Section 3 - Existing management
15. This section identifies the existing legislation, measures and monitoring of the pressures and activities which are identified in the species vulnerability assessments. It provides an assessment of effectiveness by species by using the following scoring system:
- 1 = current measures considered adequate/no measures required;
- 2 = further research required;
- 3 = additional/new wider-measures to be considered for medium vulnerability;
- 4 = additional/new wider-measures to be considered for high vulnerability.
16. In some circumstances there are combined scores which can be explained as follows:
- 1 / 2 = both descriptions for 1 and 2 apply. This combination arises where the existing evidence is contrary to the vulnerability score or where there is no evidence of impact but there is known, although limited, overlap of species and pressure. Both may elicit further research.
- 2 / 3 or 2 / 4 = further research is required to determine if measures are necessary.
- L= Low; and
- L* = Low because of contradictory evidence.
17. Table 4 summarises the management measures and monitoring programmes that are already in place. Annex 2 describes in more detail the current national and international legal framework for dolphins, porpoises and minke whale conservation.
18. Recommendations are based on the assessment of the species vulnerability and confidence (Table 4).
|Pressure||Activity||Key Legislation & Existing Measures||Harbour porpoise||Common dolphin||Atlantic white-sided dolphin||White-beaked dolphin||Bottlenose dolphin||Coastal bottlenose dolphin||Risso’s dolphin||Long-finned pilot whale||Killer whale||Minke whale|
|Removal of non-target species (i.e. bycatch or entanglement)||Creeling and potting||Deck cards distributed through Scottish Creel Fishing Federation (Best practice for setting and in the event of an entanglement)||1/2||1/2||1||1/2||1||1/2||1/2||1||2/3||2/3|
|Drift net fishing||(EU) 2019/1241 Technical Conservation Measures Regulation
Monitoring on ≥15m UK
Article 12 EU Habitats Directive and transposed UK legislation
|Trawling and purse seining||(EU) 2019/1241 Technical Conservation Measures Regulation Monitoring on ≥15m vessels west of UK
Article 12 EU Habitats Directive and transposed UK legislation
UK Marine Strategy
|Set (fixed) nets||(EU) 2019/1241 Technical Conservation Measures Regulation Pingers ≥12m gillnetters South West & North Sea
Monitoring on ≥15m vessels west of Scotland and enforcement of pinger use through Royal Navy and Fisheries Protection inspections.
Article 12 EU Habitats Directive
|Acoustic disturbance||Cumulative impacts of acoustic disturbance||Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment
Development of assessment tools (DEPONS/iPCOD)
Licensing may include data submission to Marine Noise Registry for impulsive noise
|Seismic or geophysical surveys||EPS licensing; Environmental Impact Assessments and Habitat Regulations Assessment
JNCC Guidelines for minimising the risk of injury and disturbance to marine mammals from seismic surveys
|Underwater explosions||EPS licensing; Environmental Impact Assessments and Habitat Regulations Assessment; JNCC guidance on minimising risk to marine mammals from explosion||2||1||1||2||1||1||1||2||1||2|
|Pile driving||EPS licensing; Environmental Impact Assessments and Habitat Regulations Assessment,
JNCC “Statutory nature conservation agency protocol for minimising the risk of injury to marine mammals from piling noise”
|Operational offshore wind farms||Marine Licence, Environmental Impact Assessments and Habitat Regulations Assessment||2||1||1||2||1||2||2||1||1||1/2|
|Operational oil and gas platforms||Environmental Impact Assessments and Habitat Regulations Assessment||1/2||1||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2|
|Acoustic deterrent devices (ADDs)||May require an EPS licence if there is a risk of significant disturbance or injury||2||2||1||2||1||2||2/3||1||2||2|
|Fish finders and depth sounders||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2||1/2|
|Pingers||(EU) 2019/1241 Technical Conservation Measures Regulation||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Mining and dredging activities||Marine Licence and Crown Estate lease.||1/2||1/2||1||1/2||1||1/2||1/2||1||1/2||1/2|
|Vessel noise||If part of a development may be subject to:
Marine Licence, Environmental Impact Assessments and Habitat Regulations Assessment
|Military activity and sonar||Marine Environment and Sustainability Assessment Tool (MESAT).
|Physical disturbance||Scientific studies (e.g. tagging, photo ID, biopsy)||Certain activities require licensing||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Recreational and Wildlife Tourism||Voluntary wildlife watching codes in some regions; Scottish Marine Wildlife Watching Code; Ceredigion County Council boat patrols to monitor activity with regard to code of conduct in Cardigan Bay||1||2||1||1||1||3||1||1||2/3||2|
|Change to habitat||Barrier to movement||EPS licensing, Environmental Impact and Habitat Regulations Assessment||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Change / removal of supporting habitat||EPS licensing, Environmental Impact and Habitat Regulations Assessment||1/2||1/2||1||1/2||1||1/2||1||1||1||1/2|
|Reduction in availability of prey||Fisheries quotas manage EU stocks of commercial species
UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme (UKCSIP)
Scottish Marine Animal Strandings Scheme (SMASS)
|Localised temperature change||The process leading to the change (e.g. cooling water discharge) would require licence from relevant authority||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Physical injury||Vessel strikes||Recorded through UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme and Scottish Marine Animal Strandings Scheme.
Internal Whaling Commission (IWC) ship strike register.
|Collision with renewable energy devices||Environmental Impact and Habitat Regulations Assessments [EPS licences may be required]||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|High energy, acoustic events, for example removal of unexploded ordnance||JNCC Protocol for Minimising the risk of injury to marine mammals from explosives use
Statutory Nature Conservation Bodies (SNCB) protocol for minimising the risk of injury to marine mammals from piling noise 
Environmental Impact and Habitat Regulations Assessments [EPS licences may be required]
|Marine pollution||Oil pollution||Various industry standards and measures to prevent & respond to spills||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Chemical pollution (e.g. PCBs, butyltins, PAHs, Radionuclides)||UK and EU legislation that limits/prohibits disposal of chemicals (Annex 1)
|Plastic pollution (ingestion)||OSPAR Regional Action Plan for prevention and management of marine litter in the North-East Atlantic||1||1||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|Entanglements in marine litter & ghost nets||OSPAR Regional Action Plan for prevention and management of marine litter in the North-East Atlantic||1||1||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2|
|Eutrophication, sewage pathogens||The EU Water Framework Directive - integrated river basin management for Europe (WFD)||1||1||2||2||2||2||2||2||2||2|