Publication - Impact assessment

EU single use plastics directive consultation: impact assessment - environmental report

Environmental report for a consultation on the introduction of new legislation to restrict the supply of seven single-use plastic items and all oxo-degradable products, in Scotland, with the intended effect of reducing the volume and impact of plastic pollution within terrestrial and marine environments.

146 page PDF

1.9 MB

146 page PDF

1.9 MB

Contents
EU single use plastics directive consultation: impact assessment - environmental report
Footnotes

146 page PDF

1.9 MB

Footnotes

1. European Union (1990) Council Directive 90/385/EEC of 20 June 1990 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to active implantable medical devices [Online].
Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/

2. European Union (1993) Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices [Online].
Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/

3. European Union (2019) Directive (EU) 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment, Article 3(3) [Online].
Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/

4. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

5. European Union (2019) Directive (EU) 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment [Online].
Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/

6. European Commission (2018) A European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/

7. UNDP (2020) Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources; [Online].
Available at: https://www.un.org/

8. European Commission (2015) Closing the Loop Press Release [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/

9. European Commission (2018) Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Port Reception Facilities for the Deliver oy of Waste from ships, repealing Directive 2000/59/EC and amending Directive 2009/16/EC and Directive 2010/65/EU [Online].
Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/

10. UNDP (2020) Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production [Online].
Available at: https://www.undp.org/

11. European Commission (2015) 'Single-Use Plastics' Press Release [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/

12. European Commission (2004) European Directive 2001/42/EC "The Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/

13. European Commission (2004) European Directive 2001/42/EC "The Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/

14. European Union (1990) Council Directive 90/385/EEC of 20 June 1990 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to active implantable medical devices [Online].
Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/

15. European Union (1993) Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices [Online].
Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/

16. Scottish Government (2018) The Environmental Protection (Microbeads) (Scotland) Regulations 2018 [Online].
Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/

17. Scottish Government (2019) The Environmental Protection (Cotton Buds) (Scotland) Regulations 2019 [Online].
Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/

18. Scottish Statutory Instruments (2020) The Deposit and Return Scheme for Scotland Regulations 2020 [Online].
Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/

19. EPECOM (2019) Expert Panel on Environmental Charges and Other Measures [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot/

20. EPECOM (2019) Recommendations on single-use disposable beverage cups [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot

21. EPECOM (2020) Ending the Throwaway Culture: Five Principles for Tackling Single-use Items [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot/

22. Zero Waste Scotland (2020) Trial Period Campaign [Online].
Available at: https://www.trialperiod.scot/

23. Scottish Statutory Instruments (2012) The Waste (Scotland) Regulations 2012 [Online].
Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/

24. Ellen Macarthur Foundation (2020) New Plastics Economy Global Commitment; Commitments, Vision and Definitions [Online].
Available at: www.newplasticseconomy.org

25. WRAP (2018) The UK Plastics Pact [Online].
Available at: wrap.org.uk/

26. The Scottish Government (2014) Towards a Litter Free Scotland: A strategic Approach to Higher Quality Local Environments [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot/

27. The Scottish government (2014) A Marine Litter Strategy for Scotland [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot

28. The Scottish Government (2020) Protecting Scotland, Renewing Scotland: The Government's Programme for Scotland 2020-2021 [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot/

29. Zero Waste Scotland (2013) Scotland's Litter Problem; Quantifying the Scale and Cost of Litter and Flytipping [Online].
Available at: www.zerowastescotland.org.uk

30. The Scottish Government (2020) How Much Plastic Enters Scottish Seas and Where Does it Come From? [Online].
Available at: www.gov.scot

31. European Union (2018) Life Cycle Inventories of Single Use Plastic Products and their Alternatives [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/

32. DEFRA (2018) Consultation Stage Impact Assessment on the proposal to ban the distribution and/or sale and of plastic drinking straws in England [Online].
Available at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/

33. Assumptions made on oxo-biodegradable and conventional bags are based on a study for Interek by Edwards and Parker (2012): A Life Cycle Assessment of Oxo-biodegradable, Compostable and Conventional Bags [Online]
Available at: http://www.biodeg.org/

34. When we investigated the impact of oxo-degradable plastics on soil, we've taken into consideration the widespread use of oxo-degradable plastic as agricultural mulch films.

35. World Health Organisation (2019) Microplastics in drinking-water [Online].
Available at: www.who.int

36. Zero Waste Scotland (2015) The Carbon Impacts of the Circular Economy Technical Report [Online].
Available at: www.zerowastescotland.org.uk

37. UK Government (2009) UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) [Online].
Available at: assets.publishing.service.gov.uk

38. Sniffer (Adaptation Scotland) (2006) A Handbook of Climate Trends Across Scotland [Online].
Available at: www.adaptationscotland.org.uk

39. IPCC (2014) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) [Online].
Available at: www.ipcc.ch

40. Zero Waste Scotland (2015) The Carbon Impacts of the Circular Economy Technical Report [Online].
Available at: www.zerowastescotland.org.uk

41. Scottish Government (2019) Scotland's carbon footprint: 1998-2016 [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot/

42. Zero Waste Scotland (2020) The Carbon Footprint of Scotland's Waste: Carbon Metric Technical Report (2017 & 2018) [Online].
Available at: www.zerowastescotland.org.uk

43. European Union (2018) Life Cycle Inventories of Single Use Plastic Products and their Alternatives [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/

44. DEFRA (2018) Consultation Stage Impact Assessment on the proposal to ban the distribution and/or sale and of plastic drinking straws in England [Online].
Available at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/

45. Assumptions made on oxo-biodegradable and conventional bags are based on a study for Interek by Edwards and Parker (2012): A Life Cycle Assessment of Oxo-biodegradable, Compostable and Conventional Bags [Online]
Available at: http://www.biodeg.org/

46. When we investigated the impact of oxo-degradable plastics on soil, we've taken into consideration the widespread use of oxo-degradable plastic as agricultural mulch films.

47. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

48. Intertek (2012) A Life Cycle Assessment of Oxo-biodegradable, Compostable and Conventional Bags [Online].
Available at: http://www.biodeg.org/

49. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

50. Intertek (2012) A Life Cycle Assessment of Oxo-biodegradable, Compostable and Conventional Bags [Online].
Available at: http://www.biodeg.org/

51. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

52. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

53. European Union (2018) Life Cycle Inventories of Single Use Plastic Products and their Alternatives [Online].
Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/index_en.htm

54. The Scottish government (2014) A Marine Litter Strategy for Scotland [Online].
Available at: www.gov.scot/

55. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

56. EPECOM (2019) Single-use disposable cups: EPECOM recommendations [Online].
Available at: www.gov.scot/

57. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (2011) The Scottish Strategic Environmental Assessment Review [Online].
Available at: https://www.sepa.org.uk/

58. NatureScot (2002) Natural Heritage Zones: A National Assessment of Scottish Landscapes. [Online].
Available at: http://www.snh.org.uk

59. Scottish Natural Heritage (2017) National Scenic Areas. [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot/

60. The term used for such local landscape designations varies from one local authority to another. For example, they are currently termed ''Areas of Great Landscape Value' in Moray, 'Special Landscape Areas' in Dumfries and Galloway, and 'Sensitive Landscape Character Areas' in Ayrshire. However, guidance published by Scottish Natural Heritage and Historic Environment Scotland suggests the name be standardised to Special Landscape Area (SLA)

61. Keep Britain Tidy (2017) Beacons of litter: A social experiment to understand how the presence of certain littered items influences rates of littering [Online].
Available at: https://www.keepbritaintidy.org

62. Keep Scotland Beautiful (2016) Composition of Litter in Scotland [Online].
Available at: www.incpen.org

63. Cole, G et al. (2019) Preliminary Research to Assess the Impacts of a Ban or Restrictions in Sale in Wales of Items in the EU's Single Use Plastics Directive [Online].
Available at: https://gov.wales/

64. Keep Britain Tidy (2018) Litter in England: The local environmental quality survey of England 2017/18 [Online].
Available at: https://www.keepbritaintidy.org

65. INCPEN (2014) Litter composition Survey of England [Online].
Available at: www.incpen.org

66. Zero Waste Scotland (2016) Litter [Online].
Available at: www.zerowastescotland.org.uk

67. Marine Conservation Society (2017) Great British Beach Clean Report 2015 [Online].
Available at: https://www.mcsuk.org/

68. Discover Wildlife (2020) When is War on Plastic with Hugh and Anita on TV? [Online].
Available at: www.discoverwildlife.com

69. The Scottish Environment Protection Agency (2011) The Scottish Strategic Environmental Assessment Review [Online].
Available at: www.nature.scot/

70. DEFRA (2018) Consultation Stage Impact Assessment on the proposal to ban the distribution and/or sale and of plastic drinking straws in England [Online].
Available at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/

71. Marine Conservation Society (2017) Great British Beach Clean [Online].
Available at: www.mcsuk.org

72. Eunomia (2017) Leverage Points for Reducing Single-use Plastics [Online].
Available at: www.seas-at-risk.org

73. Marine Conservation Society (2019) personal communication

74. Eunomia (2017) Leverage Points for Reducing Single-use Plastics [Online].
Available at: www.seas-at-risk.org

75. DEFRA (2018) Consultation Stage Impact Assessment on the proposal to ban the distribution and/or sale and of plastic drinking straws in England [Online].
Available at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/

76. Marine Conservation Society (2017) Great British Beach Clean [Online].
Available at: www.mcsuk.org

77. According to a study carried out by Resource Futures in 2018, "Preliminary assessment of the economic, environmental and social impacts of a potential ban on plastic straws, plastic stem cotton buds and plastic drink stirrers", estimates for the number of stirrers and straws consumed in England vary, and so we have assumed stirrers makeup 2.5% of the total of straws for our high estimate, 5% in our central estimate and 10% for our low estimate for straw prevalence.

78. DEFRA (2018) Consultation Stage Impact Assessment on the proposal to ban the distribution and/or sale and of plastic drinking straws in England [Online].
Available at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/

79. Marine Conservation Society (2019) personal communication.

80. According to a study carried out by Resource Futures in 2018, "Preliminary assessment of the economic, environmental and social impacts of a potential ban on plastic straws, plastic stem cotton buds and plastic drink stirrers", estimates for the number of stirrers and straws consumed in England vary, and so we have assumed stirrers makeup 2.5% of the total of straws for our high estimate, 5% in our central estimate and 10% for our low estimate for straw prevalence.

81. DEFRA (2018) Consultation Stage Impact Assessment on the proposal to ban the distribution and/or sale and of plastic drinking straws in England [Online].
Available at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/

82. Marine Conservation Society (2017) Great British Beach Clean [Online].
Available at: www.mcsuk.org

83. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

84. DEFRA (2018) Consultation Stage Impact Assessment on the proposal to ban the distribution and/or sale of plastic drinking straws in England [Online].
Available at: https://consult.defra.gov.uk/

85. Marine Conservation Society (2017) Great British Beach Clean [Online].
Available at: www.mcsuk.org

86. Scottish Natural Heritage (2013) Biodiversity and Geodiversity Considerations in Strategic Environmental Assessment [Online].
Available at: www.nature.scot

87. NatureScot (2020) Sites of Special Scientific Interest [Online].
Available at: www.nature.scot/

88. The Scottish Government (2016) Key Scottish Environment Statistics [Online].
Available at: www.gov.scot

89. Joint Nature Conservancy Committee (2018) UK Protected Sites [Online].
Available at: https://jncc.gov.uk/

90. Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2019) Special Areas of Conservation [Online].
Available at: https://jncc.gov.uk/

91. Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2019) UK Ramsar Sites [Online].
Available at: https://jncc.gov.uk/

92. Scottish Government (2017) Site of Special Scientific Interest [Online].
Available at: https://data.gov.uk/

93. NatureScot (2018) The Proportion of Scotland's Protected Sites in Favourable Condition 2018 [Online].
Available at: www.nature.scot/

94. Marine Conservation Society (2017) Great British Beach Clean [Online].
Available at: www.mcsuk.org

95. Scottish Government (2012) Marine Litter Issues, Impacts and Actions [Online].
Available at: https://www.gov.scot/

96. One Green Planet (2015) 5 Ways Plastic Pollution Impacts Animals on Land [Online].
Available at: www.onegreenplanet.org

97. DEFRA (2019) UK Biodiversity Indicators 2019 Revised [Online].
Available at: http://data.jncc.gov.uk/

98. BBC (2019) Plastic straws: Which companies are banning them? [Online].
Available at: www.bbc.co.uk

99. This category covers both item 8 and 9 listed in part B of the Directive's Annex: Beverage containers made of expanded polystyrene, including their caps and lids, and Cups for beverages made of expanded polystyrene, including their covers and lids.

100. European Commission (2016) The impact of the use of "oxo-degradable" plastic on the environment [Online].
Available at: https://op.europa.eu/

101. DEFRA (2010) Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Oxo-degradable Plastics Across Their Life Cycle [Online].
Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk

102. Miles C. (2017) Oxo-degradable Plastics Risk Environmental Pollution [Online]
Available at: ag.tennessee.edu/

103. European Commission (2017) Study to provide information supplementing the study on the impact of the use of "oxo-degradable" plastic on the environment [Online].
Available at: publications.europa.eu

104. Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2017) https://www.newplasticseconomy.org/about/publications/oxo-statement[Online].
Available at: www.newplasticseconomy.org

105. UN Environment Programme (2018) Plastic planet: How tiny plastic particles are polluting our soil [Online].
Available at: www.unenvironment.org

106. Forschungsverbund Berlin (2018) An underestimated threat: Land-based pollution with microplastics [Online].
Available at: www.sciencedaily.com

107. DEFRA (2010) Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Oxo-degradable Plastics Across Their Life Cycle [Online].
Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk

108. Scottish Government; Scotland's Environment, 2020; 'Soil Monitoring Action Plan (Soil MAP) [online];
available at https://soils.environment.gov.scot/

109. LEAMS (Local Environment Audit Management System), administered by Keep Scotland Beautiful via the surveying of litter levels in residential streets across Scotland.

110. Biodiversity levels in Scotland are monitored by NatureScot using Biodiversity Strategy Indicators, in order to chart changes to biodiversity in-line with the aims of the Scottish Biodiversity Strategy, as noted [online] at
www.Nature.Scot

04Scottish Government; Scotland's Environment, 2020; 'Soil Monitoring Action Plan (Soil MAP) [online];
available at https://soils.environment.gov.scot/


Contact

Email: SUPD@gov.scot