Publication - Statistics publication

Characteristics of Recent and Established EEA and non-EEA migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census

Published: 24 Mar 2015
Part of:
Statistics
ISBN:
9781785441974

This report presents findings from analysis of the 2011 Census on characteristics and experiences of recent and established migrants from EEA and non-EEA countries living in Scotland.

41 page PDF

1.3 MB

41 page PDF

1.3 MB

Contents
Characteristics of Recent and Established EEA and non-EEA migrants in Scotland: Analysis of the 2011 Census
1. Number and origin of migrants and length of residence

41 page PDF

1.3 MB

1. Number and origin of migrants and length of residence

Number of recent and established EEA and non-EEA migrants in Scotland

A total of 369,284 migrants (i.e., people who were born outside the UK) were resident in Scotland at the time of the 2011 Census, 7 per cent of Scotland's total population.

The majority (63 per cent) of migrants arrived in Scotland recently, in the 10 years prior to the 2011 Census, and around half of these recent migrants came from EEA countries and the remaining half from outside the EEA. See Table 1.1.

Of the 37 per cent of migrants who arrived in Scotland 10 years or longer ago, nearly two-thirds were born outside the EEA, and just over a third born in an EEA country.

This reflects the rise in migration from EU8 countries since their accession to the European Union in 2004. The number of EEA migrants in Scotland more than doubled in the 10 years between 2001 and 2011, compared to the number who lived in Scotland more than 10 years ago (which spans more than a 10 year period)[1].

Table 1.1. Total number of migrants resident in Scotland, and relative proportion of migrant groups as a proportion of the population.

EEA

Non-EEA

Total

Recent

111,213

30%

119,976

32%

231,189

63%

Established

48,710

13%

89,385

24%

138,095

37%

Total

159,923

43%

209,361

57%

369,284

100%

Source: 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland.

Detailed length of residence of recent migrants

As shown in Chart 1.1, around a third of recent migrants arrived in the two years prior to the 2011 Census, a third between 2 and 5 years before the Census, and a third between 5 and 10 years before the Census.

Recent EEA migrants were most likely to have arrived between 2 and 5 years ago (42 per cent of EEA recent migrants), and a relatively large proportion (39 per cent) of the recent non-EEA migrant group arrived in the last two years prior to the Census. This is likely due to the larger proportion of students in the recent non-EEA migrant group (see Section 3 on economic activity).

Chart 1.1. Length of residence, all recent migrants

Length of residence all recent migrants

Source: 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland

Countries of origin

The most common countries of birth outside of the UK for people resident in Scotland, in 2011, were (in ascending order of population size) Poland, India, Republic of Ireland, Germany, Pakistan, United States, China, South Africa, Nigeria, Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, France, Italy and Spain[2].

Chart 1.2 shows that the composition of the recent EEA migrant category, in terms of countries of origin was different to that of EEA migrants who have lived in Scotland for 10 years or longer. 67 per cent of recent EEA migrants came from EU accession countries, and a quarter (25 per cent) from EU 2001 member countries. Of established EEA migrants, more than half (59 per cent) came from EU 2001 member countries, 30 per cent from the Republic of Ireland and 9 per cent from EU accession countries.

Of those people born in the Republic of Ireland living in Scotland in 2011, two-thirds (65 per cent) arrived before 2001, and the remainder (35 per cent) arrived in the 10 years prior to the 2011 Census.

Chart 1.3 provides more detail on the origin of non-EEA migrants. The differences in origin of recent and established migrants in this group were smaller than differences between recent and established EEA migrants.

The proportion arriving from Asia and Africa was higher, and the proportion arriving from the Americas and Caribbean and Oceania lower amongst recent non-EEA migrants compared to established non-EEA migrants.

The larger proportion of Asian migrants amongst recent migrants was primarily due to a proportional increase in the number of migrants from Eastern Asia. Amongst recent African migrants, a larger proportion originated from Central and Western Africa, and a smaller proportion from South and Eastern Africa, in comparison to their relative proportions amongst established African migrants. For full detail refer to Annex Table A1.

Chart 1.2. Region of origin of recent and established EEA migrants

Region of origin of recent and established EEA migrants

Source: 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland.

Chart 1.3. Region of origin of recent and established non-EEA migrants

Region of origin of recent and established non EEA migrants

Source: 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland. Note: * Europe includes Channel Islands and Isle of Man, and non-EU countries.

Age at arrival

Chart 1.4 shows a clear difference in age at arrival for all recent migrants compared to all established migrants.

Of recent migrants, 68 per cent arrived when they were aged 'between 16 and 34', and 11 per cent arrived when they were aged 'between 35 and 49'. Established migrants arrived at younger ages with 42 per cent aged 'between 16 and 34' and 51 per cent younger than 16 at arrival.

Chart 1.4. Age at arrival in the UK for recent and established migrants, all migrants

Age at arrival in the UK for recent and established migrants all migrants

Source: 2011 Census, National Records of Scotland.


Contact

Email: Wendy van Rijswijk