021, http://www.gov.scot/news/first-minister-scotland-to-show-leadership-on-climate-justice/.

2. Climate Emergency Declaration, 'Scotland and Wales: World's First Governments to Declare a Climate Emergency - Climate Emergency Declaration', 2019, https://climateemergencydeclaration.org/scotland-worlds-first-government-to-declare-a-climate-emergency/.

3. Scottish Government, 'Scotland: A Good Global Citizen - a Scottish Perspective on Climate, Defence, Security and External Affairs' (Scottish Government, 2021), http://www.gov.scot/publications/scotland-good-global-citizen-scottish-perspective-climate-defence-security-external-affairs/.

4. Scottish Government, 'Celebrating Gender Day at COP26', 2021, http://www.gov.scot/news/celebrating-gender-day-at-cop26/.

5. Scottish Government, 'A Fairer, Greener Scotland: Programme for Government 2021-22', 2021, 110.

6. Christiane Fröhlich and Giovanna Gioli, 'Gender, Conflict, and Global Environmental Change', Peace Review 27, no. 2 (3 April 2015): 137–46, https://doi.org/10.1080/10402659.2015.1037609.

7. Carol Cohn and Claire Duncanson, 'Women, Peace and Security in a Changing Climate', International Feminist Journal of Politics 22, no. 5 (19 October 2020): 742–62, https://doi.org/10.1080/14616742.2020.1843364; Nicole Detraz and Sonalini Sapra, 'Climate Change, Gender, and Peace: Thinking Differently in a Brave New World?', in Routledge Handbook of Feminist Peace Research (Routledge, 2021), 359–67; Tobias Ide et al., 'Gender in the Climate-Conflict Nexus: "Forgotten" Variables, Alternative Securities, and Hidden Power Dimensions', Politics and Governance 9, no. 4 (2021): 43–52, https://doi.org/10.17645/pag.v9i4.4275; Annica Kronsell, 'Women Peace and Security and Climate Change', in Oxford Handbook on Women, Peace and Security, ed. Sarah Davies and Jacqui True (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2019); Keina Yoshida and Lina M Céspedes-Báez, 'The Nature of Women, Peace and Security: A Colombian Perspective', International Affairs 97, no. 1 (11 January 2021): 17–34, https://doi.org/10.1093/ia/iiaa173.

8. Silja Halle and Molly Kellogg, 'Gender, Climate & Security: Sustaining Inclusive Peace on the Frontlines of Climate Change' (United Nations Environment Programme, 2020), https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/06/gender-climate-and-security; A. E Boyer, S S Meijer, and M Gilligan, 'Advancing Gender in the Environment: Exploring the Triple Nexus of Gender Inequality, State Fragility, and Climate Change' (Washington, DC: IUCN, USAID, 28 August 2020), https://genderandenvironment.org/triple-nexus/; Itza Castañeda Carney et al., 'Gender-Based Violence and Environment Linkages: The Violence of Inequality' (IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, 29 January 2020), https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2020.03.en; GAPS UK, 'Defending the Future: Gender, Conflict and Environmental Peace' (GAPS UK, 2021), https://gaps-uk.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Defending-the-Future.pdf; Jessica M Smith, Lauren Olosky, and Jennifer Grosman Fernández, 'The Climate-Gender-Conflict Nexus: Amplifying Women's Contributions at the Grassroots' (Washington, DC: Georgetown Institute on WPS, 2021), https://www.wocan.org/sites/default/files/The-Climate-Gender-Conflict-Nexus.pdf.

9. Christin Ormhaug, Patrick Meier, and Helga Hernes, 'Armed Conflict Deaths Disaggregated by Gender', PRIO Paper 23 (2009), https://www.prio.org/publications/7207.

10. Carol Cohn, Women and Wars: Contested Histories, Uncertain Futures (John Wiley & Sons, 2013); Fionnuala Ní Aoláin et al., The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict (Oxford University Press, 2018); Simona Sharoni et al., Handbook on Gender and War (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016).

11. Susan Buckingham and Virginie Le Masson, Understanding Climate Change through Gender Relations (Taylor & Francis, 2017).

12. Eric Neumayer and Thomas Plümper, 'The Gendered Nature of Natural Disasters: The Impact of Catastrophic Events on the Gender Gap in Life Expectancy, 1981–2002', Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97, no. 3 (2007): 551–66.

13. Joni Seager et al., Global Gender and Environment Outlook (Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2016).

14. Boyer, Meijer, and Gilligan, 'Advancing Gender in the Environment'.

15. OHCHR, 'Analytical Study on Gender-Responsive Climate Action for the Full and Effective Enjoyment of the Rights of Women' (UN Human Rights Council, 1 May 2019), para. 16.

16. Castañeda Carney et al., 'Gender-Based Violence and Environment Linkages', 6, 28, 31.

17. Halle and Kellogg, 'Gender, Climate & Security'; Libby Brooks, 'Indigenous Women Speak out at Cop26 Rally: "Femicide Is Linked to Ecocide"', The Guardian, 10 November 2021, sec. Environment, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/nov/10/indigenous-women-speak-out-at-cop26-rally-femicide-is-linked-to-ecocide.

18. UN Peacebuilding Fund, 'Climate Security and Peacebuilding', July 2020, https://www.un.org/peacebuilding/sites/www.un.org.peacebuilding/files/documents/brief_climate_security_20200724_2.pdf.

19. Halle and Kellogg, 'Gender, Climate & Security'; Ide et al., 'Gender in the Climate-Conflict Nexus'.

20. Cynthia Cockburn, 'Gender Relations as Causal in Militarization and War: A Feminist Standpoint', International Feminist Journal of Politics 12, no. 2 (2010): 139–57; Cohn, Women and Wars.

21. Sherilyn MacGregor, '"Gender and Climate Change": From Impacts to Discourses', Journal of the Indian Ocean Region 6, no. 2 (2010): 223–38.

22. UN Women, 'Beyond COVID-19: A Feminist Plan for Sustainability and Social Justice' (New York: UN Women, 2021), https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2021/09/feminist-plan-for-sustainability-and-social-justice.

23. Carl Bruch, Carroll Muffet, and Sandra S. Nichols, eds., Governance, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding (London: Routledge, 2017), https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203109793; Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era (John Wiley & Sons, 2013); Kenneth Omeje, ed., Extractive Economies and Conflicts in the Global South: Multi-Regional Perspectives on Rentier Politics (London: Routledge, 2017), https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351158404.

24. Andreas Malm, Fossil Capitalism: The Rise of Steam Power and the Roots of Global Warming (Verso Books, 2016), https://www.versobooks.com/books/2002-fossil-capital; Jason W. Moore, 'The Capitalocene Part II: Accumulation by Appropriation and the Centrality of Unpaid Work/Energy', The Journal of Peasant Studies 45, no. 2 (2018): 237–79.

25. Melissa Leach, Gender Equality and Sustainable Development (Routledge, 2015).

26. UNDP, ed., Human Development Report 1994 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994).

27. See the list of over 100 in Patrick Huntjens and Katharina Nachbar, 'Climate Change as a Threat Multiplier for Human Disaster and Conflict', The Hague Institute for Global Justice, 2015.

28. Betsy Hartmann, 'Rethinking Climate Refugees and Climate Conflict: Rhetoric, Reality and the Politics of Policy Discourse', Journal of International Development: The Journal of the Development Studies Association 22, no. 2 (2010): 233–46; Jan Selby, 'Positivist Climate Conflict Research: A Critique', Geopolitics 19, no. 4 (2014): 829–56; Jan Selby and Clemens Hoffmann, 'Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict and Security', Geopolitics 19, no. 4 (2 October 2014): 747–56, https://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2014.964866.

29. Frances Stewart, 'Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: An Introduction and Some Hypotheses', in Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict (Springer, 2008), 3–24.

30. Selby and Hoffmann, 'Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict and Security'; Jan Selby et al., 'Climate Change and the Syrian Civil War Revisited', Political Geography 60 (2017): 232–44.

31. Hartmann, 'Rethinking Climate Refugees and Climate Conflict'.

32. Geoffrey Alan Boyce et al., 'Alter-Geopolitics and the Feminist Challenge to the Securitization of Climate Policy', Gender, Place & Culture 27, no. 3 (3 March 2020): 394–411, https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2019.1620698; Hartmann, 'Rethinking Climate Refugees and Climate Conflict'.

33. Huntjens and Nachbar, 'Climate Change as a Threat Multiplier for Human Disaster and Conflict'; Joane Nagel, 'Gender, Conflict, and the Militarization of Climate Change Policy', Peace Review 27, no. 2 (April 2015): 202–8, https://doi.org/10.1080/10402659.2015.1037629.

34. 'The Military's Contribution to Climate Change', CEOBS (blog), 16 June 2021, https://ceobs.org/the-militarys-contribution-to-climate-change/; CEOBS and Concrete Impacts, 'The Military Emissions Gap – Tracking the Long War That Militaries Are Waging on the Climate', accessed 16 November 2021, https://militaryemissions.org/.

35. Rob Nixon, 'Neoliberalism, Slow Violence, and the Environmental Picaresque', MFS Modern Fiction Studies 55, no. 3 (2009): 443–67, https://doi.org/10.1353/mfs.0.1631.

36. MacGregor, '"Gender and Climate Change"'.

37. Chris J. Cuomo, 'Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Responsibility', Hypatia 26, no. 4 (2011): 695.

38. Bruno Oberle et al., 'Global Resources Outlook 2019: Natural Resources for the Future We Want' (UNDP, 3 December 2018), https://www.resourcepanel.org/reports/global-resources-outlook.

39. Carol Cohn and Claire Duncanson, 'Whose Recovery? IFI Prescriptions for Postwar States', Review of International Political Economy 27, no. 6 (2020): 1214–34.

40. Paul Griffin, 'CDP Carbon Majors Report 2017' (CDP, 2017).

41. IIED, 'International Treaties Threaten Affordability of Climate Action: New Report', International Institute for Environment and Development, 4 October 2020, https://www.iied.org/international-treaties-threaten-affordability-climate-action-new-report.

42. Rachel Noble, 'From Rhetoric to Rights: Towards Gender-Just Trade' (London, UK: ActionAid UK, 2018), https://www.actionaid.org.uk/publications/from-rhetoric-to-rights-towards-gender-just-trade.

43. UN Women, 'Beyond COVID-19', 18.

44. Cohn and Duncanson, 'Whose Recovery?'

45. Leach, Gender Equality and Sustainable Development; Kronsell, 'Women Peace and Security and Climate Change'.

46. Karen Morrow, 'Changing the Climate of Participation: The Gender Constituency in the Global Climate Change Regime', in Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment, ed. Sherilyn MacGregor (Routledge, 2017), 398–411.

47. Gender Climate Tracker, 'Women's Participation Statistics in Climate Diplomacy', 19 October 2016, https://genderclimatetracker.org/participation-stats/introduction.

48. Leach, Gender Equality and Sustainable Development, 19.

49. Seema Arora-Jonsson, 'Virtue and Vulnerability: Discourses on Women, Gender and Climate Change', Global Environmental Change 21, no. 2 (2011): 744–51; Bernadette P. Resurrección, 'From "Women, Environment, and Development" to Feminist Political Ecology', Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment, 2017, 71–85.

50. Hilary Charlesworth, 'Are Women Peaceful? Reflections on the Role of Women in Peace-Building', Feminist Legal Studies 16, no. 3 (2008): 347–61.

51. Carol Cohn, 'Mainstreaming Gender in UN Security Policy: A Path to Political Transformation?', in Global Governance: Feminist Perspectives, ed. Shirin M. Rai and Georgina Waylen (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2008), 185–206, https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230583931_9; Mary E. Hawkesworth, Globalization and Feminist Activism (Rowman & Littlefield, 2018).

52. Wellbeing Economy Alliance, 'What Is a Wellbeing Economy?', 2019, https://weall.org/what-is-a-wellbeing-economy-new-weall-ideas-paper.

53. Megan MacKenzie and Nicole Wegner, 'Feminist Solutions for Ending War' (Pluto Press, 2021).

54. Indigenous, tribal or ethnic identity, as well as migrant or disability status or sexual orientation, for example, may well compound the socioeconomic and/or physical vulnerability of some women and girls. For example: indigenous women often face multi-layered risks as they are discriminated against as environmental activists, as women and as part of an ethnic minority group; LGBTI+ persons displaced by climate change may face elevated risks of violent abuse. (See: OHCHR, 'Analytical Study on Gender-Responsive Climate Action for the Full and Effective Enjoyment of the Rights of Women').

55. Drawing on the many feminist blueprints for macroeconomic justice, including initiatives such as the Feminist Global Green New Deal. See Gender and Development Network, 'Feminist Macroeconomic Proposals for Post-COVID-19 Economic Recovery', Gender and Development Network, accessed 17 January 2022, https://gadnetwork.org/gadn-resources/feminist-macroeconomic-proposals-rebuilding-more-equitable-just-and-sustainable-economies-post-covid-19.

56. Activists have specifically called upon those governments that are self-declared as 'feminist' to "address the use of corporate power of organisations headquartered in their countries, particularly in relation to extractive industries," see e.g. GAPS UK, 'Defending the Future: Gender, Conflict and Environmental Peace'.

57. It is extremely difficult for local communities to hold companies (including transnational corporations headquartered in the UK) to account for human rights abuses, as well as deforestation, releasing gases/other pollutants or acting in ways that negatively affect women and girls' livelihoods and rights. Women environmental defenders frequently face threats, particularly in contexts where they stand up to extractive projects and corporate interests on indigenous lands

58. 1998 The Scottish Government Act, para 7(1) https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/46/contents

59. Scottish Government, 'Supporting Women in Climate Action and Conflict Resolution', accessed 5 December 2021, http://www.gov.scot/news/supporting-women-in-climate-action-and-conflict-resolution/.

60. Scottish Government, 'Independent Review of The Scottish Government Humanitarian Emergency Fund', 2019.

61. Scottish Government, 'Summary Report on the Review of Scottish Government's International Development Programme in Light of COVID-19', 2021, 20.

62. Scottish Government, 'Climate Justice Policy', Corra, accessed 26 November 2021, https://www.corra.scot/grants/international-development/.

63. Climate Justice Fund evaluation: final report - gov.scot (www.gov.scot)

64. Scottish Government, 'Supporting Women in Climate Action and Conflict Resolution'.

65. 'Scotland Supports Gender-Just Climate Action on International Women's Day', WEDO, 8 March 2021, https://wedo.org/scotland-supports-gender-just-climate-action-on-international-womens-day/.

66. 'Scotland Supports Gender-Just Climate Action on International Women's Day'.

67. Scottish Government and United Nations, 'Gender Equality and Climate Change: Glasgow Women's Leadership Statement', accessed 5 December 2021, http://www.gov.scot/publications/glasgow-womens-leadership-statement-gender-equality-climate-change/.Scottish Government, 'Supporting Women in Climate Action and Conflict Resolution'.

68. Scottish Government and United Nations, 'Gender Equality and Climate Change'.

69. Scottish Government, 'Scotland's Contribution to the Paris Agreement – an Indicative NDC - July 2021', 2021.

70. Scottish Government, 'International Development: Climate Justice Fund - Gov.Scot', accessed 26 November 2021, https://www.gov.scot/policies/international-development/climate-justice-fund/.

71. Scottish Government, 'Scotland's Contribution to the Paris Agreement – an Indicative NDC - July 2021'.

72. Scottish Government, 'Summary Report on the Review of Scottish Government's International Development Programme in Light of COVID-19'.

73. Scottish Government, 'A Fairer, Greener Scotland: Programme for Government 2021-22', 110.

74. Scottish Government, 'Scotland's Contribution to the Paris Agreement – an Indicative NDC - July 2021'.

75. Anne Funnemark, 'Financing Climate Justice: Scotland at COP26' (SCCS), accessed 28 October 2021, https://www.stopclimatechaos.scot/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/FinancingClimateJustice_Final.pdf.

76. Whilst the evaluation of the CJF evaluates the fund's projects against the pillar of "transformative justice," which suggests perhaps some sort of radical shift in economic structures, the definition of the term here is "strengthening beneficiaries' opportunities to engage in decision making and increase their negotiation powers in matters relating to climate change," and thus is more about participation, level 2 of our analytical framework. Climate Justice Fund evaluation: final report - gov.scot (www.gov.scot)

77.Scottish Government, 'A Fairer, Greener Scotland: Programme for Government 2021-22'.

78. Scottish Government, 'Towards a Robust, Resilient Wellbeing Economy for Scotland', 2020.

79. Scottish Government, 'Economic Recovery Implementation Plan: Scottish Government response to the Advisory Group on Economic Recovery' - gov.scot (www.gov.scot), 2020

80. Scottish Government, 'Covid Recovery Strategy: For a Fairer Future' (Scottish Government, 2021), http://www.gov.scot/publications/covid-recovery-strategy-fairer-future/.

81. Scotland, Scottish Government, and APS Group Scotland, 'Scotland's Economic Strategy.', 2015, http://www.nls.uk/scotgov/2015/9781785441721.pdf. Note that the Scottish Government newly published National Strategy for Economic Transformation, which replaces the 2015 strategy, sets a vision for 2032 to create a wellbeing economy in Scotland based on the principles of equality, sustainability, resilience and prosperity, and placing people and planet at the heart of the economy.

82. Scottish Government, 'A Fairer, Greener Scotland: Programme for Government 2021-22'.

83. Scottish Government, 'Summary Report on the Review of Scottish Government's International Development Programme in Light of COVID-19'.

84. Scotland, Scottish Government, and APS Group Scotland, A Trading Nation: A Plan for Growing Scotland's Exports., 2019, 29,30, http://www.nls.uk/scotgov/2019/194237022.23.pdf.

85. Scottish Government, 'Scotland's Vision for Trade' (Scottish Government, 2021).

86. Scottish Government, 'Global Citizenship: Scotland's International Development Strategy', 2016, 9.

87. Scottish Government, 'Global Citizenship: Scotland's International Development Strategy', 9.

88. Climate Change Committee, 'Progress Reducing Emissions in Scotland - 2021 Report to Parliament' (Climate Change Committee, 2021), https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/progress-reducing-emissions-in-scotland-2021-report-to-parliament/.

89. Smith, Olosky, and Fernández, 'The Climate-Gender-Conflict Nexus: Amplifying Women's Contributions at the Grassroots', 17–18.

90. Smith, Olosky, and Fernández, 'The Climate-Gender-Conflict Nexus: Amplifying Women's Contributions at the Grassroots', 15, 20.

91 'International Climate Cooperation Program Quebec', accessed 28 October 2021, https://www.environnement.gouv.qc.ca/programmes/coop-climatique-internationale/index-en.htm.

92. 'Québec's International Climate Cooperation Program (PCCI)', November 2018.

93. Quebec Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques, 'Factsheets on Projects Funded under the Third Call for Projects of the ICCP', accessed 5 November 2021, https://www.environnement.gouv.qc.ca/programmes/coop-climatique-internationale/fiches-projets-pcci-appel-3-en.pdf.

94. UN Women, 'Beyond COVID-19'.

95. 'Gender Just Climate Solutions 2021' (Women and Gender Constituency, 2021), 24, https://www.ctc-n.org/sites/www.ctc-n.org/files/resources/WECF%20Gender%20Just%20Climate%20Solutions%202021%20ENG.pdf; 'Strengthening Environmental Women Defenders', Fondo de Mujeres Del Sur (blog), accessed 15 December 2021, https://www.mujeresdelsur.org/en/our-programs/strengthening-environmental-women-defenders/.

96. WEDO, 'Gender Just Climate Solutions Scale Fund: 2021 Pilot Winners', WEDO, 9 November 2021, https://wedo.org/gender-just-climate-solutions-scale-fund-2021-pilot-winners/.

97. Women and Gender Constituency of the UNFCCC, 'Key Demands for COP26', 2021, 4, https://womengenderclimate.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/WGC_KeyDemandsCOP26_EN.pdf.

98. UK Government, '[Withdrawn] Piloting Gender-Transformative Approaches to Natural Resource Management in a Time of Climate and Environmental Stress: Terms of Reference', GOV.UK, accessed 17 January 2022, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/conflict-stabilisation-and-security-fund-gender-peace-and-security-calls-for-bids-2021-to-2022/piloting-gender-transformative-approaches-to-natural-resource-management-in-a-time-of-climate-and-environmental-stress-terms-of-reference; UK Government, '[Withdrawn] Support for Women's Rights Organisations in Conflict-Affected States: Terms of Reference', GOV.UK, accessed 17 January 2022, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/conflict-stabilisation-and-security-fund-gender-peace-and-security-calls-for-bids-2021-to-2022/support-for-womens-rights-organisations-in-conflict-affected-states-terms-of-reference.

99. IUCN, 'Addressing the Violence of Inequality: Investing in Solutions to Address Gender-Based Violence and Environment Links', 2021, https://staging4.genderandenvironment.org/web_post/addressing-the-violence-of-inequality-investing-in-solutions-to-address-gender-based-violence-and-environment-links/; 'RISE Challenge', IUCN, accessed 16 November 2021, https://genderandenvironment.org/agent-gbv-env/rise-challenge/.

100. The ACCD is the body of the Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia) responsible for the management of development cooperation policies and humanitarian action.

101. Urgent Action Fund | Climate Defenders', accessed 5 November 2021, https://urgentactionfund.org/what-we-do/climate-defenders/.

102. 'Colòmbia', Cooperació catalana, accessed 5 November 2021, http://cooperaciocatalana.gencat.cat/ca/que-fem/fons-dones/colombia/.

103. 'Urgent Action Fund | Climate Defenders', accessed 5 November 2021, https://urgentactionfund.org/what-we-do/climate-defenders/.

104. 'Climate Change and Gender-Based Violence: What Are the Links?', GBV AoR Helpdesk (London, UK: Social Development Direct, 2020), 44, https://www.sddirect.org.uk/media/2187/gbv-aor-helpdesk-climate-change-gbv-19032021.pdf; 'State and Trends in Adaptation Report 2021: Africa' (Global Centre on Adaptation, October 2021), 443, https://gca.org/reports/state-and-trends-in-adaptation-report-2021/; WEDO, 'Gender Climate Tracker Country Profiles: Quick Analysis', April 2021, https://genderclimatetracker.org/gender-ndc/quick-analysis. Two exceptions: Ghana's NDC quantifies the cost of the policy underlying its programme to increase the resilience of women to climate change, and Jordan's commits to ensuring that financing mechanisms for mitigation and adaptation address the needs and conditions for implementation in relation to poor women: WEDO, 'Gender Climate Tracker Country Profiles: Quick Analysis'.

105. 'Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment in Updated and New Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)', 9 December 2020, 6, https://wedo.org/brief-gender-equality-and-womens-empowerment-in-updated-and-new-nationally-determined-contributions-ndcs/.

106. WEDO, 'Gender Climate Tracker Country Profiles: Quick Analysis'.

107. 'Gender and Climate Finance (2020) - Climate Funds Update', 2020, 7, https://climatefundsupdate.org/publications/gender-and-climate-finance-2020/.

108. Liane Schalatek, Elaine Zuckerman, and Eliza McCullough, 'More than an Add-on? Evaluating the Integration of Gender in Green Climate Fund Projects and Programs', October 2021.

109. 'Making Climate Finance Work for Women: Overview of Bilateral ODA to Gender and Climate Change' (Paris: OECD, 2016), https://www.oecd.org/environment/making-climate-finance-work-for-women.htm.

110. UN Secretary-General, 'Women and Peace and Security: Report of the Secretary-General' (UN Security Council, 27 September 2021), paras 76–78, https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2021_827.pdf.

111. See Halle and Kellogg, 'Gender, Climate & Security', 20.

112. 'The United States National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security', 2016, 30, https://www.wpsnaps.org/app/uploads/2019/09/United-States-NAP-2-2016.pdf. Unfortunately reference to climate was lost in the subsequent 2019 plan.

113. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, 'The Swedish Foreign Service Action Plan for Feminist Foreign Policy 2019–2022, Including Direction and Measures for 2021', 24 June 2019, https://www.government.se/49700e/contentassets/9992f701ab40423bb7b37b2c455aed9a/utrikesforvaltningens-handlingsplan-for-feministisk-utrikespolitik-2021_eng.pdf.

114. 'Feminist Policies for Climate Justice' (Stockholm: Concord Sweden, 2020), 18, https://concord.se/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/fem-rapport-2020-final.pdf.

115. 'Canada's Feminist International Assistance Policy', 2017, 45, https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/assets/pdfs/iap2-eng.pdf. For more detail on strategies under this policy theme see Global Affairs Canada, 'Action Area Policy: Environment and Climate Action', GAC, 21 February 2017, https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/priorities-priorites/fiap_environment-paif_environnement.aspx?lang=eng. However, its indicators for climate action under the policy mirror SDG13 indicators and are neither gender- nor conflict- sensitive (see Global Affairs Canada, 'Feminist International Assistance Policy Indicators', GAC, 21 February 2017, https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/priorities-priorites/fiap_indicators-indicateurs_paif.aspx?lang=eng.).

116. Global Affairs Canada, 'Action Area Policy: Environment and Climate Action', GAC, 21 February 2017, https://www.international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/priorities-priorites/fiap_environment-paif_environnement.aspx?lang=eng.

117. The 16 Framework Principles on Human Rights and the Environment connect international environmental law and human rights law, and clarifies states existing obligations to environmental protection under current human rights. OHCHR | Framework Principles on Human Rights and the Environment

118. War on Want and London Mining Network, 'A Just Transition Is a Post Extractive Transition' (War on Want, 2019), https://waronwant.org/sites/default/files/Post-Extractivist_Transition_WEB_0.pdf; Women and Gender Constituency of the UNFCCC, 'Key Demands for COP26'.

119. 'Security and Human Rights Implementation Mechanism Annual Report' (Geneva: DCAF, 2020), https://www.securityhumanrightshub.org/sites/default/files/2021-08/SHRIM%20AR%202020_FINAL.pdf.

120. Kara Kingma Neu and Deborah Avant, 'Overview of the Relationship between PMSCs and Extractive Industry Companies from the Private Security Events Database', Contribution in Response to the Working Group's Call For Information for Its Thematic Report Concerning The Human Rights Impact of Private Military And Security Companies (PMSCs) Operating in the Extractive Industry (UN Human Rights Council Working Group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to selfdetermination, February 2019), https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Mercenaries/WG/PrivateMilitarySecurity/DenverUni.pdf.

121. Noting that the UK has opposed the treaty, as demonstrated in its vote in the Human Rights Council against the establishment of the working group to develop it and continued expressions of "scepticism" (see the UK's statement to the October 2020 session of the open-ended intergovernmental working group on transnational corporations and other business enterprises with respect to human rights, OHCHR, 'OHCHR | Sixth Session of the Open-Ended Intergovernmental Working Group on Transnational Corporations', accessed 17 January 2022, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/WGTransCorp/Session6/Pages/Session6.aspx .).

122. https://www.tjm.org.uk/documents/briefings/Shaping-Future-UK-Trade-Policy-Investment-Protection-Provisions.pdf

123. A. Gauger et al., 'Ecocide Is the Missing 5th Crime Against Peace', Undefined, 2012, https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Ecocide-is-the-missing-5th-Crime-Against-Peace-Gauger-Rabatel-Fernel/1fb5d801b259cdf80541206b97d738cf5521e7d6.

124. Stop Ecocide International, 'Mexican Senator Calls on Government to Support International Crime of Ecocide', Stop Ecocide International, 9 November 2021, https://www.stopecocide.earth/new-breaking-news-summary/mexican-senator-calls-on-government-to-support-international-crime-of-ecocide.Stop Ecocide International, 'We Are Delaying While the Planet Burns', Stop Ecocide International, 15 September 2021, https://www.stopecocide.earth/new-breaking-news-summary/breaking-news-title-we-are-delaying-while-the-planet-burns.

125. https://www.gov.scot/groups/wellbeing-economy-governments-wego/

126. https://gadnetwork.org/gadn-resources/feminist-macroeconomic-proposals-rebuilding-more-equitable-just-and-sustainable-economies-post-covid-19

127. Constitution, Europe, External and Affairs and Culture Committee, 'Official Report' (The Scottish Parliament, 30 September 2021), 6, https://www.parliament.scot/api/sitecore/CustomMedia/OfficialReport?meetingId=13347.

128. Many practitioner tools and trainings are available to guide the Scottish Government in strengthening gender-responsiveness and conflict-sensitivity in its governance of development and climate programming.

129. https://www.oecd.org/dac/gender-development/dac-gender-equality-marker.htm The marker is a qualitative statistical tool to record development activities that target gender equality as a policy objective.

130. OECD, 'DAC Gender Equality Policy Marker', OECD, accessed 14 January 2022, https://www.oecd.org/dac/gender-development/dac-gender-equality-marker.htm.

131. Scottish Government, 'Global Citizenship: Scotland's International Development Strategy'.

132. Scottish Government, 'Summary Report on the Review of Scottish Government's International Development Programme in Light of COVID-19'.

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135. Scottish Government, 'Global Citizenship: Scotland's International Development Strategy', 6.

136. Scottish Government, 'International Development - Gov.Scot', accessed 26 November 2021, https://www.gov.scot/policies/international-development/.

137. Note that the requirement of being or having a partnership with a Scottish Based NGOs is to be removed following the 2021 Review.

138. Scottish Government, 'Summary Report on the Review of Scottish Government's International Development Programme in Light of COVID-19'.

139. Scottish Government, 'Summary Report on the Review of Scottish Government's International Development Programme in Light of COVID-19'.

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143. Scottish Government and APS Group Scotland, 'A Trading Nation', 26, 28.

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145. Scottish Government, 'Global Citizenship: Scotland's International Development Strategy', 9.

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147. Scottish Government, 'Climate Justice Policy'.

148. Scottish Government, 'Evaluation of the Climate Justice Fund: Final Evaluation Report', 2.

149. Climate Change (Emission Reduction Targets) (The Scottish Government) Act 2019 Climate Change (Emissions Reduction Targets) (Scotland) Act 2019 (legislation.gov.uk)

150. Stop Climate Chaos Scotland, 'Glasgow Climate Dialogues', Stop Climate Chaos Scotland (blog), 2021, https://www.stopclimatechaos.scot/campaign/glasgow-climate-dialogues/.

151. Joe, Lo and Chloé, Farand, 'Scotland Breaks Loss and Damage "Taboo", Raising Hopes Others Will Follow', Climate Home News, 3 November 2021, sec. Loss and damage, https://www.climatechangenews.com/2021/11/03/scotland-breaks-loss-damage-taboo-raising-hopes-others-will-follow/.

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154. 'Gender Just Climate Solutions 2021', 20.

155. 'Gender Just Climate Solutions 2021', 11.

156. 'Gender Just Climate Solutions 2021', 32.

157. 'Gender Just Climate Solutions 2021', 10.

158. 'Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment in Updated and New Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)', 6.

159. WEDO, 'Gender Climate Tracker Country Profiles: Quick Analysis'.

160. 'Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment in Updated and New Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)', 6.

161. 'Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment in Updated and New Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)', 6.

162. 'Australia's Second National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (2021-2031)', 2021, https://www.wpsnaps.org/app/uploads/2021/11/Australia-NAP-2021-2031.pdf.

163. 'Women, Peace and Security Finland's National Action Plan 2018-2021' (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, 2018), 2018–21, https://www.wpsnaps.org/app/uploads/2019/09/Finland-NAP-3-2018-2021.pdf.

164. Government of Ireland, 'Ireland's Third National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325 - Women, Peace and Security Agenda 2019 – 2024', n.d.

165. 'The United States National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security'.

Contact

Email: jessamyn.briers@gov.scot

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