This report presents analysis of data from the Census on migrants - defined as anyone not born in the UK - who were habitually resident in Scotland at the time of the Census in March 2011.
It looks at migrants from European Economic Area (EEA) countries and non-EEA countries who had lived in Scotland for less than 10 years ('recent'), or 10 years or longer ('established').
The topics covered by this report include personal and household characteristics as well as outcomes such as education, employment and health.
For this report, anyone not born in one of the UK countries (Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, and England) was classified as a migrant. Migrant therefore includes those who were born abroad to UK-born parents, but not people from minority ethnic backgrounds - who are often thought of as migrants - who were born in the UK (e.g., second or third generation migrants). The Scottish 2011 Census did not ask a question about nationality therefore it is not possible to ascertain whether or not non-UK born migrants are British citizens.
EEA migrants are those people, now resident in Scotland, who were born in one of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Republic of Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.
The non-EEA category includes those not born in the UK and not born in an EEA country. It should be noted that Croatia was not an EEA country at the time of the Census, and hence was classed as a non-EEA country for this analysis.
For the purpose of brevity and readability, throughout this report, those migrants who had lived in Scotland for less than 10 years up to the date of the Census are referred to as recent migrants and those having lived in Scotland for 10 years or longer are referred to as established migrants. This does not reflect a judgement about the length of residence required before a migrant should be considered established.
The migrant groups include full-time students. It should be noted that findings provide a snapshot of the migrant population at the time of the census, but do not provide information on migration flows.
Outline of the report:
All figures are rounded, therefore not all proportions shown will add up to 100 per cent. Full tables are available on the Scottish Government website.
Number and origin of migrants and length of residence
- A total of 369,284 migrants, 7 per cent of the population, were resident in Scotland at the time of the 2011 Census. 63 per cent had arrived in Scotland in 2001 or after.
- Recent and established migrants differed in terms of their countries of origin. 30 per cent of established EEA migrants were born in Ireland, 67 per cent of recent EEA migrants were born in the A8 EU accession countries.
- Established migrants arrived in Scotland at younger ages than recent migrants, irrespective of whether they arrived from EEA or non-EEA countries.
Personal and household characteristics, including language
- There was a higher proportion of women amongst established EEA migrants.
- Migrants were younger than the population as a whole, and recent migrants were younger than established migrants.
- Most migrants lived in family households, and established migrants were more likely than other migrants to live in one person households.
- Non-EEA migrants were more ethnically and religiously diverse than EEA migrants.
- Established migrants were more likely to report 'Scottish only' national identity, and 'White Scottish' ethnicity than recent migrants.
- 42 per cent of all migrants reported speaking only English while at home. The majority of migrants had good English skills, being able to 'speak, read and write in English', and around 2 per cent reported having no skills in English. Those arriving at older ages were more likely to report having no skills in English.
Area and accommodation
- Half of all migrants in Scotland lived in the Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen City council areas. Recent migrants were proportionally more likely to live in these cities.
- 81 per cent of all migrants lived in urban areas. Established migrants were more likely than recent migrants to live in accessible and remote rural areas.
- Recent migrants were more likely to live both in the least deprived and in the most deprived areas. Established migrants were twice as likely to live in the least deprived areas as in the most deprived areas.
- Private renting, at 40 per cent, was higher amongst migrants than for the Scottish population as a whole. Property ownership increased with length of residence.
Education and employment
- Half of all migrants had at least degree level qualifications. 60 per cent of recent non-EEA migrants held degree level qualifications. Established migrants were proportionally more likely to have no educational qualifications.
- The majority of migrants aged 16 to 74 were economically active, with 62 per cent currently employed or self-employed. The majority worked full time, and 12 per cent overall reported working long hours, of 49 or more hours a week.
- Of inactive migrants the majority were students, who make up just under a third of all recent non-EEA migrants.
- Migrant workers were most likely to be employed in the 'Accommodation and food services', 'Human health and social work' and 'Wholesale and retail trade' sectors.
- One in five migrants worked in Professional Occupations and a further 8 per cent worked as Managers, Directors and Senior Officials. Recent EEA migrants were more likely than other migrants to work in routine and semi-routine occupations. One in three recent EEA migrants belonged to the lower routine and semi-routine socio-economic groups, despite holding degree level qualifications.
- The vast majority of migrants reported good or very good general health. Established migrants were more likely to report fair or bad health. The latter were also more likely to report limiting long-term illness or disability.
Email: Wendy van Rijswijk