HRH Duke of Edinburgh, 10 June 1921 to 9 April 2021 Read more

Publication - Strategy/plan

UK dolphin and porpoise conservation strategy: technical report

The technical report for the proposed UK Dolphin and Porpoise Conservation Strategy, describing the process used to assess the vulnerability of the populations of the nine named species of cetaceans to current pressures in UK waters.

115 page PDF

939.4 kB

115 page PDF

939.4 kB

Contents
UK dolphin and porpoise conservation strategy: technical report
References

115 page PDF

939.4 kB

References

Anderwald, P., Brandecker, A., Coleman, M., Collins, C., Denniston, H., Haberlin, M. D., O’Donovan, M., Pinfield, R., Visser, F., and Walshe, L. (2013). Displacement responses of a mysticete, an odontocete, and a phocid seal to construction related vessel traffic. Endangered Species Research, 21(3), 231–240. DOI: 10.3354/esr00523

Andreasen, H., Ross, S.D., Siebert, U., Andersen, N.G., Ronnenberg, K., Gilles, A., 2017. Diet composition and food consumption rate of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the western Baltic Sea. Marine Mammal Science, 33, 1053–1079.

Antunes, R., Kvadsheim, P.H., Lam, F.P.A., Tyack, P.L., Thomas, L, P.J. & Miller, P.J.O. (2014) High thresholds for avoidance of sonar by free-ranging long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83, 165-180

ASCOBANS 2015. Underwater Unexploded Ordnance in the ASCOBANS Area. 22nd ASCOBANS Advisory Committee Meeting AC22/Doc.4.6

Bailey, H., Senior, B., Simmons, D., Rusin, J., Picken, G., and Thompson, P.M. (2010). Assessing underwater noise levels during pile-driving at an offshore windfarm and its potential effect on marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(6), 888-897. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.01.003.

Bearzi, R., Reeves, R.R., Remontao, E., Pierantonio, N. and Airoldi. S. 2010. Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus in the Mediterranean Sea. Mammalian Biology 76(4): 385-400

Bejder, L., Samuels, A., Whitehead, H., Gales, N., Mann, J., Connor, R., Heithaus, M., Watson-Capps, J., Flaherty, C., and Krutzen., M. (2006) Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long term disturbance. Conservation Biology, 20(6) pp. 1791 – 1798.

Berrow, S., Cosgrove, R., Leeney, R., O’Brien, J., Mcgrath, D., Dalgard, J. and Le Gall, Y. (2008). Effects of acoustic deterrents on the behaviour of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 10, 227-233.

Blanco, C., Raduan, A and Raga, J. A., 2006. Diet of Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Scentia Marina 70 (3), September 2006, 407-411, Barcelona, Spain.

Boyd, I. (ed.) 2008. The effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. A draft research strategy. Marine Board-ESF Position Paper 13, www.esf.org/marineboard.

Brandt, M, Diederichs, A., Betke, K. and Nehls, G. 2011. Responses of harbour porpoises to pile driving at the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the Danish North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 421: 205-216

Brophy, J., Murphy, S., and Rogan, E. (2009) The diet and feeding ecology of the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in the northeast Atlantic. Report to the International Whaling Commission, SC/61/SM14.

Brownlow, A., Baily, J., Dagleish, M., Deaville, R., Foster, G., Jensen, S-K., Krupp, E., Law, R., Penrose, R., Perkins, M., Read, F. & Jepson, P., 2011. Investigation into the long-finned pilot whale mass stranding event, Kyle of Durness, 22nd July 2011. Available at:

http://www.strandings.org/smass/publications/reports/Kyle_of_Durness_Mass_Stranding_Report.pdf

Canadas, A., Desportes, G. and Borchers, D. (2004) The estimation of the detection function and g(0) for short beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis), using double platform data collected during the NASS-95 Faroese survey. Journal of Cetacean Research Management, 6 (2) pp 191 - 198.

Capelli R., Das K., De Pellegrini R., Drava G., Lepoint G., Miglio C., Minganti V., Poggi R. (2008): Distribution of trace elements in organs of six species of cetaceans from the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean), and the relationship with stable carbon and nitrogen ratios. The Science of the Total Environment, 390, 569–578.

Carstensen, J, Henriksen, O D. and Teilmann, J. 2006. Impacts of offshore wind farm construction on harbour porpoises : acoustic monitoring of echo- location activity using porpoise detectors ( T-PODs ). Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 321: 295-308

Christiansen, F. and Lusseau, D. (2015). Linking Behavior to Vital Rates to Measure the Effects of Non‐Lethal Disturbance on Wildlife. Conservation Letters, 8, 424-431. DOI:10.1111/conl.12166

Couperus, A. S 1997. Interactions Between Dutch Midwater Trawl and Atlantic White-sided Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) Southwest of Ireland. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 209–218.

Deaville, R. and Jepson, P. D. 2011. Final report for the period 1st January 2005 – 31st December 2010. UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme (CSIP)

Deaville, R and Jepson, P. D (Eds) 2015. Annual Report 2015. Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme CSIP. Available from:

http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=14001_FINALUKCSIPAnnualReport2015.pdf

Deaville, R. and Jepson, P D. (Eds). 2011. Final Report for the period 1st January 2005 – 31st December 2010. Cetacean Stranding Investigation Programme CSIP, Defra contracts CR0346 and CR0364.

http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=FinalCSIPReport2005-2010_finalversion061211released[1].pdf

Deaville, R. (compiler) 2016. UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme annual report, 2015.

http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=14001_FINALUKCSIPAnnualReport2015.pdf

Deaville, R and Jepson, P. D. (Eds) In press. Final Report for the period 1st January 2011 – 31st December 2016. Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme CSIP.

Deng, Z.D., Southall, B.L., Carlson, T.J., Xu, J., Martinez, J.J., Weiland, M.A. and Ingraham, J.M., 2014. 200 kHz commercial sonar systems generate lower frequency side lobes audible to some marine mammals. PloS one, 9(4), p.e95315.

De Pierrepont, J., Dubois, B., Desormonts, S., Santos, M., and Robin, J. 2005. Stomach contents of English Channel cetaceans stranded on the coast of Normandy. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85(6), 1539-1546.

DeRuiter, S.L., and Lurton, X. (2011). Potential risks posed to marine mammals by sound radiation from echosounders [poster]. Society of Marine Mammalogy – 19th Biennial Conference. Tampa, FL: 27 November-2 December 2011

Fall, J. and Skern-Mauritzen, M. (2014). White-beaked dolphin distribution and association with prey in the Barents Sea. Marine Biology Research, 10(10), 957-971. DOI: 10.1080/17451000.2013.872796

Foote, A.D, Similä, T, Vķkingsson, G.A., Stevick, P.T. 2010. Movement, site fidelity and connectivity in a top marine predator, the killer whale. Evolutionary Ecology 24:803–814.

Foote AD, Morin PA, Durban JW, Willerslev E, Orlando L, Gilbert MTP. (2011). Out of the Pacific and back again: insights into the matrilineal history of Pacific killer whale ecotypes. PLoS One 6: e24980. Gaspari, S. (2004) Social and population structure of striped and Risso’s dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea. Doctoral thesis, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/3051/

Gaspari, S. (2004) Social and population structure of striped and Risso’s dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea. Doctoral thesis, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/3051/

Goold, J.C. (1996). Acoustic assessment of populations of common dolphin Delphinus delphis in conjunction with seismic surveying. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. 76, 811-820

Götz, T., Hastie, G. D., Hatch, L., Raustein, O., Southall, B. L., Tasker, M. L., and Thomsen, F. (2009). Overview of the impacts of anthropogenic underwater sound in the marine environment. OSPAR Biodiversity Series, 411

Götz T, Janik VM (2013) Acoustic deterrent devices to prevent pinniped depredation: efficiency, conservation concerns and possible solutions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 492:285-302. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10482

Graham, L., Hale, C., Maung- Douglass, E., Sempier, S., Skelton, T., Swann, L., and Wilson, M. (2017). Oil spill science: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill’s impact on bottlenose dolphins. MASGP-17-002. http://masgc.org/oilscience/oil-spill-science-dolphins.pdf

Hall, A.J., McConnell, B.J., Rowles, T. K., Aguilar, A., Borrell, A., Schwacke, Reijnders, P.J.H and Randall S. Wells. 2006. Individual-Based Model Framework to Assess Population Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in Bottlenose Dolphins. Environmental Health Perspective. 114(S-1): 60-64

Harris, C., Thomas, L., Falcone, E. A., Hildebrand, J., Houser, D., Kvadsheim P. H., Lam F-P. A., Miller, P. J. P., Moretti, D. J., Read, A. J., Slabbekoorn, H., Southall, B. L., Tyack, P. L., Wartzok, D. and Janik. V. M. (2017). Marine mammals and sonar: Dose‐response studies, the risk‐disturbance hypothesis and the role of exposure context. Journal of Applied Ecology, 55(1), 396-404. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12955

Heiler,J., Elwen, S. H., Kriesell, H. J and Gridley, T. (2016). Changes in bottlenose dolphin whistle parameters related to vessel presence, surface behaviour and group composition. Animal Behaviour, 117, 167-177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.04.014.

Heinänen, S. and Skov, H. 2015. The identification of discrete and persistent areas of relatively high harbour porpoise density in the wider UK marine area, JNCC Report No. 544, JNCC, Peterborough.

Hernández-Milián, G. 2014. Trophic role of small cetaceans and seals in Irish waters. Doctoral dissertation, University College Cork, Ireland. 405 pp

Hernandez‐Milian, G., Begoña Santos, M., Reid, D. and Rogan, E. 2016. Insights into the diet of Atlantic white‐sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the Northeast Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science, 32, 735-742. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12272

IAMMWG, Camphuysen, C.J. & Siemensma, M.L. 2015. A Conservation Literature Review for the Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). JNCC Report No. 566, Peterborough. 96pp.

ICES. 2012. Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME), 5–8 March 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2012/ACOM:27. 146 pp.

ICES. (2015). Bycatch of small cetaceans and other marine animals – Review of national reports under Council Regulation (EC) No. 812/2004 and other published document. ICES Advice 2015, Book 1, 5pp.

ICES. 2015a. Report of the Working Group on Bycatch of Protected Species (WGBYC), 2-6 February 2015, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2015\ACOM:26. 82 pp.

ICES 2015b. Report of the Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME). ICES Advisory Committee, ICES CM 2015/ACOM:25. 9–12 February 2015 London, UK. http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2015/WGMME/wgmme_2015.pdf

Jansen, O., Leopold, M., Meesters, E., and Smeenk, C. (2010). Are white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris food specialists? Their died in the southern North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90(8), 1501-1505. DOI: 10.1017/S0025315410001190

Jansen, O.E. (2013). Fishing for food: feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters. PhD thesis, Wageningen University.

Jelinski, D.E., Krueger, C.C. & Duffus, D.A., 2002. Geostatistical analyses of interactions between killer whales (Orcinus orca) and recreational whale-watching boats. Applied Geography, 22, 393-411

Jepson, P.D., Bennett, P.M., Allchin, C.R., Law, R.J., Kuiken, T., Baker, J.R., Rogan, E. and Kirkwood, J.K. 1999. Investigating potential associations between chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and infectious disease mortality in harbour porpoises from England and Wales. Sci Total Environ 243/244: 339-348.

Jepson, P.D. Deaville, R., Patterson, I.A.P., Pocknell, A.M., Ross, H.M., Baker, J.R., Howie, F.E., Reid, R.J., Colloff, A. and Cunningham, A.A. 2005. Acute and chronic gas bubble lesions in cetaceans stranded in the United Kingdom. Veterinary Pathology, 42: 291.

Jepson, P.D. 2006. Cetacean Strandings Investigation and Co-ordination in the UK 2000-2004. Final report to the Department for Food and Rural Affairs. pp 1-79. http://www.defra.gov.uk/wildlife-countryside/resprog/findings/index.htm

Jepson PD, Deaville R, Acevedo-Whitehouse K, Barnett J, Brownlow A, Brownell Jr. RL, et al., (2013) What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event? PLoS ONE 8(4): e60953.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060953.

Jepson, P.D., Deaville, R., Barber, J. L., Aguilar, A., Borrell, A., Murphy, S., Barry, J., Brownlow, A., Barnett, J., Berrow, S., Cunningham, A. A., Davison, N. J., ten Doeschate, M., Esteban, R., , Ferreira, M., Foote, A. D., Genov, T.,Giménez, J., Loveridge, J., Llavona, A., Martin, V., Maxwell, D. L., Papachlimitzou, A., Penrose, R., Perkins, M. W., Smith, B., de Stephanis, R., Tregenza, N., Verborgh, P., Fernandez, A & Law, R. J. 2016. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters. Sci. Rep. 6, 18573 (2016). doi:10.1038/srep18573.

Jepson PD, Arbelo M, Deaville R, Patterson IA, Castro P, Baker JR, Degollada E, Ross HM, Herraez P, Pocknell AM, Rodriguez F, Howie FE, Espinosa A, Reid RJ, Jaber JR, Martin V, Cunningham AA, Fernandez A, 2003. Gas-bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature 425:575–576, 2003.

Kim, G.B., Tanabe, S., Iwakiri, R., Tatsukawa, R., Amano, M., Miyazaki, N. and Tanaka, H. 1996. Accumulation of butyltin compounds in Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) from the Pacific coast of Japan: comparison with organochlorine residue pattern. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30(8): 2620-2625

Kingston P. 1999. Recovery of the Marine Environment Following the Braer Spill, Shetland. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings: March 1999, No. 1: 103-109.

Kvadsheim, P.H., DeRuiter, S., Sivle, L.D., Goldbogen, J., Roland-Hansen, R., Miller, P.J.O., Lam, F.A., Calambokidis, J., Friedlaender, A., Visser, F., Tyack, P.L., Kleivane, L., and Southall, B. (2017). Avoidance responses of minke whales to 1-4kHz naval sonar. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 121(1-2),60-68.

DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.05.037.

La Manna, G., Ronchetti, F., and Sarà. G. (2016). Predicting common bottlenose dolphin habitat preference to dynamically adapt management measures from a Marine Spatial Planning perspective. Ocean & Coastal Management, 130, 317-327. ISSN 0964-5691. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.07.004.

Larsen, F. and Eigaard, O.R. (2014). Acoustic alarms reduce bycatch of harbour porpoise in Danish North Sea gillnet fisheries. Fisheries Research, 153, 108-112. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2014.01.010

Larsen, F., Krog, C., and Eigaard, P.R. (2013). Determining optimal pinger spacing for harbour porpoise bycatch mitigation. Endangered Species Research, 20, 147-152. DOI: 10.3354/esr00494

Lassalle, G., Gascuel, D., Le Loc’h, F., Lobry, J., Pierce, G., Ridoux, V., Santos, M.N., Spitz, and Niquil, N. (2012). An ecosystem approach for the assessment of fisheries impacts on marine top predators: the Bay of Biscay case study. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 72(6), 1731–1743. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr174

Lavery TJ, Kemper CM, Sanderson K, Schultz CG, Coyle P, Mitchell JG, Seuront L. 2009. Heavy metal toxicity of kidney and bone tissues in South Australian adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). Mar Environ Res. 67: 1-7

Law, R.J., Barry, J., Barber, J.L., Bersuder, P., Deaville, R., Reid, R.J., Brownlow, A., Penrose, R., Barnett, J., Loveridge, J., Smith, B. and Jepson, P.D. 2012. Contaminants in cetaceans from UK waters: Status as assessed within the Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme from 1990 to 2008. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64: 1485–1494

Leeney, R. H., Berrow, S., McGrath, D., O’Brien, J., Cosgrove, R. & Godley, B. J., 2007. Effects of pingers on the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 87, 129-133.

Lohrengel, K., Evans, P.G.H., Lindenbaum, C.P., Morris, C.W., Stringell, T.B. (in prep) Bottlenose dolphin monitoring in Cardigan Bay 2014-2016, NRW Evidence Report No: 191, 163pp, Natural Resources Wales, Bangor.

MacLeod, C.D., Santos, M.B., Reid, R.J., Scott, B.E. and Pierce, G.J. 2007a. Linking sandeel consumption and the likelihood of starvation in harbour porpoises in the Scottish North Sea: could climate change mean more starving porpoises? Biology Letters, 3: 185-188

MacLeod, C.D., Santos, M.B., and Pierce, G.J. 2007b. Starvation and sandeel consumption in harbour porpoises in the Scottish North Sea. Biology Letters, 3, 535-536.

Macloed, K., Fairbairns, R., Gill, A., Fairbairns, B., Gordon, J., Blair-Myers, C., and Parsons, E.C.M. (2004). Seasonal distribution of minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata in relation to physiography and prey off the Isle of Mull, Scotland. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 277, 263-274.

Malinka, C. E., Gillespie, D. M., Macaulay, J. D.J., Joy, R. and Sparling, C. E. (2018). First in-situ passive acoustic monitoring for marine mammals during operation of a tidal turbine in Ramsey Sound, Wales. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 590, 247-266. DOI: 10.3354/MEPS12467

Matkin, C.O., Saulitis, E. L., Ellis, G. M., Olesiuk, P. & Rice, S. D., 2008. Ongoing population-level impacts on killer whales Orcinus orca following the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska. MEPS, 356: 269–281.

Marmo, B., Roberts, I., Buckingham, M.P., King, S. & Booth, C. (2013) Modelling of noise effects of operational offshore wind turbines including noise transmission through various foundation types. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science, 4, 5 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0044/00441685.pdf

McGarry, T., Boisseau, O., Stephenson, S., Compton, R. (2017). Understanding the Effectiveness of Acoustic Deterrent Devices (ADDs) on Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a Low Frequency Cetacean. ORJIP Project 4, Phase 2. RPS Report EOR0692. Prepared on behalf of The Carbon Trust. November 2017.

McHugh, B., Law, R.J., Aillchin, C.R., Rogan, E., Murphy, S., Foley, M.B., Glynn, D., and McGovern, E. 2007. Bioaccumulation and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) from British and Irish waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54(11): 1724-1731.

Meissner, A. M., Christiansen, F., Martinez, E., Pawley, M. D. M., Orams, M. B., & Stockin, K. A. (2015). Behavioural Effects of Tourism on Oceanic Common Dolphins, Delphinus sp., in New Zealand: The Effects of Markov Analysis Variations and Current Tour Operator Compliance with Regulations. PLoS ONE, 10(1), e0116962. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116962

Millian-Hernandez, G et al., 2015. Insights into the trophic ecology of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Irish waters'. Aquatic Mammals 41(2): 226-239

Morizur, Y., Berrow, S.D., Tregenza, N.J.C., Couperus, A.S. and Pouvreau, S. (1999). Incidental catches of marine-mammals in pelagic trawl fisheries of the northeast Atlantic. Fisheries Research, 41, 297-307.

Murphy S, Barber JL, Learmonth JA, Read FL, Deaville R, Perkins MW, Brownlow, A., Davison, N, Penrose, R, Pierce, GJ, Law, RJ and Jepson, PD. 2015. Reproductive Failure in UK Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena: Legacy of Pollutant Exposure? PLoS ONE 10(7): e0131085. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131085

Nabe-Nielsen, J., van Beest, F. M., Grimm, V., Sibly, R. M. Teilmann, J. and Thompson, P. M. (2018). Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations. Conservation Letters, 11(5),[12563]. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12563

Neumann, D. R and Orams, M. B., 2006. Impacts of Ecotourism on Short-Beaked Common Dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in Mercury Bay, New Zealand. Aquatic Mammals 2006, 32(1), 1-9, DOI 10.1578/AM.32.1.2006.

New, L.F., Hall, A.J., Harcourt, R., Kaufman, G., Parsons, E.C.M., Pearson, H.C., Cosentino, A.M. and Schick, R.S. 2015. The modelling and assessment of whale-watching impacts. Ocean & Coastal Management 115: 10-16

NORTHRIDGE S.P., A. CORAM, & J. GORDON 2013b. Investigations on seal depredation at Scottish fish farms. Scottish Government, Edinburgh.

Northridge, S., Kingston, A., Mackay, A. and Lonergan, M. 2011. Bycatch of Vulnerable Species: Understanding the Process and Mitigating the Impacts. Final Report to Defra Marine and Fisheries Science Unit, Project no MF1003. University of St Andrews. Defra, London, 99pp.

Northridge, C.P., Kingston, A.R., and Thomas, L.J. (2011). Report to the European Commission on the Implementation of Regulation 812/2004 by the United Kingdom for the Calendar Year 2010. DEFRA, 21p.

Northridge, S., Kingston, A., and Thomas, l. In press. Annual report on the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 812/2004 during 2016. Report to the European Commission. Available from http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&ProjectID=18535

Northridge , S. Kingston, A. and Thomas. , 2016 Annual report on the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No812/2004 during 2015. Sea Mammal Research Unit, University St Andrews. Report prepared to the European Commission

Pierce, G.J., Santos, M.B., Reid, R.J., Patterson, I.A.P. and Ross, H.M. (2004). Diet of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Scottish (UK) waters with notes on strandings of this species in Scotland 1992-2002. Journal of the marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 84, 1241-1244.

Pirotta, E., Laesser, B. E., Hardaker, A., Riddoch, N., Marcoux, M., and Lusseau, D. (2013). Dredging displaces bottlenose dolphins from an urbanised foraging patch. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 74(1), 396–402.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.020

Rasmussen, M.H., Atem, A.C.G., and Miller, L.A. (2016). Behavioral Responses by Icelandic White-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) to Playback Sounds. Aquatic Mammals, 42, 317-329. DOI: 10.1578/AM.42.3.2016.317.

Read, A.J., Drinker, P., and Northridge, S. (2006). Bycatch of Marine Mammal in U.S and Global Fisheries. Conservation Biology, 20, 163-169. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00338.x

Rendell LE, Gordon JCD (1999) Vocal response of long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) to military sonar in the Ligurian Sea. Marine Mammal Science 15:198 – 204

Richardson J. 1995. Documented disturbance reactions. In: Richardson W.J., C.R. Greene JR, C.I. Malme & D.H. Thomson (eds) Marine mammals and noise: 241-324. Academic Press, San Diego.

Ridoux, V., Lafontaine, L., Bustamante, P., Caurant, F., Dabin, W., Delcroix, C., Hassani, S., Meynier, L., Silva, V.P., Simonin, S., Robert, M., Spitz, J., and Canneyt, O.V. (2004). The impact of the “ Erika ” oil spill on pelagic and coastal marine mammals: Combining demographic, ecological, trace metals and biomarker evidences. Aquatic Living Resources, EDP Sciences, 17(3), 379-387

Robinson K.P., Tetley M.J. and Mitchelson-Jacob E.G. (2009). The distribution and habitat preference of coastally occurring minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in north-east Scotland. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 13(1), 39-48.

Roesijadi G. 1992. Metallothioneins in metal regulation and toxicity in aquatic animals. Aquat Toxicol 22: 81-114.

Ross, A. (2003). Cetacean bycatch in pelagic trawl fisheries in the Celtic Sea, Biscay, Channel area - a case for emergency action (AC10/Doc.19 O). Bonn, Germany, (unpublished); 10.

Ross, P.S., Ellis, G.M., Ikonomou, M.G., Barrett-Lennard, L.G., and Addison, R.F. 2000. High PCB Concentrations in Free-Ranging Pacific Killer Whales, Orcinus orca: Effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(6): 504-515.

Rotander, A., van Bavel, B., Polder, A., Rigét, F., Audunsson, G. A., Gabrielsen, G. W., Vikingsson, G., Bloh D., and Dam, M. (2012). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986-2009. Environment International, 40(1), 102–109. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.001

Santos, M.B. and Pierce, G.J. 2003. The diet of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the northeast Atlantic. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 41: 355–390.

Santos M.B., G.J. Pierce, J.A. Learmonth, R.J. Reid, H.M. Ross, A.P. Patterson, G.D. Reid & D. Beare 2004. Variability in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Scottish waters 1992-2003. Marine Mammal Science 20: 1-27.

Santos, M.B., Pierce, G.J., Lopez, A., Martinez, J.A., Fernandez, M.T. Ieno, E., Mente, E., Poteiro, P., Carrera, P. and Meixide, M. (2004). Variability in the diet of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in Galician waters 1991-2003 and relationship with prey abundance. ICES CM 2004/THEME SESSION Q:09 (Recent Advances in the Oceanography and Biology of the Iberian Waters and Adjacent Shelf Seas: Results from Integrated Multidisciplinary Projects)

Scheidat, M., Tougaard, J., Brasseur, S., Carstensen, J., van Polanen Petel, T., Teilmann, J. and Reijnders, P. 2011. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and wind farms: a case study in the Dutch North Sea. Environmental Research Letters. 6(2): 1-10.

Sivle, L.D., Kvadsheim, P.H., Curé, C., Isojunno, S., Wensveen, P.J., Lam, F-P.A., Visser, F., Kleivane, L., Tyack, P., Harris, C.M. and Miller, P.J.O. (2015). Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar. Aquatic Mammals, 41(4), 469-502. DOI: 10.1578/AM.41.4.2015.469

Skov H., S. Heinänen D.A. Hansenf. Ladage B. Schlenz, R. Zydelis & F. Thomsen 2014. Habitat Modelling. In: BSH & BMU (eds) Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm alpha ventus - Challenges, Results and Perspectives: 102-112 . Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Springer Spektrum.

Spitz, J., Mourocq, E., Leauté, J-P., Quéro, J-C., and Ridoux, V. (2010). Prey selection by the common dolphin: Fulfilling high energy requirements with high quality food. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 390, 73-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2010.05.010.

Stockin, K. A., Lusseau, D. Binedell., Wiseman, N., Orams, M. B., 2008. Tourism affects the behavioural budget of the common dolphin Delphinus sp. in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. Vol. 355: 287–295, 2008 doi: 10.3354/meps07386.

Stone, C. and Tasker M. (2006). The effects of seismic airguns on cetaceans in UK waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 8(3), 255-263

Stone, C.J. 2015. Marine mammal observations during seismic surveys from 1995-2010. JNCC Report No: 463a. JNCC, Peterborough, 64pp. Available at: http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/JNCC%20Report%20463a_Final.pdf

Storelli, M. M., Zizzo, N. & Marcotrigiano, G. O., 1999. Heavy metals and methylmercury in tissues of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) stranded in Italy (South Adriatic Sea). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology 63(6), 703-710.

Teilmann, J. and Carstensen, J. 2012. Negative long term effects on harbour porpoises from a large scale offshore wind farm in the Baltic-evidence of slow recovery. Environ.Res.Lett. 7(4): 1-10

Thompson PM, Brookes KL, Graham IM, Barton TR, Needham K, Bradbury G, Merchant ND. 2013 Short-term disturbance by a commercial two-dimensional seismic survey does not lead to long-term displacement of harbour porpoises. Proc R Soc B 280: 20132001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2001

Thompson, P., Ingram, S., Lonergan, M., Northridge, S., Hall, A. and Wilson, B. 2007. Climate change causing starvation in harbour porpoises? Biology Letters 3, 533-534.

Tillin, H.M., Houghton, A. J., Saunders, J. E., Drabble, R., and Hull, S. C. 2011. Direct and indirect impacts of marine aggregate dredging. Marine Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund (MALSF). Science Monograph Series: No 1. 41 pp

Todd V.L.G., W.D. Pearse, N.C. Tregenza, P.A. Lepper & I.B. Todd 2009. Diel echolocation activity of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) around North Sea offshore gas installations. ICES J. Mar. Sc. 66, DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp035.

Todd, V.L.G., Todd, I.B., Gardiner, J.C., Morrin, E.C.N., MacPherson, N.A., Dimarzio, N.A. & Thomsen, F., 2015. A review of impacts of marine dredging activities on marine mammals. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 72: 328-334

Van De Vijver, K.I., Hoff, P.T., Das, K., Van Dongen, W., Esmans, E.L., Jaunaiux, T., Bouquegneau, J., Blust, R. and De Coen, W. 2003. Perfluorated chemicals infiltrate ocean waters: link between exposure levels and stable isotope ratios in marine mammals. Environmental .Science andTechnology, 37: 5545-5550.

Von Benda-Beckmann, A.M., Aarts, G., Sertlet, H.O., Lucke, K., Verboom, W.C., Kastelien, R.A., Ketten, D.R., van Bemmelen, R., Lam., F-P.A., Kirkwood, R.J., and Ainslie, M.A. 2015. Assessing the Impact of Underwater Clearance of Unexploded Ordnance on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Southern North Sea. Aquatic Mammals, 41(4), 503-523, DOI: 10.1578/AM.41.4.2015.503

Wensveen, P.J., von Benda-Beckmann, A.M., Ainslie, M.A., Lam, F.P.A., Kvadsheim, P.H., Tyack, P.L. & Miller, P.J.O. (2015) How effectively do horizontal and vertical response strategies of long-finned pilot whales reduce sound exposure from naval sonar? Marine Environmental Research, 106; 68-81

Wolkers, H., Corkeron, P.J., Van Paris, S.M., Simils, T. and Van Basel B. 2007. Accumulation and transfer of contaminants in Killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Norway: indications for contaminant metabolism. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 26:1582-1590.

Young, D. and Cockcroft, V. (1994). Diet of the common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) off the south-east coast of southern Africa: Opportunism or specialization? Journal of Zoology, 234, 41-53.


Contact

Email: marine_conservation@gov.scot