Publication - Research and analysis

What Works to Reduce Reoffending: A Summary of the Evidence

Published: 8 May 2015
ISBN:
9781785443336

This is an updated version of the original review entitled ‘What Works to Reduce Reoffending: A Summary of the Evidence’, published in 2012.

What Works to Reduce Reoffending: A Summary of the Evidence
Footnotes

Footnotes

1. See Levy, L. et al. (2014) What works to reduce crime? A summary of the evidence. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Social Research,
http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/2518/downloads

2. 'Desistance' is a term used to describe "the long-term abstinence from criminal behaviour among those for whom offending had become a pattern of behaviour" McNeill, F., Farrall, S., Lightowler, C. and Maruna, S.(2012) How and why people stop offending: discovering desistance, Insights: evidence summaries to support social services in Scotland, 15, Glasgow: IRISS. Accessed on 11/04/14 at http://www.iriss.org.uk/sites/default/files/iriss-insight-15.pdf.

3. See for example Farrington, D.P., Piquero A.R. and Jennings W.G. (2013) Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age: Recent Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. New York: Springer.

4. Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (1993) Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

5. Jamieson, J., McIvor, G. and Murray, C. (1999) Understanding Offending Among Young People, Edinburgh: The Stationery Office, http://www.gov.scot/Publications/1999/11/9bb525fa-7c38-44a7-8835-a0540b9db328.

6. McDougall, C., Cohen, M.A., Swaray, R. And Perry, A. (2003) The Costs and Benefits of Sentencing: A Systematic Review, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587,160-177.

7. Bales, W.D. and Piquero, A.R. (2012) Assessing the impact of imprisonment on recidivism, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8(1), 71-101.

8. Armstrong, S and Weaver, B. (2010) What Do the Punished Think of their Punishment? The Comparative Experience of Short-term Prison Sentences and Community-based Punishments, SCCJR Research Report No. 04/2010, Glasgow: SCCJR.

9. Mears, D.P., Cochran, J.S. and Bales, W.D, (2012) Gender differences in the effects of prison on recidivism, Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(5), 370-378.

10. Armstrong, S., McIvor, G., McNeill, F. and McGuinness, P. (2013) International Evidence Review of Conditional (Suspended) Sentences, SCCJR Research Report No. 01/2013, Glasgow: SCCJR

11. Armstrong, S. (2009) Fixing the Remand Problem in Scotland, in Hare, D. and Lightowler, C. (eds.) Prisons and Sentencing Reform: Developing Policy in Scotland, Scottish Policy Innovation Forum and Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research.

12. Marie, O., Moreton, K. and Goncalver, M. (2011) The effect of early release of prisoners on Home Detention Curfew (HDC) on recidivism. Ministry of Justice. http://www.cjp.org.uk/EasySiteWeb/getresource.axd?AssetID=4962&type=full&servicetype=Attachment.

13. Deuchar, R. (2012) The impact of curfews and electronic monitoring on the social strains, support and capital experienced by youth gang members and offenders in the west of Scotland, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 12(2), 113-128.

14. Hutton, L. and Levy, L. (2002) Parole Board Decisions and Release Outcomes, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2002/05/14735/4417.

15. Lopes, G., Krohn, M.D., Lizotte, A.J., Schmidt, N.M., Vásquez, B. E. and Bernburg, J.G. (2012) Labeling and Cumulative Disadvantage: The Impact of Formal Police Intervention on Life Chances and Crime During Emerging Adulthood, Crime and Delinquency, 58(3), 456-488.

16. Andrews, D.A. and Bonta, J. (2010) The Psychology of Criminal Conduct (5th ed.), Newark, NJ: Lexis/Nexis.

17. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation: a summary of evidence on reducing reoffending, accessed on 01/04/2014 at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/transforming-rehabilitation-a-summary-of-evidence-on-reducing-reoffending

18. Polaschek, D.L.L. (2012) An appraisal of the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of offender rehabilitation and its application in correctional treatment, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17(1), 1-17

19. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) Youth Violence in Scotland: Literature Review, The Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research, accessed on 02/04/2014 at http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2010/10/07105517/0

20. Ministry of Justice (2010a) Breaking the Cycle: Effective Punishment, Rehabilitation and Sentencing of Offenders Green Paper Evidence Report available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120119200607/http:/www.justice.gov.uk/consultations/docs/breaking-the-cycle.pdf

21. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

22. McDermott, S. (2012) Moving Forward: Empowering Women to Desist from offending - Exploring How Women Experience Empowerment, Compliance & Desistance During Enforced Contact With a Women's Centre and Probation, Research Paper 2012/2: The Griffins Society. Accessed on 08/04/14 at www.thegriffinssociety.org/Research%20Paper%202012-02.pdf

23. Willis, G.M. and Ward, T. (2013) The Good Lives Model: Does It Work? Preliminary Evidence in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

24. McIvor, G., Trotter, C. and Sheehan, R. (2009) Women, resettlement and desistance, Probation Journal, 56, 4, 347-61.

25. Davies, L., Jones, A., Vamvakas, G., Dubourg, R. and Donmall, M. (2009) Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS): Cost-effectiveness Analysis. Home Office. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.dtors.org.uk/reports/DTORS_CostEffect_Implications.pdf.

26. Visher, C.A., Winterfield, L. And Coggeshall, M.B. (2006) Systematic Review of Non-custodial Employment Programs: Impact on Recidivism Rates of Ex-offenders, Campbell Systematic Reviews

27. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing McMurran (ed) (2013).

28. Morgan, R.D., Flora, D.B., Kroner, D.G., Mills, J.F., Varghese, F. and Steffan, J.S. (2012) Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Research Synthesis, Law and Human Behaviour, 36(1), 37-50.

29. Clancy, A., Hudson, K., Maguire, M., Peake, R., Raynor, P. Vanstone, M. and Kynch, J. (2006) Getting out and staying out: Results of the Prisoner Resettlement Pathfinders. Bristol: Policy Press.

30. Wilson, D.B., Gallagher, C.A. and MacKenzie, D.L. (2000) 'A Meta-analysis of Corrections-based Education, Vocation and Work Programs for Adult Offenders', Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37(4), 347-368.

31. Healy, D. (2010) The Dynamics of Desistance: Charting Pathways through Change. Cullompton: Willan.

32. Rex, S. (1999) Desistance from Offending: Experiences of Probation, The Howard Journal, 38(4), 366-383.

33. Wood, M. et al. (2015) Re-offending by offenders on Community Orders: Results from the Offender Management Community Cohort Study. London: Ministry of Justice Analytical Series.

34. Petersilia, J. and Turner, S. (1993) Intensive probation and parole, Crime and Justice, 17, 281-335.

35. It is important to note that what 'intensive supervision' means in practice is dependent on the approach of those delivering it. US community corrections staff, for example, may take a law enforcement rather than a social work approach. Hence, the transferability of these findings may be limited.

36. Senior, P. et al. (2011) Process Evaluation of Five Integrated Offender Management Pioneer Areas. London: Ministry of Justice

37. "A one-to-one, non-judgmental relationship in which an individual voluntarily gives time to support and encourage another." NOMS (2013) Intermediate outcomes of mentoring interventions: a rapid evidence assessment. http://socialwelfare.bl.uk/subject-areas/services-activity/criminal-justice/ministryofjustice/158350Intermediate-outcomes-of-mentoring-interventions.pdf

38. Malloch, M.S., McIvor, G., Schinkel, M. and Armstrong, S. (2013), The Elements of Effective Through-Care Part 1: International Review, SCCJR Report No. 03/2014. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/publications/the-elements-of-effective-through-care-part-1-international-review/

39. Ibid.

40. Maruna, S. (2014) Reintegration as a Right and the Rites of Reintegration: A Comparative Review of De-Stigmatization Practices, in Humphrey, J.A. and Cordella, P. (eds.)Effective Interventions in the Lives of Criminal Offenders, London: Springer.

41. Weaver, B. and McNeill, F. (2007), Desistance in Canton R. and Hancock, D. (eds.) Dictionary of Probation Offender Management, Cullompton: Willan.

42. Curran, J, MacQueen, S., Whyte, B. and Boyle, J. (2007) Forced to Make Amends: An Evaluation of the Community Reparation Order Pilots. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2007/08/21134602/0.

43. Shapland, J., Robinson, G. and Sorsby, A. (2011) Restorative Justice in Practice. London: Routledge. Shapland, J. et al. (2008) Does Restorative Justice affect Reconviction? The fourth report from the evaluation of three schemes. London: Ministry of Justice.

44. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Shapland et al. (2011).

45. Sherman and Strang (2007) Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute; Hipple et al. (2014) Variations in family group conferences and juvenile reoffending, Crime and Delinquency, 50(8), 1131-1157.

46. E.g. Shapland et al. (2011), op.cit.

47. Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C. and Buehler, J. (2004) Scared Straight and Other Juvenile Awareness Programmes for Preventing Juvenile Delinquents A Campbell Collaboration Systematic Review 2004:2.

48. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

49. Maruna, S. (2001) Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild their Lives, Washington DC: American Psychological Association Books.

50. Bottoms, A.E. and Shapland, J. (2011) 'Steps towards desistance among male young adult recidivists', in S. Farrall et al. (eds) Escape Routes. London: Routledge, 43-80.

51. Farrall, S., Bottoms, A. and Shapland, J. (2010) Social Structures and Desistance from Crime, European Journal of Criminology, 7(6), 546-570.

52. McNeil, F. and Whyte, B. (2007) Reducing Reoffending: Social Work and Community Justice in Scotland. Willan Publishing.

53. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.; Bottoms, A.E. and Shapland, J. (2011) op. cit.

54. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

55. Armstrong, S. and Weaver, B. (2013) Persistent punishment: users views of short prison sentences, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 52(3), 285-305.

56. McGuire, J. (2002) Integrating Findings from Research Reviews in J. McGuire (ed.) Offender Rehabilitation and Treatment: Effective Programmes and Policies to Reduce Reoffending, West Sussex: Wiley.

57. Armstrong, S. and McNeill, F. (2012) Reducing Reoffending: Review of Selected Countries, SCCJR Research Report No: 04/2012. Accessed on 11/04/14 at http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/publications/reducing-reoffending-in-scotland/

58. Hedderman, C., Gunby, C. and Shelton, N. (2011) What women want: The importance of qualitative approaches in evaluating work with women offenders, Criminology and Criminal Justice 11(1), 3-19

59. McNeill, F., Farrall, S., Lightowler, C. and Maruna, S.(2012) op cit.

60. For example Jamieson, J., McIvor, G. and Murray, C. (1999) op cit.

61. Nutley, S., Powell, A. and Davies, H. (2013) What counts as good evidence? London: Alliance for Useful Evidence. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.alliance4usefulevidence.org/assets/What-Counts-as-Good-Evidence-WEB.pdf

62. See Levy, L. et al. (2014) What works to reduce crime? A summary of the evidence. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Social Research, http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/10/2518/downloads

63. McGuire, J. (2002) op cit.

64. Bisset, C. (2015) Designing and Evaluating Interventions to Reduce Crime and Reoffending, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, available at http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/03/7005

65. Farrington, D.P., Piquero A.R. and Jennings W.G. (2013) op cit.

66. Smith, D. (2006) Social Inclusion and Early Desistance from Crime. Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, Research Digest No. 12. Edinburgh: Centre for Law and Society.

67. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

68. Laub, J. and Sampson, R. (2003) Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; Bottoms and Shapland (2011), op. cit.

69. McNeil, F. and Weaver, B. (2010a) Giving Up Crime: Directions for Policy. Glasgow: SCCJR. http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/Giving_Up_Crime_tcm8-2569.pdf.

70. Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S.A. and Rudolph, J.L. (2002) Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a Theory of Cognitive Transformation, American Journal of Sociology, 107, 990-1064.

71. Jamieson, J., McIvor, G. and Murray, C. (1999) op cit.

72. Barry, M. (2007) The transitional pathways of young female offenders: towards a non-offending lifestyle in Sheehan R., McIvor, G. and Trotter, C., What Works with Women Offenders, Cullompton: Willan Publishing, p.23.

73. Ibid.

74. Smith, D. and McAra (2004) Gender and Youth Offending. Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, Research Digest No. 2. Edinburgh: Centre for Law and Society.

75. Jamieson, J., McIvor, G. and Murray, C. (1999) op cit.

76. Huebner, B.M., DeJong, C. and Cobbina, J. (2010) op cit., citing Golden (2005); Harm & Phillips (2001); Richie (2001); Schram, Koons-Witt, Williams, & McShane, (2006).

77. Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (1993) op cit.

78. Farrall, S. (1995) Why Do People Stop Offending, The Scottish Journal of Criminal Justice Studies, 1(1), 51-59.

79. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

80. Giordano, P.C. (2014) Gender, Crime, and Desistance: Toward a Theory of Cognitive Transformation in Humphrey J.A. and Cordella, P. eds Effective Interventions in the Lives of Criminal Offenders. New York: Springer.

81. Skardhamar, T. and Telle, K. (2012) Post-release Employment and Recidivism in Norway, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28 (4), 629-649; Ministry of Justice (2013b) Analysis of the impact of employment on re-offending following release from custody, using Propensity Score Matching, https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/statistics/ad-hoc/impact-employment-reoffending.pdf

82. Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (2006) Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70, Harvard University Press.

83. Bellair, P.E. and Kowalski, B.R. (2011) Low-Skill Employment Opportunity and African American-White Difference in Recidivism, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(2), 176-208.

84. MacDonald, R., Webster, C., Shildrik, T. and Simpson, M. (2011) Paths of exclusion, inclusion and desistance in Farrall, S., Hough, M., Maruna, S. and Sparks, R. eds Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment, Abdingdon: Routledge.

85. MacDonald, R., Webster, C., Shildrik, T. and Simpson, M., (2011) op cit, p.137.

86. Broidy, L.M. and Cauffman, E.E. (2006) Understanding the Female Offender, Report submitted to the US Department of Justice http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216615.pdf.

87. Giordano, P.C. (2014) op cit.

88. The majority of the studies reviewed considered marriage rather than cohabitation. More research is required into the effects of cohabitation on offending (see for example van Schellen, M., Apel, R. and Nieuwbeerta, P., (2012) ''Because You're Mine, I Walk the Line''? Marriage, Spousal Criminality, and Criminal Offending Over the Life Course, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28(4), 701-723).

89. Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (1993) op cit.

90. van Schellen, M., Apel, R. and Nieuwbeerta, P. (2012) op cit.

91. Huebner, B.M., DeJong, C. and Cobbina, J. (2010) Women Coming Home Long-Term Patterns of Recidivism, Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 225-254 citing Griffin & Armstrong (2003), Leverentz (2006) and Simons et al. (2002).

92. That is, detention before trial.

93. See for example Durlauf, S.N. and Nagin, D.S. (2011) Imprisonment and crime: can both be reduced?, Criminology & Public Policy, 10(1), 13-54.

94. Wermink, H., Apel, R., Nieuwbeerta, P. Blokland and A.A. J.(2013) The Incapacitation Effect of First-Time Imprisonment: A Matched Samples Comparison, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(4), 579-600.

95. MacLeod, J.F., Grove, P.G., Farrington, D.P. (2012) Explaining Criminal Careers: Implications for Justice Policy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

96. Ibid.

97. von Hirsch, A., Bottoms, A.E., Burney, E. and Wikstrom, P.O (1999) Criminal Deterrence and Sentence Severity: An Analysis of Recent Research, Oxford: Hart Publishing.

98. McGuire, J. (2002) op cit.

99. Nagin, D.S. and Snodgrass, G.M. (2013) The Effect of Incarceration on Re-Offending: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Pennsylvania, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 29(4), 601-642.

100. Durlauf, S.N. and Nagin, D.S. 2011) op cit.

101. Gendreau, P., Goggin, C. and Cullen, F.T. (1999) The Effects of Prison Sentences on Recidivism Report to the Corrections Research and Development and Aboriginal Policy Branch, Ottawa: Solicitor General of Canada.

102. Snodgrass, G.M., Blokland, A.A.J., Haviland, A., Nieuwbeerta, P. and Nagin, D.S. (2011) Does the time cause the crime? An examination of the relationship between time served and reoffending in the Netherlands, Criminology, 49(4), 1149-1194.

103. Ibid.

104. Durlauf, S.N. and Nagin, D.S. 2011) op cit.

105. Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (1993) op cit; Weaver, B. and Armstrong, S. (2011) The Dynamics of Community-based Punishment: Insider Views from the Outside (Research Report No. 03/2011), Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research.

106. Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) What Works in Prison in Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier.

107. Cullen, F.T., Jonson, C.L. and Nagin, D.S. (2011) Prisons Do Not Reduce Recidivism: The High Cost of Ignoring Science, The Prison Journal, Supplement to 91(3), 48S-65S.

108. Liebling, A. (2011) "Moral Performance, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment and Prison Pain" Punishment and Society, 13(5), p.530-550

109. McDougall, C., Cohen, M.A., Swaray, R. And Perry, A. (2003) The Costs and Benefits of Sentencing: A Systematic Review, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587,160-177.

110. Scottish Government (2014a) Reconviction Rates in Scotland: 2011-12 Offender Cohort http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/06/1650

111. Ministry of Justice (2013c) Compendium of reoffending statistics and analysis 2010, Tables 3 and 5. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/compendium-of-reoffending-statistics-and-analysis-2010

112. Ministry of Justice (2013d) 2013 Compendium of re-offending statistics and analysis, Table 1.1. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/278133/compendium-reoffending-stats-2013.pdf

113. Cullen, F.T., Jonson, C.L. and Nagin, D.S. (2011) op cit.

114. Bales, W.D. and Piquero, A.R. (2012) op cit.

115. Mears, D.P., Cochran, J.S. and Bales, W.D, (2012) op cit.

116. Armstrong, S. and Weaver, B. (2010) op cit.

117. Andrews, D.A. and Bonta, J. (2010) op cit.

118. McIvor, G. (2010a) Beyond supervision: Judicial involvement in offender management, in F. McNeill, P. Raynor and C. Trotter (eds.) Offender Supervision: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice, Cullompton: Willan.; McIvor, G. (2010b) Drug Courts - lessons from the UK and beyond, in A. Hucklesby and E. Wincup (eds.) Drug Interventions in Criminal Justice, Open University Press.

119. Weaver, B. and Armstrong, S. (2011) op cit.

120. Ibid.

121. Matrix Knowledge Group (2007) The Economic Case For and Against Prison http://www.optimitymatrix.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Matrix-prison-report-2007.pdf

122. Scottish Government (2014b) Criminal Justice Social Work Statistics, 2012/13, Additional data tables at Scotland level, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, published online at http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Crime-Justice/Datasets/SocialWork/Datascotlevel

123. Weaver, B., Tata, C., Munro, M. and Barry, M. (2012) The Failure of Recall to Prison: Early Release, Front-Door and Back-Door Sentencing and the Revolving Prison Door in Scotland, European Journal of Probation, 4(1), 85-98.

124. Scottish Government (2014b) Criminal Justice Social Work Statistics, 2012/13, Additional data tables at Scotland level, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, published online at http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Crime-Justice/Datasets/SocialWork/Datascotlevel

125. Malloch, M. and McIvor, G. (2011) Women and Community Sentences, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 11(4), 325-344.

126. Ibid.

127. Armstrong, S., McIvor, G., McNeill, F. and McGuinness, P. (2013) op cit.

128. Armstrong, S. (2009) Fixing the Remand Problem in Scotland, in Hare, D. and Lightowler, C. (eds.) Prisons and Sentencing Reform: Developing Policy in Scotland, Scottish Policy Innovation Forum and Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research.

129. Wilson, C. and Perman, J. (2012) Supervised Bail in Scotland: Research on Use and Impact. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Social Research. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0039/00390604.pdf

130. Wilson, C. (2012) Experiences of Supervised Bail. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Social Research. Accessed on 11/04/14 at http://www.scccj.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Supervised-Bail-in-Scotland.pdf

131. Bouffard, J. and Bouffard, L.A. (2009) Deterrence in the Real World: Certainty, Severity and Swiftness in a DUI Court Context Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

132. Fraser, A. and McQueen, S. (2011) Evaluation of Early and Effective Intervention (EEI) and Diversion from Prosecution in Dumfries and Galloway, Scottish Government.

133. A study into the effectiveness of electronic monitoring in EU states is currently underway, jointly led by academics at the University of Leeds, University of Stirling and three further European Universities. Information about the project and details of subsequent publications can be accessed here: http://www.law.leeds.ac.uk/research/projects/use-of-electronic-monitoring-as-an-alternative-to-imprisonment-in-eu-member-states

134. Marie, O., Moreton, K. and Goncalver, M. (2011) op cit.

135. Dodgson et al. (2001) as cited by Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation, op cit,

136. Di Tella, R. and Schargrodsky, E. (2013) Criminal Recidivism after Prison and Electronic Monitoring, Journal of Political Economy, 121(1), 28-73.

137. Marklund, F. and Holmberg, S. (2009) Effects of early release from prison using electronic tagging in Sweden, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 5(1), 41-61.

138. Durnescu, I., Enengl, C. and Grafl, C. (2013) Experiencing Supervision in McNeill, F. and Beyens K. (eds.) Offender Supervision in Europe, London: Palgrave Macmillan, citing Hammerschick and Neumann (2008) and Vander Beken (2012)

139. Deuchar, R. (2012) op cit.

140. Hutton, L. and Levy, L. (2002) op cit.

141. Lai, K. (2013) Does Supervision after Release from Prison Reduce Re-offending?, London: Ministry of Justice Accessed on 02/04/2014 at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/does-supervision-after-release-from-prison-reduce-re-offending-analytical-summary

142. Grattet, R. Lin, J. and Petersilia, J. (2011) Supervision regimes, risk and official reaction to parolee deviance, Criminology, 49(2) 371-399.

143. Latessa, E.J. Listwan, S.J. and Koetzle, D. (2014) What Doesn't Work: Ineffective Approaches and Correctional Quackery, in Latessa, E.J. Listwan, S.J. and Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier citing Petersilia and Turner (1993).

144. Grattet, R. Lin, J. and Petersilia, J. (2011) op cit.

145. Ostermann, M. (2013) Active Supervision and Its Impact Upon Parolee Recidivism Rates, Crime and Delinquency, 59(4), 487-509.

146. McAra, L. and McVie, S. (2007) Youth Justice? The Impact of System Contact on Patterns of Desistance From Offending, European Journal of Criminology, 4(3), 315-345.

147. Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C. and Guckenberg, S. (2010) Formal System Processing of Juveniles: Effects on Delinquency Campbell Systematic Review 2010:1 http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/lib/download/761/

148. Wilson, H.A. and Hoge, R.D. (2013), The Effect of Youth Diversion Programs on Recidivism: A Meta-Analytic Review, Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 40(5) 497-518.

149. Ministry of Justice (2010a) op cit.

150. Home Office (2012) Assessing young people in police custody: An examination of the operation of Triage schemes, Occasional Paper 106, Institute for Criminal Policy Research Birkbeck, University of London, accessed on 02/04/14 at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/assessing-young-people-in-police-custody-an-examination-of-triage-schemes

151. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

152. Lopes, G., Krohn, M.D., Lizotte, A.J., Schmidt, N.M., Vásquez, B. E. and Bernburg, J.G. (2012) op cit.

153. National Institute of Drug Abuse (2003) Crossing the Bridge: An Evaluation of the Drug Treatment Alternative-to-Prison (DTAP) Programme, accessed on 02/04/2014 at http://www.casacolumbia.org/addiction-research/reports/crossing-bridge-evaluation-drug-treatment-alternative-prison-dtap-program

154. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Offender Health Research Network (2011) and Davis et al (2008).

155. Barry, M. and McIvor, G. (2000) Diversion from Prosecution to Social Work and Other Service Agencies: Evaluation of the 100 per cent funding pilot programmes, Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.

156. Khan, S. and Hansbury, S. (2012) Initial analysis of the impact of the Intensive Alternatives to Custody pilots on re-offending rates, Research Summary 5/12, Ministry of Justice.

157. Barry, M. and McIvor, G. (2010) Professional decision making and women offenders: Containing the chaos?, The Journal of Community and Criminal Justice, 57(1), 27-41.

158. Radcliffe, P., Hunter, G. and Bass, R. (2013), The Development and Impact of Community Services for Women Offenders, The Institute for Criminal Policy Research, School of Law, Birkbeck College, London. Accessed on 11/04/14 at http://www.icpr.org.uk/media/34025/ReportNuffieldfinal.pdf

159. Andrews, D.A. and Bonta, J. (2010) op cit.

160. Lösel, F., Koehler, J.A., Hamilton, L., Humphreys, D.K., Akoensi, T.D. (2011) Strengthening Transnational Approaches to Reducing Reoffending: Final Report Submitted to the European Commission, accessed on 02/04/14 at http://www.starr-probation.org/uploaded_files/Rep%20STARR%20ENG.pdf

161. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) Model: Does Adding the Good Lives Model Contribute to Effective Crime Prevention?, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(7), 735-755.

162. Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (2013) Overview and Structure of the Book, in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

163. Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) Responsivity: What is it, and Why Is It Important in Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier.

164. Andrews, D.A. (2011) The impact of nonprogrammatic factors on criminal-justice interventions, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 16(1), 1-23.

165. Andrews, D.A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R.C., Rettinger, L.J. Brews, A. et al. (2012) Are the Major Risk/Need Factors Predictive of Both Female and Male Reoffending? A Test With the Eight Domains of the Level of Service/Case Management Inventory, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56(1) 113-133.

166. Andrews, D.A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R.C., Rettinger, L.J. Brews, A. et al. (2012) op cit, p.115. See also Andrews, D.A. and Bonta, J. (2010) op cit.

167. Andrews, D.A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R.C., Rettinger, L.J. Brews, A. et al. (2012) op cit.

168. Andrews, D.A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R.C., Rettinger, L.J. Brews, A. et al. (2012) op cit.

169. For an outline, see http://www.mhs.com/product.aspx?gr=saf&prod=ls-cmi&id=overview

170. Serin, R.C., Lloyd, C.D. and Hanby, L.J. (2010) Enhancing Offender Re-entry: An Integrated Model for Enhancing Offender Re-entry, European Journal of Probation, 2(2), 53-75.

171. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) op cit.

172. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J., Wormith, J.S., Guzzo, L., Brews A, Rettinger, J. et al., (2011) Sources of Variability in Estimates of Predictive Validity: A Specification With Level of Service General Risk and Need, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(5), 413-432.

173. Ibid, p426.

174. Skeem, J. (2013) Risk Technology in Sentencing: Testing the Promises and Perils (Commentary on Hannah-Moffat, 2011), Justice Quarterly, 30(2), 297-303.

175. Polaschek, D.L.L. (2012) op cit.

176. Ibid.

177. Carr, N., Healy, D., Kennefick, L. and Maguire, N. (2013) A Review of the Research on Offender Supervision in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, Irish Probation Journal, 10, 50-74. See also McNeill, F. Burns, N., Halliday, S., Hutton, N. and Tata, C. (2009) Risk, responsibility and reconfiguration: penal adaptation and misadaptation, Punishment and Society, 11 (4), 419-442 for implementation of pre-sentence reports in Scotland.

178. See for example Hannah-Moffitt, K. (2013) Actuarial Sentencing: An "Unsettled" Proposition, Justice Quarterly, 30(2), 270-296, and http://www.mhs.com/product.aspx?gr=saf&prod=ls-cmi&id=resources

179. Andrews, D.A. and Bonta, J. (2014) The Psychology of Criminal Conduct (Revised edition), Routledge.

180. RMA (2007) Risk Assessment Tools Evaluation Directory (RATED), accessed online on 13/4/2015 at http://rated.rmascotland.gov.uk/risk-tools/

181. Blanchette,K. and SL, Brown (2006) The Assessment and Treatment of Female Offenders. John Wiley & Sons.

182. Van Voorhis et al. (2010), as cited by Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) What Works with Women in Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier.

183. Andrews, D.A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R.C., Rettinger, L.J. Brews, A. et al. (2012) op cit.

184. Hollin and Palmer (2006) as cited by Hedderman, C., Gunby, C. and Shelton C. (2011) 'What women want: The importance of qualitative approaches in evaluating work with women offenders', Criminology and Criminal Justice, 11(1), 3-19.

185. Wilson, H.A. and Guiterrez, L. (2014) 'Does One Size Fit All?: A Meta-Analysis Examining the Predictive Ability of the Level of Service Inventory (LSI) With Aboriginal Offenders', Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(2), 196-219.

186. Gutierrez, L., Wilson, H.A., Rugge, T. and Bonta, J. (2013) 'The Prediction of Recidivism with Aboriginal Offenders: A Theoretically Informed Meta-Analysis', Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 55(1), 55-99.

187. Thakker, J. (2013) The Role of Cultural Factors in Treatment in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

188. Williams, K.M. (forthcoming). Psychometric properties of the Level of Service/Case Management Inventory in an international sample. Poster to be presented at the 2015 annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.

189. Olver, M. E., Stockdale, K. C., and Wormith, J. S. (2014) 'Thirty years of research on the Level of Service Scales: A meta-analytic examination of predictive accuracy and sources of variability'. Psychological Assessment, Vol 26(1), 156-176.

190. Onifade, E., Petersen, J., Bynum, T.S. and Davidson, W.S. (2011) Multilevel Recidivism Prediction Incorporating: Neighborhood Socioeconomic Ecology in juvenile Risk Assessment, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(8), 840-853.

191. Wang, X., Hay, C., Todak, N.E. and Bales, W. (2014) Criminal Propensity, Social Context, and Recidivism: A Multilevel Analysis of Interactive Relationships, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(3), 300-317.

192. Sampson, R.J. (2013) Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect, Chicago: University of Chigaco Press, p.60.

193. Onifade, E., Petersen, J., Bynum, T.S. and Davidson, W.S. (2011) op cit.

194. RMA (2011) Framework for risk assessment, management and evaluation (FRAME), accessed online on 13/4/2015 at http://www.rmascotland.gov.uk/files/5713/0943/0052/FRAME_Policy_Paper_-_July_2011.pdf

195. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

196. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

197. Lipsey, M.W. and Cullen, F.T. (2007) The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 3, 297-320.

198. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) The Impact of Corrections on Reoffending: A Review of What Works, Home Office Research Study 291, London: Home Office.

199. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Wilson, Bouffard & Mackenzie (2005).

200. Ibid. citing Lipsey et al. (2007).

201. Ibid. citing Sadlier (2010).

202. Ibid. citing Travers, Wakeling, Mann & Hollin (2011).

203. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Goggin and Gendreau (2006), Lowenkamp, Latessa and Smith (2006), Landenberger and Lipsey (2005) and Andrews and Dowden (2005)

204. Farrell, J.L., Young, D.W. and Taxman, F.S. (2011) Effects of Organizational Factors On Use of Juvenile Supervision Practices, Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 38(6), 565-583; Young, D.W., Farrell, J.L., Taxman, F.S. (2013) Impacts of Juvenile Probation Training Models on Youth Recidivism, Justice Quarterly, 30(6), 1068-1089.

205. Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) Making Sure It's Done Right: The Importance of Quality and How to Ensure Program Fidelity in Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier.

206. Wright K.A., Pratt, T.C., Lowenkamp, C.T. and Latessa, E.J. (2012) The Importance of Ecological Context for Correctional Rehabilitation Programs: Understanding the Micro and Macro-Level Dimensions of Successful Offender Treatment, Justice Quarterly, 29(6), 775-798.

207. Wright K.A., Pratt, T.C., Lowenkamp, C.T. and Latessa, E.J. (2013) The Systemic Model of Crime and Institutional Efficacy An Analysis of the Social Context of Offender Reintegration, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 57(1), 92-111, p.105 citing Clear (2007).

208. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

209. See Hatcher, R.M., McGuire, J., Bilby, C.A.L., Palmer, E.J. and Hollin, C.R. (2012) Methodological Considerations in the Evaluation of Offender Interventions: The Problem of Attrition, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56(3), 447-464.

210. Schinkel, M. and Whyte, B. (2009) Formative Evaluation of the Constructs PSSO Groupwork Programme, Edinburgh: Criminal Justice Social Work Development Centre; Hutton, L. (2009) Implementation of the Community Sex Offender Groupwork Programme in Scotland: Process Evaluation, Edinburgh: Criminal Justice Social Work Development Centre.

211. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) The Quality of Probation Supervision - A Literature Review, Unpublished research report.

212. Boe, R., Nafekh, M Vuong,B, Sinclair, R. and Cousineau, C (2003) The changing profile of the federal inmate population: 1997 and 2002, Research report R-132, Ottowa: Correctional Service Canada.

213. Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2003). The psychology of criminal conduct (3rd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

214. Trotter, C., McIvor, G. and Sheehan, R. (2012) The Effectiveness of Support and Rehabilitation Services for Women Offenders, Australian Social Work, 65(1), 6-20.

215. Kendall, K. (2002) 'Time to Think Again about Cognitive-Behavioural Programmes', in Carlen, P. (ed.) Women and Punishment, pp. 182-198. Cullompton, Devon: Willan.

216. Andrews, D.A. (2001). Principles of effective correctional programs. In L.L. Motiuk & R.C. Serin (Eds.). Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming, Volume 1. Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada, Ministry of Supply and Services.

217. Cann, J. (2006) Cognitive skills programmes: impact on reducing reconviction among a sample of female prisoners, Home Office Research Study 276. London: Home Office.

218. Gobbett, M.J. and Sellen, J.L (2014) An Evaluation of the HM Prison Service ''Thinking Skills Programme" Using Psychometric Assessments, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58(4), 454-473.

219. Lösel, F., Koehler, J.A., Hamilton, L., Humphreys, D.K., Akoensi, T.D. (2011) op cit.

220. Barry, M. (2013) Rational Choice and Responsibilisation in Youth Justice in Scotland: Whose Evidence Matters in Evidence-Based Policy?¸The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 52(4), 347-364.

221. Ibid.

222. Matrix Knowledge Group (2007) op cit.

223. Smith, P., Schweitzer, M., Ziv, R. (2014) What Works with Sex Offenders in Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier.

224. Leam, C.A., Beech, A.R., Cortoni, F. (2013) What Works in Assessing Risk in Sexual and Violent Offenders in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

225. Hart, S.D. and Cooke, D.J., (2013) Another Look at the (Im-)Precision of Individual Risk Estimates Made Using Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 31(1), 81-102.

226. Leam, C.A., Beech, A.R., Cortoni, F. (2013) op cit.

227. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Hanson, Gordon, Harris, Marques, Murphy, Quinsey, & Seto (2002); Aos, Miller & Drake (2006); Lösel & Schmucker (2005) and Hanson, Bourgon, Helmus, & Hodgson (2009).

228. Ibid., citing Schmuker & Lösel (2008).

229. Ibid., citing Marques et al. (2005).

230. Hollin, C.R., Palmer, E.J. and Hatcher, R.M. (2013) Efficacy of Correctional Cognitive Skills Programmes in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

231. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Mailloux, Abracen, Serin, Cousineau, Malcolm, & Looman (2003); Lovins, Lowenkamp, & Latessa (2009); Friendship, Mann, & Beech (2003).

232. Smith, P., Schweitzer, M., Ziv, R. (2014) op cit.

233. Cortini, F. and Gannon, T.A. (2013) What Works with Female Sexual Offenders in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

234. Ibid.

235. Ibid.

236. Banks, J., Kini, S. and Babcock, J. (2013) Interventions that Work to Stop Intimate Partner Violence in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment.

237. Ibid.; Lösel, F., Koehler, J.A., Hamilton, L., Humphreys, D.K., Akoensi, T.D. (2011) op cit.

238. Brooks, O., Burman, M., Lombard, N., McIvor, G., Stevenson-Hasgings, L. and Kyle, D. (2014), 'Violence against women: effective interventions and practices with perpetrators: A literature review', SCCJR Research Report No. 05/2014. http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/publications/violence-against-women-effective-interventions-and-practices-with-perpetrators/

239. Wood et al. (2015) op. cit.

240. Ministry of Justice (2010a) op cit.; Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Gaes, Flanagan, Motiuk, & Stewart (1999) and NOMS (2012).

241. Social Exclusion Unit (2002) Reducing Re-offending by Ex-prisoners: Summary of the Social Exclusion Unit Report. London: Social Exclusion Unit.

242. Ministry of Justice (2010a), ibid.

243. Wood et al. (2015), op. cit.

244. Maruna, S. (2010) Understanding Desistance from Crime, NOMS: Ministry of Justice.

245. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.; Shapland and Bottoms (2011) op. cit.

246. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

247. SETF (2009) as cited by McDermott, S. (2012) op cit‎.

248. McDermott, S. (2012) op cit‎.

249. Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) What Works with Women op cit.

250. McIvor, G., Gelsthorpe, L,. Loucks, N. and Malloch, M. (2006) Evaluation of the 218 Centre. Scottish Executive Social Research.

251. Severson, M. E. (2001). Women's mental health issues: Twentieth-century realities; Twenty-first century challenges. In K. J. Peterson & A. A. Lieberman (Eds.), Building on Women's Strengths: A Social Work Agenda for the Twenty-First Century (2nd ed., pp. 95-118). New York: Haworth Press.

252. Blanchette and Brown (2006), op cit.

253. Scottish Government (2012) The Scottish Government Response to the Commission on Women Offenders, accessed on 08/04/14 at http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2012/06/2387/3

254. Peters, R.H. and Steinberg, M.L., (2000), 'Substance Abuse Treatment in US Prisons', in D. Shewan and J. Davies (Eds.), Drugs in prisons. London: Harwood Academic Publishers.

255. Tombs, J. (1994), Through-care: A Process of Change; CJSWDC Briefing.

256. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

257. Lipsey and Derzon (1998) As cited in Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

258. James, C., Stams, G.J.J.M., Asscher, J.J., De Roo, A.K., van der Laan, P.H. (2013) Aftercare programs for reducing recidivism among juvenile and young adult offenders: A meta-analytic review, Clinical Psychology Review, 33(2), 263-274.

259. Madell, D., Thom, K. and McKenna, B. (2013) A Systematic Review of Literature Relating to Problem-Solving Youth Courts, Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 20(3), 412-422.

260. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

261. Caverley, A. And Farrall, S. (2011) The Sensual Dynamics of Processes of Personal Reform: Desistance from Crime and the Role of Emotions in Karstedt, S. Loader, I. and Strang H. (eds.) Emotions, Crime and Justice. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

262. McMurran, M. (2002) Motivating Offenders to Change: A Guide to Enhancing Engagement in Therapy, Willey-Blackwell.

263. Caverley, A. and Farrall, S. (2011), op cit.

264. Giordano, P.C. (2014) op cit.

265. Bottoms, A. and Shapland, J. (2011) Steps towards desistance among male young adult recidivists in Farrall, S., Hough, M., Maruna, S. and Sparks, R. (eds) Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment, Abdingdon: Routledge.

266. McMurran, M. (2002) op cit.

267. Ibid.

268. Maruna, S. (2010) op cit.

269. Ward, T., & Stewart, C. A. (2003). The treatment of sex offenders: Risk management and good lives. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(4), 353-360.

270. Willis, G.M. and Ward, T. (2013) op cit.

271. Ibid.

272. Ibid, citing Purvis (2010) and Ward and Gannon (2006).

273. Ibid, p.307.

274. Ibid.

275. Ibid, p.307.

276. Ibid.

277. Ibid, p.306.

278. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) op cit.

279. Ibid.

280. Polaschek, D.L.L. (2012), op cit.

281. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) op cit.

282. McNeil, F. and Weaver, B. (2010b) Changing Lives: Desistance Research and Offender Management, accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/pubs/Changing-Lives-Desistance-Research-and-Offender-Management/255.

283. Maruna, S. (2010), ibid.

284. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.

285. Deakin, J. and Spencer, J. (2011) 'Who Cares?': Fostering networks and relationships in prison and beyond' in R. Sheehan, G. McIvor and C. Trotter (eds.) Working with Women Offenders in the Community, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

286. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

287. Petrosino, A., Derzon, J. and Lavenberg, J. (2009) The Role of the Family in Crime and Delinquency, Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice, 6(2), 108-132.

288. McGuire, J. (2002) op cit.

289. Borduin, C.M., Dopp, A.R. and Taylor, E.K. (2013) Evidence-Based Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

290. Ibid.

291. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

292. Ibid.

293. MacQueen, S., Curran, J., Hutton, L. and Whyte, B. (2008) Support and Services for Parents: A Review of the Literature on Engaging and Supporting Parents, Scottish Government. Accessed on 09/04/14 at http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/218819/0058780.pdf

294. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Bales & Mears (2008); Baumer, O'Donnell & Hughes (2009) and May, Sharma & Stewart (2008).

295. Mears, D.P., Cochran, J.C., Siennick, S.E. and Bales, W.D. (2012) Prison Visitation and Recidivism, Justice Quarterly, 29(6) 888-918.

296. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

297. Dowden, C. and Andrews, D. A. (1999) 'What works for female offenders: a meta-analytic review', Crime and Delinquency, 45 (4) 438-452.

298. Ibid, pp. 446-447.

299. Ministry of Justice (2010b) The Thinking Skills Programme Submission Document accessed on 09/04/14 at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/217289/correctional-services-accreditation-panel-report-09-10-annex-e.pdf citing Bender (2005) and Uggen and Kruttshnitt (1998).

300. Farrall, S. and Caverley, A. (2006), op cit.

301. Ouimet, M. & Le Blanc, M. (1996). The role of life experiences in the continuation of the adult criminal career. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 6, 73-97.

302. Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2003) op cit.

303. Jamieson, J., McIvor, G. and Murray, C. (1999) op cit.

304. Malloch, M. and McIvor,G. (2011) op cit.

305. McIvor, G., Trotter, C. and Sheehan, R. (2009) Women, resettlement and desistance, Probation Journal, 56, 4, 347-61.

306. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

307. Wilson, D.B., Gallagher, C.A. and MacKenzie, D.L. (2000) op cit.

308. Visher, C.A., Winterfield, L. And Coggeshall, M.B. (2006) Systematic Review of Non-custodial Employment Programs: Impact on Recidivism Rates of Ex-offenders, Campbell Systematic Reviews.

309. Yahner and Zweig (2012) as cited by Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) What Works in Reentry in Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier.

310. Zweig, J., Yahner, J. and Redcross, C. (2011) For whom does a transitional jobs program work? Examining the recidivism effects of the Center for Employment Opportunities program on former prisoners at high, medium, and low risk of reoffending, Criminology and Public Policy 10(4), 945-972.

311. Sarno, C., Hearnden, I. and Hedderman, C. (2001) Working their way out of offending: an evaluation of two probation employment schemes, Home Office Research Study No. 218, London: Home Office.

312. Ibid.

313. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.

314. Pleace, N. and Breatherton, J. (2006) Sharing and matching local and national data on adults of working age facing multiple barriers to employment: administrative datasets for measuring impacts on disadvantage. Sheffield: Department of Work and Pensions.

315. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.

316. Farrall, S., Bottoms, A. and Shapland, J. (2010) op cit.

317. Blanchette, K. (2002) 'Classifying Female Offenders for Effective Intervention: Application of the Case-Based Principles of Risk and Need', Forum on Corrections Research, 14 (1), 31-35.

318. Lart, R Pantazis,C. Pemberton, S Turner,W and Almeida ,C (2008) Interventions aimed at reducing re-offending in female offenders: a rapid evidence assessment (REA) Ministry of Justice Research Series 8/08 May 2008.

319. Lawrence., Mears., D.D., Dubin G & Travis J (2002) The practice and promise of prison programming. Washington DC: USA Urban Institute Justice Policy Centre.

320. Solomon A.L., Gouvis & Waul (2001) Summary of focus groups with ex-prisoners in the district: ingredients for successful integration. Washington DC: Urban Institute Jusice Policy Centre.

321. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

322. McGuire, J. (2002) op cit.

323. Hollin, C. and Palmer, E.J. (1995) Education and Work Programmes in Prisons: Effect on Recidivism. Report for the Planning Group HM Prison Service, London: HM Prison Service.

324. Matrix Knowledge Group (2007) op cit.

325. Lart, R Pantazis,C. Pemberton, S Turner,W and Almeida ,C (2008) op cit.

326. Rucklidge, J.J., McLean, A.P. and Bateup P. (2013) Criminal Offending and Learning Disabilities in New Zealand Youth: Does Reading Comprehension Predict Recidivism? Crime and Delinquency, 59(8), 1263-1286.

327. Saylor, W. G. and Gaes, G. G. (1996) 'Effect of Prison Employment and Vocational/Apprenticeship Training on Long-Term Recidivism', Forum on Corrections Research, 8(1).

328. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

329. Lösel, F., Koehler, J.A., Hamilton, L., Humphreys, D.K., Akoensi, T.D. (2011) op cit.

330. Holloway, K., Bennett, T. and Farrington, D. (2005) The Effectiveness of Criminal Justice and Treatment Programmes in Reducing Drug-related Crime: A Systematic Review, Home Office Online Report 26/05. London: Home Office.

331. Lipton, D., Pearson, F.S., Cleland, C.M. and Yee, D. (2002) 'The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Methods on Recidivism' in J. McGuire (ed.) Offender Rehabilitation and Treatment: Effective Programmes and Policies to Reduce Reoffending, West Sussex: Wiley.; Malloch, M. and McIvor, G. (2011) Women, drugs and community intervention in R. Sheehan, G. McIvor and C. Trotter (eds.) Working with Women Offenders in the Community, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

332. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

333. Holloway, K., Bennett, T. and Farrington, D. (2005) op cit.

334. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D.B. and MacKenzie, D.L. (2012) op cit.

335. Shuker, R. (2013) Treating Offenders in a Therapeutic Community in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

336. Martin, S.S., O'Connell, D.J., Paternoster, R., Bachman, R.D. (2011) The Long and Winding Road to Desistance from Crime for Drug-Involved Offenders: The Long-Term Influence of TC Treatment on Re-Arrest, Journal of Drug Issues, 41(2), 179-196, p.192.

337. Zhang et al. (2011) as cited by Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) What Works in Prison op cit.

338. Shuker, R. (2013) op cit.

339. Holloway, K., Bennett, T. and Farrington, D. (2005) op cit.

340. Mitchell, O. Wilson, D.B., and MacKenzie, D.L. (2012) Drug Courts' Effects on Criminal Offending for Juveniles and Adults, Campbell Collaboration, 2012/4.

341. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Aos, Miller & Drake (2006), Holloway et al. (2006), Mitchell et al. (2012) and Kerr et al. (2011).

342. Ibid., citing Aos, Miller & Drake (2006), Holloway et al. (2006), Mitchell et al. (2012) and Kerr et al. (2011).

343. Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014), What Works with Drug Courts in Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (eds.) What Works (and Doesn't) in Reducing Recidivism, Waltham, Elsevier.

344. Ibid.

345. Lipton, D., Pearson, F.S., Cleland, C.M. and Yee, D. (2002) op cit.

346. Bahr, S.J., Harris, P.E., Hobson Strobell, J. and Taylor, B.M. (2013) An Evaluation of a Short-Term Drug Treatment for Jail Inmates, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 57(10), 1275-1296.

347. Lösel, F., Koehler, J.A., Hamilton, L., Humphreys, D.K., Akoensi, T.D. (2011) op cit.

348. McIvor, G. (2004) Reconviction Following Drug Treatment and Testing Orders. Scottish Government; McIvor, G., Barnsdale, L., Eley, S., Malloch, M., Yates, R. and Brown, A. (2006) An Evaluation of the Glasgow and Fife Drug Courts and their Aim to Reduce Drug Use and Drug Related Offending Scottish Government; Shewan, D., Marshall, L., Wilson, G., Vojt, G., Galloway, J. and Marley, C. (2006) SPS Strategy on the Management of Drug Misuse, Pathways and Progression: An Evaluation of Referral, Assessment and Intervention Scottish Prison Service; Perman, J. (2010) Persistent Offender Project: An Analysis of the Costs and Benefits. Executive Summary Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=3427&p=0

349. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

350. Shuker, R. (2013) op cit, Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Aos, Miller & Drake (2006), Holloway et al. (2006), Mitchell et al. (2012) and Kerr et al. (2011).

351. HM Inspectorate for prisons (2009) HM and YOI Corton Vale. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.

352. Andrews, D.A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R.C., Rettinger, L.J. Brews, A. et al. (2012) op cit.

353. Lart, R Pantazis,C. Pemberton, S Turner,W and Almeida ,C (2008) op cit.

354. Tripodi, S.J., Bledsoe, S.E., Kim, J.S. and Bender, K. (2011) Effects of Correctional-Based Programs for Female Inmates: A Systematic Review, Research on Social Work Practice, 21(1), 15-31.

355. Perry A.E., Neilson, M., Martyn-St. James, M., Glanville J.M., McCool, R., Duffy S. et al. (2014) Interventions for female drug-using offenders, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1.

356. Mosher, C and Phillips, D. (2002) Program evaluation of the Pine Lodge Pre-Release Residential Therapeutic Community for Women Offenders in Washington State: Final Report to the US Department of Justice, NCJRS.

357. Blanchette,K. (1996) The relationship between criminal history, mental disorder, and recidivism among federally sentenced female offenders. Unpublished Masters Thesis.

358. Davies, L., Jones, A., Vamvakas, G., Dubourg, R. and Donmall, M. (2009) op cit.

359. Malloch, M. (2010) Review of Effectiveness of Interventions for Drug Users in the Criminal Justice System, unpublished.

360. Fraser, A., Burman, M., Batchelor, S. and McVie, S. (2010) op cit.

361. McVie, S. and Bradshaw, P. (2005) Adolescent Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use. Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, Research Digest No. 7. Edinburgh: Centre for Law and Society.

362. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

363. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing McMurran (ed) (2013).

364. Ibid., citing National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse (2006).

365. NHS Scotland (2010), Delivery of Alcohol Brief Interventions: A Competency Framework. Accessed on 09/04/14 at

366. http://www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/12157-ABI%20Competency%20Framework.pdf

367. Parkes, T., MacAskill, S., Brooks, O., Jepson, R., Atherton, I., Doi, L., McGhee, S. and Eadie, D. (2010) Prison Health Needs Assessment for Alcohol Problems, accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.ohrn.nhs.uk/resource/policy/PrisonHealthNeedsAssessmentAlcohol.pdf

368. Skellington Orr, K., McCoard, S., Canning, S., McCartney, P., Williams, J. (2011) Delivering Alcohol Brief Interventions in the Community Justice Setting: Evaluation of a Pilot Project, NHS Scotland, accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/5519.aspx

369. Raistrick, D., Heather, N. and Godfrey, C. (2006) Review of the Effectiveness of Treatment for Alcohol Problems, National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.nta.nhs.uk/uploads/nta_review_of_the_effectiveness_of_treatment_for_alcohol_problems_fullreport_2006_alcohol2.pdf

370. Ministry of Justice (2010a) op cit.

371. Ibid.

372. Morgan, R.D., Flora, D.B., Kroner, D.G., Mills, J.F., Varghese, F. and Steffan, J.S. (2012) op cit.

373. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Skeem et al. (2011) and Skeem & Louden (2006).

374. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

375. Rex, S. (1999) op cit.

376. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit; McIvor G & Barry M (1998) Social Work and Criminal Justice Volume 6: 'Probation'. Scottish Office. Social Work Research Findings, No. 18. The Stationery Office.

377. King, S. (2013) Assisted desistance and experiences of probation supervision, Probation Journal 60(2), 136-151.

378. Farrall, S. (2002) Rethinking What Works with Offenders: Probation, Social Context and Desistance from Crime, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

379. Farrall, S. and Calverley, A. (2006) Understanding Desistance from Crime, Crime and Justice Series, London: Open University Press.

380. Farrall, S. (2012) Investigating the Long term Impact of Probation Supervision, Offender Engagement Research Bulletin, Issue 15, London: National Offender Management Service.

381. Healy, D. (2010) op cit; Leibrich, J. (1993) Straight to the Point: Angles of Giving Up Crime, Otago: New Zealand: University of Otago Press.

382. Wood et al. (2015) op. cit.

383. Malloch, M. and McIvor, G. (2011) Women and community sentences op cit.

384. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

385. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.

386. McIvor, G. & Barry, M. (1998) op cit; McIvor, G. and Barry, M. (2000) Social Work and Criminal Justice: Volume 8 - 'The Longer-term Effectiveness of Supervision', Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.; Malloch, M. and McIvor, G. (2011) Women and community sentences op cit.

387. McNeil, F. and Weaver, B. (2010b) op cit.

388. Finnegan, L., Whitehurst, D. and Deaton, S. (2010) Models of mentoring for inclusion and employment. London: Centre for Economic and Social Inclusion.

389. Maguire, M., Holloway, K., Liddle, M., Gordon, F., Gray, P., Smith, A. and Wright, S. (2010) Evaluation of the Transitional Support Scheme. Final Report to Welsh Assembly Government. Accessed on 10/04/14 at
http://wccsj.ac.uk/images/docs/tss-report-en.pdf.

390. McNeil, F. and Whyte, B. (2007) op cit.

391. Trotter, C.J., (2013) Reducing recidivism through probation supervision: what we know and don't know from four decades of research, Federal Probation 77(3), 43-48. Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Federal Corrections and Supervision Division:USA. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.uscourts.gov/uscourts/FederalCourts/PPS/Fedprob/2013-09/reducing-recidivism.html

392. Folkard, S., Lyon, K., Carver, M.M. and O'Leary, E. (1966) Probation Research: A Preliminary Report, Home Office Research Unit Report No. 7, London: HMSO.

393. Ministry of Justice (2010a) op cit.

394. Raynor, P., Ugwudike, P. and Vanstone, M. (2014) The impact of skills in probation work: A reconviction study, Criminology and Criminal Justice 14(2), 235-249.

395. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Taxman (2008) and Trotter and Evans (2012).

396. Petersilia, J. and Turner, S. (1993) op cit.

397. Bonta, J., Rugge, T., Scott, T., Bourgon, G., & Yessine, A. K. (2008). 'Exploring the black box of community supervision'. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 47,248-270

398. Bonta, J., Bourgon, G., Rugge, T., Scott, T.-L., Yessine, A., Gutierrez, L., & Li, J. (2010). The Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision: Risk-Need-Responsivity in the Real World. User Report 2010-01. Ottawa: Public Safety Canada.

399. Bonta, J., Bourgon, G., Rugge, T., Gress, C., & Gutierrez, L. (2013). 'Taking the leap: From pilot project to wide-scale implementation of the Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS)'. Justice Research and Policy, 15 (1), 17-35.

400. Senior, P. et al. (2011) Process Evaluation of Five Integrated Offender Management Pioneer Areas, London: Ministry of Justice

401. Schinkel, M, Jardine, C., Curran, J. and Whyte, B. (2009) Routes out of Prison - evaluation report. Edinburgh: CJSWDC.

402. Armstrong, S., Christyakova, J., Mackenzie, S. and Malloch, M. (2008) Circles of Support and Accountability: Consideration of the feasibility of pilots in Scotland. Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/documents/circles.pdf; Maguire, M., Holloway, K., Liddle, M., Gordon, F., Gray, P., Smith, A. and Wright, S. (2010) op cit.

403. Finnegan, L., Whitehurst, D. and Deaton, S. (2010) op cit.

404. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.

405. Jolliffe, D. and Farrington, D. P. (2007) A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Impact of Mentoring on Reoffending. London: Home Office (Online Report 11/07). Accessed on 11/04/14 at http://resources.civilservice.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/rdsolr1107_tcm6-7376.pdf.

406. Andrews, D. A. and Bonta, J. (2010) Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39-55.

407. Malloch, M.S., McIvor, G., Schinkel, M. and Armstrong, S. (2013), op cit.

408. Trotter, C. (2011) Mentoring in R. Sheehan, G. McIvor and C. Trotter (eds.) Working with Women Offenders in the Community, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

409. Malloch, M. et al. (2013) The Elements of Effective Through-Care Part 1: International Review. Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research, accessed at:
http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/publications/the-elements-of-effective-through-care-part-1-international-review/

410. Malloch, M.S. (2013), The Elements of Effective Through-Care Part 2: Scottish Review, SCCJR report No. 04/2013. Accessed on 10/04/14 at
http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/publications/the-elements-of-effective-through-care-part-2-scottish-review/.

411. Ibid.

412. Anderson, S., Dowling, S., Noble, S. and Platts, A. (2014) Evaluation of the Community Reintegration Project, Scottish Government Social Research. Accessed on 15/1/2015 at http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/07/5191

413. Clancy, A., Hudson, K., Maguire, M., Peake, R., Raynor, P. Vanstone, M. and Kynch, J. (2006) op cit.

414. Vigilante, K. C., Flynn, M. M., Affleck, P. C., Stunkle, J. C., Merriman, N. A., Flanigan, T.P., Mitty, J. A. and Rich, J. D. (1999) 'Reduction in recidivism of incarcerated women through primary care, peer counseling, and discharge planning', Journal of Women's Health, 8 (3), 409-415.

415. Lart, R., Pantazis,C., Pemberton, S., Turner,W., and Almeida, C. (2008) op cit.

416. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

417. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Maguire & Nolan (2007).

418. MacRae, R., McIvor, G., Malloch, M., Barry, M. and Murray, L. (2006) Evaluation of the Scottish Prison Service Transitional Care Initiative, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Social Research.

419. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing O'Leary (2013) and Miller and Ngugi (2009).

420. Ibid., citing Lindquist, Lattimore, Barrick, & Visher (2009).

421. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.

422. As cited by Malloch, M.S. (2013) op cit.

423. Scottish Government (2012) op cit.

424. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing DCLG (2009).

425. Brunton-Smith, I. and Hopkins, K. (2013) The factors associated with proven re-offending following release from prison: findings from Waves 1 to 3 of SPCR: Results from the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal cohort study of prisoners, London: Ministry of Justice.

426. Shapland, J., Bottoms, A., Farrall, S., McNeill, F., Priede, C. and Robinson, G. (2011) op cit.

427. Ibid.

428. The big step (2006) Accommodation and Support Needs of Vulnerable Young People in Glasgow Report 4: Executive Summary Report. Glasgow: The big step.

429. Calverley, A. and Farrall, S. (2011) op cit.

430. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

431. Maruna, S. (2010) op cit.

432. Caverley, A. and Farrall, S. (2011) op cit.

433. Ibid.

434. Maruna, S. and Lebel, T.P. (2010) 'The Desistance Paradigm in Correctional Practice: From Programmes to Lives' in McNeill, F. Raynor, P. and Trotter, C. Offender Supervision: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice, Oxon: Willan Publishing.

435. Maruna, S. (2014) op cit.

436. Ministry of Justice (2010a) op cit.

437. Rex, S. and Gelsthorpe, L. (2002) "The role of Community Service in Reducing Offending: Evaluating Pathfinder Projects in the UK," The Howard Journal Vol. 41 (4) p.311-325

438. Curran, J, MacQueen, S., Whyte, B. and Boyle, J. (2007) Forced to Make Amends: An Evaluation of the Community Reparation Order Pilots. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2007/08/21134602/0.

439. Curran, J, MacQueen, S., Whyte, B. and Boyle, J. (2007) op cit.

440. Ibid.

441. McNeill, F. and Maruna, S. (2007) Giving Up and Giving Back: Desistance, Generativity and Social Work with Offenders in McIvor, G. and Raynor, P. (eds.) Developments in Social Work with Offenders, London: Jessica Kingsley.

442. Durnescu, Enengl and Grafl, (2013) op cit citing Dorpel, Kamp and van der Laan (2010).

443. Ministry of Justice (2010a) op cit.

444. McGuire, J. (2002) op cit.

445. Marshall, J. (1999) Restorative Justice: An Overview, London: Home Office Research Development and Statistics Directorate, p.5

446. Sherman and Strang (2007) Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute

447. Ministry of Justice (2010a), op cit.

448. Ibid.

449. Livingstone, N., Macdonald, G. and Carr, N. (2013) Restorative justice conferencing for reducing recidivism in young offenders (aged 7 to 21). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2.

450. Shapland et al. (2011) op.cit.; Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Shapland et al. (2011).

451. Shapland et al. (2011) op. cit.; see also similar previous results from New Zealand with youth conferencing. Sherman, L.W. and Strang, H. (2007), op cit. and Robinson, G. and Shapland, J. (2008) "Reducing Recidivism: A Task for Restorative Justice?" British Journal of Criminology, Issue 48, p. 337-358.

452. Shapland et al. (2011) op cit.

453. Rossner, M. (2011) "Emotion and Interaction Ritual: A Micro Analysis of Restorative Justice" British Journal of Criminology, Issue 51 p. 95-119.

454. Robinson and Shapland (2008) op cit.

455. Ministry of Justice (2010a), op cit.

456. Robinson and Shapland (2008) op cit.

457. Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C. and Buehler, J. (2004) op cit; Wilson, D.B., MacKenzie, D.L., Mitchell, F.N. (2003) Effects of Correctional Boot Camps on Offending, A Campbell Collaboration Systematic Review 2003:1; McGuire, J. (2013) 'What works' to Reduce Re-offending: 18 Years On in Craig, L.A., Dixon, L. and Gannon, T.A. (eds.) What Works in Offender Rehabilitation: An Evidence-Based Approach to Assessment and Treatment, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; Mitchell, O. Wilson, D.B., and MacKenzie, D.L. (2012) The Effectiveness of Incarceration-Based Drug Treatment on Criminal Behavior: A Systematic Review, Campbell Collaboration, 2012/18.

458. Ibid.

459. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

460. Maruna, S. (2001) op cit.

461. Farrall, S. (2002) op cit.

462. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

463. Maruna, S. (2001) op cit.

464. Bottoms and Shapland (2011), op. cit.

465. Jamieson, J., McIvor, G. and Murray, C. (1999) op cit.

466. Leibrich, J. (1993) op cit.

467. Wood et al. (2015) op. cit.

468. Healy, D. (2012) Advise, Assist and Befriend: Can Probation Supervision Support Desistance? Social Policy and Administration 46(4) 377-394.

469. Farrall, S., Bottoms, A. and Shapland, J. (2010) op cit.

470. McNeill, F. (2012) Experiencing Offender Supervision in Scotland COST Action IS1106 Offender Supervision in Europe, Working group 1: Experiencing Supervision, accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.offendersupervision.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Experiencing-Supervision-in-Scotland.pdf f

471. Caverley, A. and Farrall, S. (2011) op cit.

472. Bottoms and Shapland (2011) op. cit.

473. Weaver, B. (2012) The Relational Context of Desistance: Some Implications and Opportunities for Social Policy, Social Policy and Administration 46(4), 395-412.

474. Pettus-Davis, C., Howard, M.O., Roberts-Lewis, A., Scheyett, A.M. (2011) Naturally Occurring Social Support in Interventions for Former Prisoners with Substance Use Disorders: Conceptual Framework and Program Model, Journal of Criminal Justice, 39(6), 479-488.

475. McNeil, F. and Whyte, B. (2007) op cit.

476. Farrall, S. (2005) On the Existential Aspects of Desistance from Crime, Symbolic Interaction, 28(3).

477. Farrall, S. (2002) op cit.

478. Farrall, S., Hunter, B., Sharpe, G. and Calverley, A. (2014) Criminal Careers in Transition. Oxford: OUP.

479. Burnett, R. (1992) The Dynamics of Recidivism, Oxford, UK: Centre for Criminological Research, University of Oxford.

480. Caverley, A. and Farrall, S. (2011), op cit.

481. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

482. Bottoms and Shapland (2011), op. cit.

483. Sorbello, L., Ecclestone, L., Ward, T. and Jones, R. (2002) Treatment needs of female offenders: a review, Australian Psychologist, 37 (3), 198-205.

484. Healy, D. (2010) op cit.

485. Weaver, B., and McNeill, F. (2012) Managing cases or supporting change: some implications of desistance research for case management EuroVista: Probation and Community Justice, 2(2), 97-108.

486. Armstrong, S. and Weaver, B. (2013) op cit.

487. Ibid.

488. Weaver, B. (2012) op cit

489. McGuire, J. (2002) op cit.

490. McGuire, J. (2002) op cit.

491. Hough, Mike (2010) "Gold standard or Fool's Gold: The Pursuit of Certainty in Experimental Criminology" Criminology Criminal Justice 10 (1), pp. 11-22.

492. Ibid.

493. Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, S. J. (2006). The recent past and near future of risk and/or need assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52, 7-27.

494. Sampson, R.J. (2010) Gold Standard Myths: Observations on the Experimental Turn in Quantitative Criminology, Journal of Quantitative Criminology 26(4), 489-500.

495. Ibid.

496. McNeill, F. Farrall, S., Lightowler, C. and Maruna, S. (2012) Re-examining 'Evidence-Based Practice' in Community Corrections: Beyond 'a Confined View' of What Works, Justice Research and Policy 14(1): 35-60.

497. Armstrong, S. and McNeill, F. (2012) op cit.

498. Hedderman, C., Gunby, C. and Shelton, N. (2011) op cit.

499. McNeill, F. Farrall, S., Lightowler, C. and Maruna, S. (2012) op cit, p.7

500. Ibid, citing Ripple et al. (1964).

501. McNeil, F. and Weaver, B. (2010b) op cit.

502. Bisset (2015) op cit.

503. Ibid.

504. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) op cit.

505. See for example Farrell, J.L., Young, D.W. and Taxman, F.S. (2011) op cit; Latessa, E.J., Listwan, S.J., Koetzle, D. (2014) 'Making Sure It's Done Right' op cit, Wright K.A., Pratt, T.C., Lowenkamp, C.T. and Latessa, E.J. (2012) op cit.

506. Scottish Executive (2006) Reducing Reoffending: National Strategy for the Management of Offenders, Edinburgh. Accessed on 10/04/14 at http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/121591/0029340.pdf.

507. See for example Andrews, D.A., Guzzo, L., Raynor, P., Rowe, R.C., Rettinger, L.J. Brews, A. et al. (2012) op cit, Andrews, D.A. and Bonta, J. (2010) op cit; Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit.

508. The 2006 Strategy also listed: Sustained or improved physical and mental well-being; Improved literacy skills; and The ability to live independently if they choose. Further research is required into their relationship with reoffending:

(1) Little evidence covered in this review discussed physical and mental well-being and their impact upon reoffending. These factors are incorporated into the GLM, but their direct relationship with reoffending has not been extensively assessed. Willis, G.M. and Ward, T. (2013) op cit.

(2) Only limited evidence was found to support improved literacy skills (or programmes to increase literacy skills) as having a direct effect on reducing reoffending. Rucklidge, J.J., McLean, A.P. and Bateup P. (2013) op cit.

(3) None of the sources included in this review directly assessed the impacts of 'the ability to live independently if they choose' on reoffending. However, it is possible that this is covered in a number of the areas discussed above, such as finding accommodation and employment.

509. Ministry of Justice and National Offender Management Service (2013) Rapid evidence assessments on intermediate outcomes and reoffending. Accessed on 19/3/2015 at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/rapid-evidence-assessments-on-intermediate-outcomes-and-reoffending

510. Loucks, N., Malloch, M., McIvor, G. and Gelsthorpe, L. (2006) Evaluation of the 218 Centre, Scottish Government. Accessed online on 19/3/2015 at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2006/04/24161157/0

511. Part of an evaluation for the Scottish Government in 2014-15, in progress and hence unpublished at the time of writing.

512. Singleton, N., Meltzer, H.,Gatward,R., Coid,J and Deasy, D (1998) Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity among Prisoners in England and Wales. London. Department of Health.

513. Messina, N and Gruella, C. (2005) Childhood trauma and women's physical and mental health: a prison population. Presented at the 57th Annual Conference of the American Society of Criminology, Toronto, Canada.

514. Messina, N and Gruella, C. (2005), op cit.

515. King, S. (2013) op cit.

516. See for example Maruna, S. (2001) op cit.

517. Caverley, A. and Farrall, S. (2011), op cit.

518. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) op cit.

519. Weaver, B., and McNeill, F. (2012) op cit.

520. See for example Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) op cit.

521. See Bisset, C. (2015) op cit.

522. Nutley, S., Powell, A. and Davies, H. (2013) op cit.

523. See for example McAra, L. (2008) Crime, Criminology and Criminal Justice in Scotland, European Journal of Criminology, 5(4), 481-504.

524. Sampson, R.J. (2013) op cit.

525. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

526. Andrews, D.A. and Bonta, J. (2010) op cit.

527. Willis, G.M. and Ward, T. (2013) op cit.; Weaver, B., and McNeill, F. (2012) op cit.

528. See Cullen, F.T., Jonson, C.L. and Nagin, D.S. (2011) op cit; Bales, W.D. and Piquero, A.R. (2012) op cit; Mears, D.P., Cochran, J.S. and Bales, W.D, (2012) op cit.

529. Weaver, B. and Armstrong, S. (2011) op cit.

530. Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H. (1993) op cit.

531. McIvor, G., Trotter, C. and Sheehan, R. (2009) op cit.

532. Kendall, K. (2002) op cit.

533. McDermott, S. (2012), op cit.

534. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011) op cit.

535. Polaschek, D.L.L. (2012) op cit.

536. Harper, G. and Chitty, C. (2005) op cit.

537. Willis, G.M. and Ward, T. (2013) op cit.

538. Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J. and Wormith, J.S. (2011),op cit.

539. Polaschek, D.L.L. (2012) op cit.

540. For example, Healy, D. (2010) op cit

541. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Taxman (2008) and Trotter and Evans (2012)

542. Petersilia, J. and Turner, S. (1993) op cit.

543. Weaver, B. (2012) op cit

544. Pettus-Davis, C., Howard, M.O., Roberts-Lewis, A., Scheyett, A.M. (2011), op cit.

545. Ministry of Justice (2013a) Transforming Rehabilitation op cit, citing Shapland et al. (2011).

546. Levy, L. et al. (2014) Op cit.

547. Malloch, M.S. (2013), op cit


Contact

Email: Justice Analytical Unit