International climate justice, conflict and gender: scoping study

Scottish Government funded research report with ClimateXChange which concluded in 2022. It identifies areas of opportunity for policy makers to develop a gender responsive approach to international climate justice.

Annex 4: Examples of gender language in NDCs and NAPs


  • Chile's NDC incorporates a gender approach in all policies, programmes, climate change plans and actions. As part of the capacity-building strategy, Chile outlines:
  • The design and implementation of the NDC must consider a fair allocation of charges, costs and benefits, with a focus on gender and special emphasis on sectors, communities and ecosystems vulnerable to climate change.
  • During the implementation phase of the NDC, existing studies and analysis on climate vulnerability and risk in Chile will be updated and expanded to address relevant threats, considering gender in the approach. Those studies will serve as key inputs for the design of adaptation measures.
  • By 2025, assessments of climate change risk to vulnerable groups nationwide will be carried out, with a special focus on indigenous peoples, poverty and gender.
  • Cross-cutting elements of the NDC in terms of adaptation include inclusion of vulnerable groups, with a special focus on gender.[157]


  • Malawi's National Adaptation Plan National Climate Change Management Policy seeks to mainstream gender as a cross-cutting issue across planning, development, and coordination of policies, projects and programs. It recognizes women and girls as disproportionately vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, as they have to walk further in search of basic commodities for the family such as firewood and water. Women may not have the authority to decide on alternative and climate-resilient solutions for the household. The adaptation interventions proposed are meant to enhance gender inclusiveness.
  • In relation to capacity building, Malawi also plans to "integrate the mainstreaming of gender considerations within climate change measures, and where relevant, to track climate change issues and indicators according to gender and vulnerable groups."[158]


  • Moldova's adaptation planning commits to remaining socially inclusive and sensitive to the gender impacts of climate change. Gender is set out as a separate adaptation priority category with its own set of key activities. Gender links include:
  • There is an analysis of the gender impact of previous investments by sector and gender aspects of the implementation of past adaptation actions is assessed.
  • Insufficient statistical data on health and wellbeing through a gender lens is included as a main systemic impediment for increased political commitment to addressing climate change adaptation.
  • In turn, Moldova's National Strategy on Ensuring Equality between Women and Men (2017-2021) and the Action Plan for its implementation aim to reduce gender gaps due to social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities exacerbated by climate change. [159]


  • Gender mainstreaming is positioned as central to Rwanda's sustainable development process, stated as a priority at all levels of policy and implementation. Rwanda's NDC and adaptation planning commit to capturing sex-disaggregated data and conducting vulnerability assessments of local communities.[160]



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