Trauma-informed practice: toolkit

This trauma-informed practice toolkit has been developed as part of the National Trauma Training Programme, to support all sectors of the workforce, in planning and developing trauma informed services.


NHS Education For Scotland (NES). (2017). Transforming Psychological Trauma: A Knowledge and Skills Framework for the Scottish Workforce. NHS Education for Scotland.

Alive and Well Communities Educational Leader's Workgroup. (n.d.). The Missouri Model for Trauma-Informed Schools. Alive and Well Communities.

Azeem, M., Aujla, A., Rammerth, M., Binsfeld, G., & Jones, R. (2011). Effectiveness of six core strategies based on trauma-informed care in reducing seclusions and restraints at a child and adolescent psychiatric hospital. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 24(1), 11-15.

Bailey, S., & West, M. (2020). Covid-19: why compassionate learship matters in a crisis. Retrieved from

Bloom, S. (2013). Creating Sancturay: Toward the Evolution of Sane Societies. New York: Routledge.

Brooks, S., Rubin, G., & Greenberg, N. (2019). Traumatic stress within disasterexposed occupations: overview of the literature and suggestions for the management of traumatic stress in the workplace. British medical bulletin.

Chandler, G. (2008). From traditional inpatient to trauma-informed treatment: transferring control from staff to patient. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14(5), 363-71.

Chung, S., Domino, M., & Morrissey, J. (2009). Changes in Treatment Content of Services During Trauma-Informed Integrated Services for Women with Co-occurring Disorders. Community Mental Health Journal, 45(5), 375-384.

Cocozza, J., Jackson, E., Hennigan, K., Morrissey, J., Reed, B., Fallot, R., & Banks, S. (2005). Outcomes for women with co-occurring disorders and trauma: program-level effects. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 28(2), 109-119.

Cole, C., Waterman, S., Stott, J., Saunders, R., Buckman, J., Pilling, S., & Wheatley, J. (2020). Adapting IAPT services to support frontline NHS staff during the Covid-19 pandemic: the Homerton Covid Psychological Support (HCPS) pathway. the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 13.

Cole, S., Eisner, A., Gregory, M., & Ristuccia, J. (2013). Helping Traumatised Children Learn 2: Creating and Advocating for Trauma-sensitive Schools. Boston, MA: Massacheusetts Advocates for Children.

Concetta, P. (2018). Survivors voices, personal communication, in Sweeney, A & Taggart, D. (2018). (Mis)understanding trauma-informed approaches in mental heatlh. Journal of Mental Health, 27(5), 383-87.

Cooke, A. (2016). Changing society's whole approach to psychosis. Journal of Mental Health, 25, 287-290. doi:10.3109/09638237.2016.1167861

Dillon, J., Johnstone, L., & Longden, E. (2012). Trauma, dissociation, attachment & neuroscience: a new paradigm for understanding severe mental distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 12, 145-155.

Domino, M E, Morrissey, J P, Chung, S, Huntington, N, Larson, M J & Russell, L A, (2005). Service use and costs for women with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders and a history of violence', Psychiatric Services, 2005, 56, pp 1223–32

Domino, M., Morrissey, J., Chung, S., & Nadlicki, T. (2006). Changes in service use during a trauma-informed intervention for women. Women and Health, 14(5), 105-22.

Elliot, D., Bjelajac, P., Fallot, R., Markoff, L., & Reed, B. (2005). Trauma-informed or trauma-denied: Principles and implementation of trauma-informed services for women. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(4), 461-477.

Esaki, N., & Larkin, H. (2013). Prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among child service providers. Families in Society, 94(1), 31-37.

Fallot, R., & Harris, M. (2006). Trauma-Informed Services: a Self-Assessment and Planning Protocol. Washington, D.C: Community Connections.

Fallot, R., & Harris, M. (2009). Creating Cultures of Trauma-Informed Care (CCTIC): a Self-Assessment and Planning Protocol. Washington, D.C: Community Connections.

Farragher, B., & Yanosy, S. (2005). Creating a trauma-sensitive culture in residential treatment. Therapeutic Communities, 26(1), 93-109.

Felitti, V., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D., Spitz, A., Edwards, V., & Marks, J. (1998). Relationships of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 14, 245-258.

Filson, B., & Mead, S. (2016). International peer support: an alternative approach. In J. Russo, & A. Sweeney, Searching for a Rose Garden: Fostering real Alternatives to Psychiatry (pp. 109-17). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.

Flowers, S., Bradfield, C., Potter, R., Waites, B., Neal, A., Simmons, J., & Stott, N. (2018). Taking care, giving care rounds: an intervention to support compassionate care amongst healthcare staff. Clinical Psychology Forum.

Gatz, M., Brown, V., Hennigan, K., Rechberger, E., O'Keefe, M., Rose, T., & Bjelajac, P. (2007). Effectiveness of an integrated, trauma-informed approach to treating women with co-occurring disorders and histories of trauma: the Los Angeles site experience. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(7), 86378.

Greenwald, R., Siradas, L., Schmitt, T., Reslan, S., Fierle, J., & Sande, B. (2012). Implementing trauma-informed treatment for youth in a residential facility: first-year outcomes. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 29(2), 141-53.

Guarino, K., Soares, P., Konnath, K., Clervil, R., & Bassuk, E. (2009). Trauma-informed Organizational Toolkit. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, and the W.K Kellogg Foundation. Retrieved from

Harper, K., Stalker, C., & Gadbois, S. (2008). Adults traumatized by child abuse: What survivors need from community-based mental health professionals. Journal of Mental Health, 17, 361-374.

Harris, M., & Fallot, R. (2001). Using Trauma Theory to design Service Systems. New Directions for Mental Health Services. Sab Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hatch, S., & Dohrenwend, B. (2007). Distribution of traumatic and other stressful life events by race/ethnicity, gender, SES and age: a review of the research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40(3-4), 313-32.

Havig, K. (2008). The health care experiences of adult survivors of child sexual abuse: a systematic review of evidence on sensitive practice. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 9(1), 19-33.

Henry, Black-Pond, Richardson, & Vandervort. (2010). CTAC Trauma screening Checklist: Identifying Children at Risk. Michigan: Children's Trauma Assessment Centre (CTAC) Western Michigan University.

Huang, L., Pau, T., Flatow, R., DeVoursney, D., Afayee, S., & Nugent, A. (2012). Trauma-informed care Models compendium.

Hummer, V., & Dollard, N. (2010). Creating Trauma-Informed Care Environments: An Organizational Self-Assessment. Tampa, FL: The Department of Child and Family Studies within the College of Behavioral and Community Sciences, University of South Florida.

Karatzias, K., Ferguson, S., Gullone, A., & Cosgrove, K. (2016). Group psychotherapy for female adult survivors of interpersonal psychological trauma: a preliminary study in Scotland. Journal of Mental Health, 25, 512- 519. doi:10.3109/09638237.2016.1139062

Khalifeh, H., Moran, P., Borschmann, R., Dean, K., Hart, C., Hogg, J., & Howard, L. (2015). Domestic and sexual violence against patients with severe mental illness. Psychological Medicine, 45(4), 875-886. doi:10.1017/S0033291714001962

Kucharska, J. (2018). Cumulative trauma, gender discrimination and mental health in women: mediating role of self-esteem. Journal of Mental Health, 27(5), 416-423. doi:10.1080/09638237.2017.1417548

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., . . . Tan, H. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease. JAMA, 3(3).

Marryat, L., & Frank, J. (2019). Factors associated with adverse childhood experiences in Scottish children: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Paediatrics Open, 3(1). doi:10.1136/bmjpo-2018-000340

Maunder, R., Lancee, W., Balderson, K., Bennett, J., Borgundvaag, B., Evans, S., . . . Hall, L. (2006). Long-term psychological and occupational effects of providing hospital healthcare during SARS outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(12).

Mauritz, M., Goossens, P., Draijer, N., & van Achterberg, T. (2015). Prevalence of interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in severe mental illness. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4(1).

Menschner, C., & Maul, A. (2016a). Key ingredients for successful trauma-informed care implementation. Trenton: Center for Health Care Strategies, Incorporated.

Menschner, C., & Maul, A. (2016b). Strategies for encouraging staff wellness in trauma-informed organizations. Retrieved from ATC-StaffWellness121316_FINAL.pdf

Messina, N., Calhoun, S., & Braithwaite, J. (2014). 2014. Trauma-informed treatment decreases posttraumatic stress disorder among women offenders, 15(1), 6-23.

Miller, N., & Najavits, L. (2012). Creating trauma-informed correctional care: a balance of goals and environment. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 3. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.17246

Morrison, A., Frame, L., & Larkin, W. (2003). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: a review and integration. British Journal of clinical Psychology, 42, 331-353. doi:10.1348/014466503322528892

Morrissey, J., Jackson, E., Ellis, A., Amaro, H., Brown, V., & Najavits, L. (2005). Twelve-month outcomes of trauma-informed interventions for women with co-occurring disorders. Psychiatric Services, 56(10), 1213-22.

Mueser, K., & Rosenberg, S. (2003). Treating the trauma of first episode psychosis: A PTSD perspective. Journal of Mental Health, 12(2), 103-108. doi:10.1080/096382300210000583371

Najavits, L. (2007). Seeking Safety: An evidence-based model for substance abuse and trauma/PTSD. In K. Witkiewitz, & G. Marlatt, Practical Resources for the mental health professional. Therapist's guide to evidence-based relapse prevention. Elsevier Academic Press.

National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN). (2011). Secondary traumatic stress: A fact sheet for child-serving professionals. Los Angeles, CA and Durham, NC. Retrieved from

NHS Education for Scotland (NES). (2016). National Trauma Training Programme. Retrieved from

Paterson, B. (2014). Mainstreaming Trauma, presented at the Psychological Trauma-Informed Care Conference, Stirling University.

Penney, D., & Cave, C. (2013). Becoming a Trauma-informed Peer-Run Organization: A Self-Reflection Tool. Adapted for Mental Health Empowerment Project, Inc. from Creating Accessible, Culturally Relevant, Domestic Violence- and Trauma-Informed Agencies. ASRI and National Centre on Domestic Violence, Trauma and Mental Health.

Purtle J. (2018) Systematic Review of Evaluations of Trauma-Informed Organizational Interventions that include Staff Trainings. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2020 Oct;21(4):725-740. doi: 10.1177/1524838018791304.

Read, J. (2010). Can poverty drive you mad? 'Schizophrenia', socio-economic status and the case for primary prevention. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 39(2), 7-19.

Salter, M., & Richters, J. (2012). Organised abuse: a neglected category of sexual abuse with significant lifetime mental healthcare sequelae. Journal of Mental Heatlh, 21, 499-508. doi:10.3109/09638237.2012.682264

Schachter, C., Stalker, C., Teram, E., Lasiuk, G., & Danilkewich, A. (2008). Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Healthcare Practitioner: Lessons from Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada.

Shanafelt, T., Ripp, J., & Trockel, M. (2020). Understanding and Addressing Sources of Anxiety Among Health Care Professionals During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA, 323.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2014). SAMHSA's Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

The Scottish Government. (2017). Justice in Scotland: Vision and Priorities. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government. Retrieved from

The Scottish Government (2019). The Scottish Health Survey. A National Statistics Publication for Scotland.

Trauma-informed Oregon. (2020). COVID-19: considerations for a Trauma-informed Response for Work Settings (Organizations/Schools/Clinics). Retrieved from

Treisman, K. (2018). Becoming a more culturally, adversity, and trauma-informed, infused, and responsive organisation. Winston Chirchill Memorial Trust. Retrieved from 202018%20Final.pdf

Weissbecker, I., & Clark, C. (2007). The impact of violence and abuse on women's physical health: can trauma-informed treatment make a difference? Journal of Community Psychology, 35(7), 909-23.

Wong, W., Wong, S., Lee, A., & Goggins, W. (2007). How to provide an effective primary health care in fighting against severe acute respiratory syndrome: the experiences of two cities. American Journal of Infection Control, 35(1), 50-55.

Xie, Z., Jiuping, X., & Zhibin, W. (2017). Mental health problems among survivors in hard-hit areas of the 5.12 Wenchuan and 4.20 Lushan earthquakes. Journal of Mental Health, 26(1), 43-49. doi:10.1080/09638237.2016.1276525



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