Publication - Independent report

Potential for deep geothermal energy in Scotland: study volume 1

Published: 13 Nov 2013

This independent study investigates the potential for deep geothermal energy in Scotland and the steps necessary for commercialisation.

Potential for deep geothermal energy in Scotland: study volume 1
Appendix B: Review of Planning Documents

Appendix B: Review of Planning Documents

B.1 Review of Existing Planning Legislation (Acts and Regulations)

The following section reviews a range of existing planning legislation in relation to geothermal energy.

B.1.1 The Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997

The Act is the principal piece of planning legislation governing the use and development of land in Scotland. Certain parts of the act are amended by the Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006.

The Act outlines planning procedures and does not make specific reference to energy or geothermal energy.

B.1.2 Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006

The Act is the central part of a fundamental and comprehensive reform of the planning system in Scotland, which aims to establish a more inclusive and efficient system to improve community involvement, support the economy, and help it to grow in a sustainable way. The Act amends certain parts of The Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997, including those related to development planning and development management. These changes came into force on 03 August 2009.

Geothermal energy is not referenced within the Act. Energy is referenced within the Act in the following parts:

Part 2 - Development Plans:

7. 'Form and content of strategic development plan' (4) (d)

This section of the Act refers to the matters, which might be expected to affect the development of the strategic development plan area, including supply of water and energy.

Part 2 - Development Plans:

15. 'Form and content of local development plans' (5) (d)

This section of the Act refers to the matters, which might be expected to affect the development of the local development plan area, including supply of water and energy.

In summary, the Act does not make reference to geothermal energy.

B.1.3 Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009

An Act to set a target for the year 2050, an interim target for the year 2020, and to provide for annual targets, for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; to provide about the giving of advice to the Scottish Ministers relating to climate change; to make further provision about mitigation of and adaptation to climate change; to make provision about energy efficiency; and to make provision about the reduction and recycling of waste.

Chapter 3 of the Act addresses 'Energy Efficiency', including 'promotion of energy efficiency and renewable heat'.

Section 60 confirms that Scottish Ministers must prepare and publish a plan for promoting energy efficiency and setting targets. The Scottish Ministers must from time to time, and within 3 years from the date of publishing, review the plan.

In summary, the Act addresses energy efficiency, but does not specifically address geothermal energy.

B.1.4 The Town and Country Planning (Development Planning) (Scotland) Regulations 2008

The Regulations put in place the regulatory framework required to allow the development planning provisions of the Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006 to be commenced. The principal matters dealt with in the Regulations are:

  • procedural aspects of preparing Strategic and Local Development Plans;
  • development plan examinations;
  • development plan schemes;
  • action programmes;
  • supplementary guidance; and
  • designating key agencies (who must cooperate in the preparation of plans).

Energy and geothermal energy are not referenced within the Regulations.

B.1.5 The Town and Country Planning (Development Management Procedure) (Scotland) Regulations 2008

The Regulations put in place the regulatory framework required to allow the development management provisions in Part 3 of the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997 as amended by the Planning etc (Scotland) 2006 Act (the 2006 Act) to be commenced.

The Regulations address the changes to development management, including:

  • Pre-application consultation with the community,
  • New arrangements for the planning authority to notify neighbours of applications;
  • New requirements to provide design, or design and access, statements for certain types of planning applications;

Energy and geothermal energy are not referenced within the Regulations.

B.2 Review of Existing Planning Guidance and Advice

This section reviews existing planning guidance and advice in relation to geothermal energy.

B.2.1 Circulars

Circulars contain Scottish Government policy on the implementation of legislation or procedures. One Circular currently relates to renewable energy:

Circular 2/2011 'The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (Non-Domestic Microgeneration) (Scotland) Amendment Order 2011'

The Circular explains the provisions of the Amendment Order and relates to:

  • Ground and water source heat pump pipes
  • Solar photo voltaic and solar thermal panels
  • Biomass boilers and furnaces
  • Anaerobic digestion systems

No Circulars currently relate directly to geothermal energy.

B.2.2 Advice

The Scottish Government provides a range of advice on different subjects and in different forms, including:

  • Planning Advice Notes ( PAN)
  • Guides
  • Letters from the Chief Planner
  • Design Guidance
  • Specific Advice Documents / Sheets

B.2.2.1 Planning Advice Notes ( PANs)

Planning Advice Notes ( PANs) relating to a range of renewable energy topics have been superseded by Specific Advice Sheets relating to:

  • Onshore wind turbines
  • Spatial frameworks for wind farms
  • Hydro schemes
  • Woody biomass
  • Landfill gas
  • Energy from waste
  • Photovoltaic arrays
  • Energy storage
  • Microgeneration
  • Deep geothermal

B.2.2.2 Specific Advice Sheet - Deep Geothermal (March 2012)

The Advice Sheet on Deep Geothermal provides planning advice and information and outlines the following key considerations:

  • Suggested areas of focus for planning authorities
  • Opportunities within planning processes for Planning Authorities
  • Technical information for deep geothermal
  • Typical planning considerations in determining planning applications for deep geothermal

Suggested areas of focus for planning authorities

The Advice Sheet provides a range of advice in relation to suggested areas of focus for planning authorities. This includes:

  • Collate information on redundant mines
  • Consider land use opportunities and constraints to provide indications on where geothermal developments might be located
  • Detail criteria to be applied in assessing deep geothermal applications
  • Establish protocols and consultees in relation to planning, policy, pre-application and applications for deep geothermal operations
  • Identify levels of information to service pre-application discussions and assess applications for deep geothermal
  • Ensure planning conditions and agreements for deep geothermal operations are reasonable and proportionate

Opportunities within planning processes for Planning Authorities

The Advice Sheet provides a range of advice in relation to facilitating deep geothermal development, at each stage of the planning process:

  • Monitoring and Main Issues Report ( MIR)
  • Spatial planning
  • Draft development plan policy
  • Information for planning applications
  • Pre-application
  • Determination of planning applications

Key opportunities outlined in these planning stages, include:

  • Build a database to provide a starting point for assessing potential for deep geothermal operations
  • Involve key consultees - British Geological Society, SEPA and SNH
  • Determine if deep geothermal possibilities merit consideration as a main issue in the Main Issues Report ( MIR)
  • Assess scope of using existing brownfield, industrial sites or former collieries
  • Determine whether operations can be located near to facilities or areas of high heat demand
  • Ensure that policies for deep geothermal cover the potential different scales and types of operations; and design of plant etc and decommissioning
  • Develop supporting guidance notes to detail typical information requirements for pre-application discussion and planning applications
  • Ensure that advice is given in relation to pre-application consultation
  • Ensure developers maximise opportunities to involve communities in pre-application consultation
  • Draw upon technical information and typical planning considerations in determining planning applications

Technical information for deep geothermal

The Advice Sheet provides technical information for deep geothermal in relation to:

  • Definition
  • Basic process
  • Suitable locations
  • Physical works
  • Attributes

Typical planning considerations in determining planning applications for deep geothermal

The Advice Sheet provides information on typical considerations in determining planning applications for deep geothermal, including those relating to:

  • Exploratory works
  • Noise
  • Subsidence
  • Waterway pollution
  • Seismic activity
  • Other planning considerations

In summary, the Advise Sheet on Deep Geothermal outlines key planning considerations in relation to suggested areas of focus for planning authorities; opportunities within planning processes for Planning Authorities; technical information for deep geothermal; and typical planning considerations in determining planning applications for deep geothermal.

The Sheet should provide a basis for planning authorities in Scotland to establish a development planning structure (including Strategic Development Plan and Local Development Plan policy), which relates specifically to geothermal energy; and also establish a development management structure to assist the development of geothermal energy proposals and assess subsequent planning applications.

B.3 Review of Existing Plans and Policies

This section reviews existing plans and policies in relation to geothermal energy.

B.3.1 Scottish Planning Policy ( SPP) (2010)

As part of the commitment to proportionate and practical planning policies, the Scottish Government has rationalised national planning policy. The consolidated Scottish Planning Policy ( SPP) provides a concise, clear and focused statement of national planning policy.

The SPP sets out:

  • the Scottish Government's view of the purpose of planning;
  • the core principles for the operation of the system and the objectives for key parts of the system;
  • statutory guidance on sustainable development and planning under Section 3E of the Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006;
  • concise subject planning policies, including the implications for development planning and development management; and
  • the Scottish Government's expectations of the intended outcomes of the planning system.

Geothermal energy is not referenced within SPP. Renewable energy is referenced in the following paragraphs.

Paragraph 37:

Decision making in the planning system should:

  • contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in line with the commitment to reduce emissions by 42% by 2020 and 80% by 2050, contribute to reducing energy consumption and to the development of renewable energy generation opportunities

Paragraph 43:

When designating land for new residential, commercial and industrial development, planning authorities should consider the energy and heat requirements of these new developments. New development should be planned to make use of opportunities for decentralised and local renewable or low carbon sources of heat and power wherever possible.

Renewable Energy is addressed in depth in paragraphs 182 - 195.

Paragraph 182:

The commitment to increase the amount of electricity generated from renewable sources is a vital part of the response to climate change. Renewable energy generation will contribute to more secure and diverse energy supplies and support sustainable economic growth. The current target is for 50% of Scotland's electricity to be generated from renewable sources by 2020 and 11% of heat demand to be met from renewable sources.

Other technologies which may contribute include biomass, solar, energy from waste and landfill gas and offshore wind, wave and tidal power generation. Production of heat and electricity from renewable sources will also make an important contribution both at a domestic scale and through decentralised energy and heat supply systems including district heating and biomass heating plants for businesses, public buildings and community/housing schemes.

Paragraph 184:

Planning authorities should support the development of a diverse range of renewable energy technologies, guide development to appropriate locations and provide clarity on the issues that will be taken into account when specific proposals are assessed. Development plans should support all scales of development associated with the generation of energy and heat from renewable sources, ensuring that an area's renewable energy potential is realised and optimised in a way that takes account of relevant economic, social, environmental and transport issues and maximises benefits.

Paragraph 185:

Planning authorities should ensure that the development plan or supplementary guidance clearly explain the factors that will be taken into account in decision making on all renewable energy generation developments.

Paragraphs 193-195 outlines 'Other Renewable Energy Sources' and refers to biomass plants, hydro-electric schemes, and energy from waste.

In summary, renewable energy is referenced in detail with the SPP. The policy does not make reference to geothermal energy.

B.3.2 National Planning Framework ( NPF) 2 (2009)

The National Planning Framework ( NPF) is a strategy for the long-term development of Scotland's towns, cities and countryside. The NPF is about shaping Scotland's future and is concerned with how Scotland develops over the next 20 years and how to make that possible. The NPF identifies key strategic infrastructure needs to ensure that each part of the country can develop to its full potential.

National Planning Framework 2 ( NPF2) was published on June 25 2009. It sets the spatial strategy for Scotland's development to 2030, and designates 14 national developments of strategic importance to Scotland. The Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006 requires Scottish Ministers to prepare a national planning framework. It also requires planning authorities to take NPF2 into account in development plans and development management decisions.

Key challenges relating to energy are outlined in the several sections of the Framework, including those outlined below.

Paragraphs 25-26:

The European Union has responded by committing to deriving 20% of the energy it uses from renewable sources by 2020. The Scottish Government supports this objective and has in place its own, higher target for electricity generated from renewable sources. It also wants to see continued improvements in energy efficiency; the development of technologies which derive clean energy from fossil fuels; the harnessing of renewable sources of heat; and decentralised energy production, including local heat and power schemes and micro-generation.

Paragraphs 144-165 outline a range of national energy issues including those relating to renewable energy.

Part 3

Energy

25. Tackling climate change and reducing dependence on finite fossil fuels are two of the major global challenges of our time. More than two thirds of the world's Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) emissions are the product of current patterns of energy production and consumption. Growing demand in the expanding Asian economies is raising concerns about the implications for future energy prices and long-term security of supply. Addressing these challenges will demand profound changes in the way we produce, distribute and use energy over the coming decades.

26. The European Union has responded by committing to deriving 20% of the energy it uses from renewable sources by 2020. The Scottish Government supports this objective and has in place its own, higher target for electricity generated from renewable sources. It also wants to see continued improvements in energy efficiency; the development of technologies which derive clean energy from fossil fuels; the harnessing of renewable sources of heat; and decentralised energy production, including local heat and power schemes and micro-generation.

Part 5 Infrastructure

Renewable Energy

144. While the target of generating 50% of the electricity we use from renewable sources by 2020 is likely to be met, we also need to derive a higher proportion of our energy requirements for heating and transport from renewable sources. In line with EU objectives, the Scottish Government is committed to working towards deriving 20% of total energy use from renewable sources by 2020. It has consulted on a framework for the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies prepared in co-operation with the Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland ( FREDS).

145. The Government is committed to establishing Scotland as a leading location for the development of renewable energy technology and an energy exporter over the long term. It is encouraging a mix of renewable energy technologies, with growing contributions from offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy, along with greater use of biomass. The aim of national planning policy is to develop Scotland's renewable energy potential whilst safeguarding the environment and communities

146. The harnessing of renewable sources of energy is effecting a radical change in Scotland's energy economy, and the location of many of these resources means that rural areas are well placed to benefit. As wave, tidal, biomass, solar, hydrogen and offshore wind technologies continue to develop, they will become more competitive and commercially attractive, allowing them to make large contributions to Scotland's energy mix over the next 25 years. Hydro-power and onshore wind are the renewable technologies likely to make the largest contributions initially and biomass should begin to make a significant contribution in the next decade. Given the potential environmental impacts, there is probably limited scope for new large hydro-electric schemes. However, there is significant interest in the development of small-scale schemes on watercourses and canals and the potential to link hydro-power development with pumped storage. Scotland has one of the best environments in the world for wave and tidal generation and marine technologies have the potential to make a major contribution in the longer term. A strategy for the development of marine renewable energy is being prepared

147. The potential of some renewable energy technologies has a strong spatial dimension. The Crown Estate has identified the Moray Firth and a zone to the East of the Firths of Tay and Forth as locations with potential for the development of offshore windfarms. The north and west coasts offer a number of locations with very substantial potential for harnessing the energy of tidal streams. Further environmental assessment of Scottish coastal waters is being undertaken to inform locational decisions

149. Small-scale renewable energy projects can make a valuable contribution locally. They can play a vital role in supporting the sustainable development of remote rural and island communities in particular. Cumulatively, they can make a significant contribution to the development of a more decentralised pattern of energy generation. Their local environmental effects will need careful management

Baseload Power Stations

151. Given the variable output of some renewable sources of energy, large baseload power stations will have a role to play in maintaining the stability of electricity supply for some time ahead. While important elements of Scotland's existing baseload generating capacity are scheduled to close over the next 10 years, steps are being taken to extend the lives of existing power stations and develop new ones

Heat

163. About 50% of Scotland's energy demand is for heat. While the main energy source for heating is currently gas, Scotland has one of the best climates in Europe for the solar heating of buildings. Higher building standards and improved insulation can substantially reduce heating requirements. There is considerable potential to derive more heat for domestic, business and industrial purposes from sources such as waste and biomass and by using ground, water and air source heat pumps. Better use can also be made of the heat produced by electricity generation, industrial processes and anaerobic digestion. Many of these sources of heat can be harnessed at a domestic, local or community level, but some require larger scale operations. The Scottish Government is committed to helping to build a commercially viable and diverse heat industry and has consulted on a Renewable Heat Action Plan.

Decentralised Production

164. The Government is keen to facilitate the development of a more dispersed pattern of energy generation and supply as part of the response to the climate change challenge. This will involve encouraging community and household heat and power generation, the decentralisation of generation capacity and the development of local heat networks. The efficiency of power stations can be substantially increased by capturing the heat produced by electricity generation to warm our buildings. Advances in technology which allow heat to be transmitted efficiently over longer distances may create scope for developing heat networks based on some of our existing power stations. Harnessing components of the waste stream and other biomass offers the potential to develop new, smaller combined heat and power ( CHP) stations close to communities. In some areas, particularly in rural Scotland, wood or other biomass may provide the most appropriate fuels for local heating schemes. Investment in transmission and distribution networks may be required to facilitate more decentralised patterns of electricity generation.

165. Planning authorities have an important role in facilitating more decentralised patterns of energy generation and supply. They should take account of the potential for developing heat networks when preparing development plans and considering major development proposals.

B.3.3 Structure Plans

Structure Plans set out long term visions and policies for the development of land within local authority areas. They provide a broad framework for Local Plans, which contain more detailed and site specific policies. The two plans together form the Development Plan for a local authority area. Structure Plans are being replaced under the new planning system by Strategic Development Plans ( SDPs) for the city regions of Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow.

Five key regions (Aberdeenshire, Clackmannanshire, Fife, Glasgow and West Lothian) have been identified by Scottish Government and the planning assessment process as having good potential to develop geothermal energy schemes. The approved Structure Plans for the five regions are outlined below:

Region Structure Plan Status
Aberdeenshire Aberdeen City and Shire Structure Plan approved 14 August 2009
Clackmannanshire Stirling and Clackmannanshire Structure Plan approved March 2002 with modifications June 2009
Fife n/a structure plan superseded by SDP
Glasgow n/a structure plan superseded by SDP
West Lothian Edinburgh and the Lothians Structure Plan approved June 2004

Key structure plan policy relating to energy for the Aberdeenshire, Clackmannanshire and West Lothian regions is outlined below:

Aberdeen City and Shire Structure Plan

The structure plan sets out sustainable development and climate change targets including for the city region's electricity needs to be met from renewable resources by 2020.

The plan aims to meet such targets through:
- local development plans (and supplementary guidance) will identify areas or technology which can contribute to the supply of renewable energy
- use master planning (and supplementary guidance) to consider the possible scope of combined heat and power schemes to contribute towards using energy more efficiently and in reducing the amount of energy used overall.

The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy.

Stirling and Clackmannanshire Structure Plan

Renewable energy policy is outlined in Policy ENV14 as provided by the second Alteration to the Structure Plan (June 2009) and detailed below.

Policy ENV14 - Renewable energy and energy-efficient development
1. In the interests of sustainable development the Councils and the National Park Authority will, subject to conformity with other relevant Structure and Local Plan policies, support:
i. developments required for the generation of energy from renewable sources and fuels; and
ii. integration of renewable energy generation and utilisation into new developments.
2. Development proposals must demonstrate that energy conservation and efficiency are integral to the design, and to the layout of new buildings.

The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy.

Edinburgh and the Lothians Structure Plan

Renewable energy policy is outlined in Policy ENV6 and detailed below.

Policy ENV6 - Renewable Energy
The development of renewable energy resources will be supported where this can be achieved in an environmentally acceptable manner. Local plans should set out the specific criteria against which renewable energy developments will be assessed, including cumulative impact. They should also consider whether it is appropriate to define broad areas of search, or specific sites, suitable for wind or other renewable energy developments.

The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy.

B.3.4 Local Plans

Local Plans set out policies to guide development and proposals for specific sites within a local authority area. Local Plans are prepared within the wider, strategic context of the Structure Plan, and together form the Development Plan for a local authority area. Local Plans are to be replaced under the new planning regime by Local Development Plans ( LDPs). The adopted Local Plans for the five regions are outlined below:

Region Local Plan Status
Aberdeenshire n/a local plan superseded by LDP
Clackmannanshire Clackmannanshire Local Plan adopted December 2002
Fife Mid Fife Local Plan
Dunfermline and West Fife Local Plan
St. Andrews and East Fife Local Plan
adopted January 2012
Glasgow Glasgow City Plan 2 adopted December 2009
West Lothian West Lothian Local Plan adopted 13 January 2009

Key local plan policy relating to energy for each of the Clackmannanshire, Fife, Glasgow, and West Lothian regions is outlined below:

Clackmannanshire Local Plan

Renewable energy and energy efficiency policies are outlined in Policy INF9 and INF10 as detailed below.

Policy INF9 - Renewable Energy Developments (Interim Policy)
Proposals for renewable energy developments will be considered positively provided that they have no significant adverse impact on the built or natural environment. There will be a presumption in favour of smaller renewable energy schemes (less than 25kW peak electrical output) provided that they do not result in any significant harm to the visual amenity, landscape or habitats and do not result in unacceptable noise intrusion. Wind farm developments will not normally be permitted within areas of Green Belt or in any part of the Ochil Hills.
Policy INF10 - Energy Efficiency
Proposed new developments should be designed to maximise energy efficiency while complementing the established character of Clackmannanshire's settlements. The creation of a sheltered micro-climate through the relationship of buildings to each other and by fencing, hedges and shelter belts should be achieved. New development should be situated to maximise shelter afforded by topography. Buildings and windows should be situated and orientated sensitively to maximise passive solar gain.

A Supplementary Advice Note relating to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency is planned to be prepared by Clackmannanshire Council.

Mid Fife Local Plan

Policy I1 provides guidance in relation to Renewable Energy as outlined below.

Policy I1 - Renewable Energy

A range of technologies for renewable energy generation, including microrenewables, will be encouraged. Renewable energy developments will be supported provided that:
a. there is no significant adverse impact on local communities, the built and/or natural environment, and other uses and activities;
b. they provide employment opportunities, particularly diversification of the rural economy; and
c. they make use of brownfield or contaminated land, where possible.

All proposals will be required to provide detailed information on associated infrastructure required; including roads and grid connections, impact during construction and operational phases of the development, including visual impact, noise, and odour issues; and provisions for the restoration of the site. All new developments should make a positive contribution to environmental quality by incorporating on-site zero and low carbon equipment contributing at least an extra 15% reduction in CO 2 emissions beyond the 2007 Building Regulations carbon dioxide emissions standard. Proposals for combustion of biomass, composting, landfill gas and other technologies will be supported where:
d. they make use of brownfield or contaminated land; or
e. they provide rural employment opportunities and are consistent with other Development Plan policies.

Biomass fuel processing and energy production facilities will be supported where it can be demonstrated that generating efficiency will be enhanced by co-location and, subject to transportation impact, siting and design. Proposals to abstract geothermal energy from groundwater and other sources will be supported throughout Fife provided that the drilling, engineering and abstraction operations do not:
f. cause unacceptable impacts on the built and natural environment, and residential and other sensitive properties; and
g. do not cause pollution of groundwater.

Proposals for hydro power developments will be supported throughout Fife's river network provided that they do not cause damage to fisheries, fish and other aquatic life within the river catchment. Proposals for using solar panels will be supported provided that they comply with Development Plan policy and Planning Customer Guidelines.

Further renewable energy guidance is provided in the Fife Council Renewable Energy Strategic Project Customer Guidelines (2007), which provides interim guidance until the topic is fully addresses in adopted Plans.

Glasgow City Plan 2

Energy policy is provided by Policy ENV15 as outlined below, which primarily relates to new buildings.

Policy ENV15 - Energy
  • All new buildings are required to be designed to maximise their use of passive solar energy from the outset (see policies DES 1: Development Design Principles, DES 2: Sustainable Design and Construction and RES 2: Residential Layouts) and, thereafter, to consider the installation options available for a low and/or zero carbon decentralised energy source, including consideration of a shared resource with a neighbouring development.
  • All new developments should consider the installation of micro-generating equipment (see Definition) for the small scale production of heat (less than 45 kilowatt thermal capacity) and/or electricity (less than 50 kilowatt electrical capacity) from zero or low carbon source technologies, particularly at a domestic level.
  • New developments with a total cumulative floorspace of 500sqm or more are required to conform to Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) 6: Renewable Energy (supplemented by guidance to be contained in a new Planning Advice Note (PAN) 84: Reducing Carbon Emissions in new developments). This will require the installation and use of on-site zero and low carbon equipment contributing at least an extra 15% reduction in CO2 emissions beyond the 2007 Building Regulations carbon dioxide emissions standard.

West Lothian Local Plan

A range of renewable energy policy is outlined in the Local Plan including Policy NWR20, as outlined below.

Policy NWR20
The council supports the development of renewable energy schemes provided that the schemes are environmentally acceptable and the criteria set out in this local plan can be met.

B.4 Review of Emerging Plans and Policies

This section reviews existing plans and policies in relation to geothermal energy.

B.4.1 National Planning Framework 3

Planning legislation requires Scottish Ministers to revise the National Planning Framework ( NPF) within 5 years of publication. Scottish Ministers have confirmed that work on the preparation of NPF3 will commence in autumn 2012, focusing strongly on economic recovery and the transition to a low carbon economy.

As development of the NPF3 has not yet commenced, a review of the document has not taken place. As NPF2 however addresses energy and renewable energy in detail, there is scope for the topic of geothermal energy to be included in the emerging NPF3 document.

B.4.2 Strategic Development Plans ( SDP)

Strategic Development Plans ( SDPs) are the emerging plans for the Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow city-regions. They will set out a vision of how the development of the area could and should occur within a 20 year period, and a spatial strategy of development policies and proposals.

At the time of writing the status of the Strategic Development Plans for the four city regions are:

City Region Strategic Development Plan Status
Dundee TAYplan SDP 2012-2032 SDP approved by Scottish Ministers on 18 June 2012
Glasgow Glasgow and the Clyde Valley SDP SDP approved with modifications by Scottish Ministers on 29 May 2012
Edinburgh SESplan SDP The Main Issues Report ( MIR) and Interim Environmental Report were published in May 2010. The Proposed Plan and Environmental Report were published in November 2011. The SDP is to be submitted to Scottish Ministers in summer/ autumn 2012
Aberdeen Aberdeen City and Shire SDP The Main Issues Report ( MIR) was published in October 2011 and was followed by a consultation period and review of responses. The Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) Proposed Plan is being prepared and is expected to be published in November 2012 and followed by a seven week consultation period. The SDP is expected to be approved in June 2014.

The Dundee and Glasgow city-region SDPs have been prepared and approved by Scottish Ministers. An assessment of these plans in terms of energy/ geothermal energy is outlined below.

B.4.2.1 TAYplan Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) 2012-2032 (Approved June 2012)

The TAYplan Strategic Development Plan 2012-2032 is the approved SDP for Dundee City, Angus, Perth and Kinross (including part of the Cairngorm National Park) and north Fife. The document was approved by Scottish Ministers on 18 June 2012.

The Energy and Waste/ Resource Management Infrastructure section of the Plan outlines a strategy in relation to the following:

*Energy and waste management infrastructure: Infrastructure for heat and power generation and transmission; and, collection, separation, handling, transfer, processing, resource recovery and disposal of waste. This includes recycling plants, anaerobic waste digesters, energy from waste plants, wind turbines, biomass plants, combined heat and power plants, solar power, hydro electric power plants and similar facilities.

The TAYplan strategy in relation to the above infrastructure is outlined in page 18 of the document as:

This Plan seeks to reduce resource consumption through provision of energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure* in order to contribute to Scottish Government ambitions for the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change and to achieve zero waste. It also aims to contribute towards greater regional energy self-sufficiency.

Land use planning is only one of the regulatory requirements that energy and waste/ resource management operators must consider. This Plan does not provide the locations for energy infrastructure; this role is for Local Development Plans. It sets out a series of locational considerations for all energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure as the impacts and operations of these share similar characteristics.

This Plan ensures consistency between Local Development Plans in fulfilling Scottish Planning Policy requirements to define areas of search for renewable energy infrastructure and it applies this to a wide range of energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure.

It recognises the different scales - property (e.g. micro-renewables or individual waste facilities), community (e.g. district heating and power or local waste facilities) and regional/ national (e.g. national level schemes and waste facilities for wide areas) at which this infrastructure can be provided and both the individual and cumulative contribution that can be made, particularly by community and property scale infrastructure, to Scottish Government objectives for greater decentralisation of heat and energy.

This Plan encourages new strategic scale waste/ resource management infrastructure to be within or close to the Dundee and Perth Core Areas reflecting the proximity of materials and customers for heat and other products.

The TAYplan SDP's strategy in relation to Energy and Waste Resource/ Management Infrastructure is confirmed in Policy 6 of the document, as outlined below.

To deliver a low/ zero carbon future and contribute to meeting Scottish Government energy and waste targets:

A. Local Development Plans should identify areas that are suitable for different forms of renewable heat and electricity infrastructure and for waste/ resource management infrastructure or criteria to support this; including, where appropriate, land for process industries (e.g. the co-location/ proximity of surplus heat producers with heat users).

B. Beyond community or small scale facilities waste/ resource management infrastructure is most likely to be focussed within or close to the Dundee and/ or Perth Core Areas (identified in Policy 1).

C. Local Development Plans and development proposals should ensure that all areas of search, allocated sites, routes and decisions on development proposals for energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure have been justified, at a minimum, on the basis of these considerations:

  • The specific land take requirements associated with the infrastructure technology and associated statutory safety exclusion zones where appropriate;
  • Waste/ resource management proposals are justified against the Scottish Government's Zero Waste Plan and support the delivery of the waste/resource management hierarchy;
  • Proximity of resources (e.g. woodland, wind or waste material); and to users/customers, grid connections and distribution networks for the heat, power or physical materials and waste products, where appropriate;
  • Anticipated effects of construction and operation on air quality, emissions, noise, odour, surface and ground water pollution, drainage, waste disposal, radar installations and flight paths, and, of nuisance impacts on of-site properties;
  • Sensitivity of landscapes (informed by landscape character assessments and other work), the water environment, biodiversity, geo-diversity, habitats, tourism, recreational access and listed/scheduled buildings and structures;
  • Impacts of associated new grid connections and distribution or access infrastructure;
  • Cumulative impacts of the scale and massing of multiple developments, including existing infrastructure;
  • Impacts upon neighbouring planning authorities (both within and outwith TAYplan); and,
  • Consistency with the National Planning Framework and its Action Programme.

In summary, the TAYplan SDP outlines a strategy for the region in relation to energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure, and confirms that this infrastructure includes:

  • recycling plants
  • anaerobic waste digesters
  • energy from waste plants
  • wind turbines
  • biomass plants
  • combined heat and power plants
  • solar power
  • hydro electric power plants
  • and similar facilities

The TAYplan SDP's energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure strategy, which includes Policy 6 of the Plan, does not reference geothermal energy or the potential for geothermal energy development.

B.4.2.2 Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan ( SDP)

The Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan is the emerging SDP for Glasgow City, North Lanarkshire, South Lanarkshire, East Dunbartonshire, West Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire, Renfrewshire and Inverclyde. The Proposed Plan (June 2011) was approved with modifications by the Scottish Ministers on 29 May 2012.

Diagram 7 of the SDP outlines the Energy component of the Spatial Strategy to 2035, as outlined below:

Decentralised distributed power plants, based on alternative technologies, will be located across the city-region exploiting opportunities to develop biomass, Combined Heat and Power and other forms of renewable energy.

Diagram 8 of the SDP outlines the Spatial Vision and the strategic drivers of change, including:

Energy founded on low carbon sources and systems.

The SDP outlines environmental action in relation to wind energy in section 4.63:

The city-region is characterised by significant potential for onshore wind energy development. Given the context of a low carbon future and the need to decarbonise and green the power grid against a context of emissions reduction targets, yet also seeking to protect important natural environments, the SDP adopts the approach of defining search areas for wind farm developments.

Strategy Support Measure 12 outlines the strategy of the SDP in relation to energy and a paradigm shift, as outlined below.

Energy and a new low carbon paradigm
In order to achieve a paradigm shift in energy generation and consumption to meet a low or decarbonised future, a structured approach 'Energy - Carbon Masterplanning' could be adopted in Local Development Plans when taking forward the core components of the SDS model, including Community Growth Areas (Diagram 10). This approach needs a partnership with power utility companies to develop tailored energy solutions for the communities concerned.

In summary, the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley SDP outlines a spatial strategy in relation to energy, which includes distributed power plants, based on alternative technologies exploiting opportunities to develop biomass, Combined Heat and Power and other forms of renewable energy. The SDP also adopts the approach of defining search areas for wind farm development.

The SDP outlines a strategy in relation a range of potential energy development, but does not specifically reference geothermal energy.

B.4.2.3 SESplan Strategic Development Plan ( SDP)

The Main Issues Report ( MIR) and Interim Environmental Report were published in May 2010. The Proposed Plan and Environmental Report were published in November 2011. The Proposed Plan is to be submitted to Scottish Ministers in autumn 2012.

Energy is addressed in the Proposed Plan in paragraphs 123-124 and policy 10 as outlined below. The Proposed Plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy.

Policy 10 - Sustainable Energy Technologies
The Strategic Development Plan seeks to promote sustainable energy sources. Local Development Plans will:
a. Support the future development and associated infrastructure requirements of Longannet and Cockenzie power stations in relation to their role as non-nuclear, baseload capacity generators, Energy Park Fife at Methil, and developments connected with offshore renewable energy in Leith and Rosyth; and
b. Set a framework for the encouragement of renewable energy proposals, taking into account relevant economic, social, environmental and transport considerations.

B.4.2.4 Aberdeen City and Shire Strategic Development Plan ( SDP)

The Main Issues Report ( MIR) was published in October 2011 and was followed by a consultation period and review of responses. The proposed Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) is being prepared and is expected to be published in November 2012 and followed by a seven week consultation period.

Renewable energy proposals are set out in the MIR in section 8 (Proposals). The MIR does not make specific reference to geothermal energy.

B.4.3 Local Development Plans ( LDP)

Local Development Plans ( LDPs) are the emerging plans for local authority areas in Scotland. They should be adopted within 2 years of the approval of the relevant SDP and must be replaced at least every 5 years. They will contain a spatial strategy of policies and proposals as to the development and use of land for a period up to year 10 from adoption.

At the time of writing Local Development Plans for the following local authority areas in Scotland have been adopted:

Local Development Plan Adopted
Aberdeen LDP 29 February 2012
Highland-wide LDP 05 April 2012

B.4.3.1 Aberdeen Local Development Plan ( LDP)

The 'Using Resources Sustainably - Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Developments' section of the LDP outlines the Council's strategy in relation to renewable energy:

The development of all types of renewable heat and energy generating technologies, on all scales, is supported in principle. A positive approach to renewable development will help to meet the Scottish Governments target for 80% of Scotland's electricity to be generated from renewable sources by 2020 and 11% of heat demand to be met by renewable sources.

Much of the onshore renewable energy capacity in the North East of Scotland will come from large scale developments, such as wind farms, which are more difficult to accommodate in urban locations than in more rural locations. However, there will be a range of energy technologies that are more suited to urban locations. These range from single wind or hydro turbines through to gas or biomass fired Combined Heat and Power systems, ground source heat pumps, and devices which can be mounted on existing buildings (some of which are classed as permitted development). Supplementary Guidance on appropriate technologies will be provided through masterplans and the forthcoming low carbon city energy strategy.

In summary, the Aberdeen LDP addresses a range of renewable energy issues including waste resource, energy from waste, combined heat and power, low carbon energy and wind energy. The LDP does not specifically reference geothermal energy as part of the renewable energy strategy.

B.4.3.2 Highland-wide Local Development Plan ( LDP)

The 'Sustainable Development and Climate Change - Renewable Energy Developments' section of the LDP outlines the Council's strategy in relation to onshore wind, hydro electric power, biomass, energy from waste, landfill gas and marine renewable. Policy 67 'Renewable Energy Development' is the key LDP policy in relation to renewable energy. Key requirements outlined in the policy include:

Renewable energy development proposals should be well related to the source of the primary renewable resources that are needed for their operation. The Council will also consider:

  • the contribution of the proposed development towards meeting renewable energy generation targets; and
  • any positive or negative effects it is likely to have on the local and national economy; and will assess proposals against other policies of the development plan, the Highland Renewable Energy Strategy and Planning Guidelines and have regard to any other material considerations, including proposals able to demonstrate significant benefits including by making effective use of existing and proposed infrastructure or facilities.

In summary, the Highland-wide LDP outlines energy considerations and policy in relation to wind energy, hydro electric power, biomass, energy from waste, landfill gas and marine renewable. The LDP does not outline guidance and policy specifically in relation to geothermal energy.

B.4.3.3 Emerging Local Development Plans ( LDPs)

In addition to the two Local Development Plans which have been adopted, further LDPs are emerging and include those for areas with potential for geothermal energy development such as Clackmannanshire, Fife, Glasgow, and West Lothian.

Clackmannanshire LDP

The Main Issues Report ( MIR), Monitoring Statement, Environment Report, Site Assessment Report and Open Space Framework were open to public consultation during January - March 2011. Chapter 4 of the MIR outlines a vision and key issues in relation to climate change. The MIR does not make specific reference to geothermal energy.

Comments and representations on these documents are being currently considered by Clackmannanshire Council and the Local Development Plan ( LDP) Proposed Plan is being prepared for public consultation.

Fife LDP

Early information gathering stages have taken place. The first formal stage will be the preparation and publication of the Monitoring Statement and Main Issues Report ( MIR) which is scheduled to commence in autumn 2012.

The Council are establishing a 'Local Development Plan Exchange', which will be an informal liaison group to exchange ideas throughout the Plan's preparation.

Glasgow LDP

The Main Issues Report ( MIR), Monitoring Statement ( MS) and Interim Environment Report ( IER) were published in October 2011 for consultation. Issue 1.2 and Option 1.2 of the MIR relate to renewable energy and the potential for wind and biomass installations in the city and other renewable options where appropriate, as outlined below.

Option 1.2 - Renewable Energy

Option 1.2 A (Preferred Option)

Investigate the potential for wind and biomass installations in the City, and other renewable options where appropriate, to operate effectively and contribute towards reducing man-made greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the City. If appropriate, deliver new policy to establish the circumstances in which such installations would be acceptable, supported by detailed supplementary guidance.

This Option is Preferred because …
It provides a positive basis for assessing the potential of renewable energy in the City to contribute to the delivery of the targets set out in the Climate Change Act.

Issue 1.3 and Option 1.3 of the MIR relate to low carbon heating/ combined heat and power. This section of the MIR states the Council's preferred option in relation to ground-source heat, as outlined below:

The Council is also keen to progress investigative work on the potential of ground-source heat for district heating. This provides relatively low grade heat found at relatively shallow depths within the earth's crust, derived from solar warming. The British Geological Survey ( BGS) have identified significant potential in ground water in bedrock aquifers and superficial deposits, such as shales, for ground-source heat across much of the City. Geological modelling work, currently ongoing, should help identify which areas may offer most promise in this respect. This resource has the potential to contribute to the Scottish Government's target of meeting 11% of heat demand from renewable sources by 2020.

Should ground source heat prove an attractive proposition, the Council will bring forward new policy to ensure its potential is utilised, and to address any issues relating to design, environmental impacts, etc. This is likely to be in the form of supplementary guidance.

Option 1.3 - Local Renewable/ Low Carbon Sources of Heat and Power

Option 1.3 A (Preferred Option)

Revise existing policy to, wherever possible, require major new development to be designed to connect to existing or planned district heating networks and/or to develop opportunities for decentralised and local renewable (such as ground-source heat) or low carbon sources of heat and power to meet their own, on-site, needs and potentially those of others in a local heat network. Produce supplementary guidance to set out the detail of how this might be done. Identify the East End Zone as a priority for investment in infrastructure necessary to deliver local renewable or low carbon sources of heat and power. Ensure new development in the zone is designed to accommodate CHP/ DH infrastructure. Investigate further the implications of retro-fitting the other 4 zones with the necessary infrastructure to deliver heat to homes and businesses.

This Option is Preferred because …
It would provide for the planning of new development to make use of opportunities for decentralised and local renewable or low carbon sources of heat and power wherever possible. It provides for an assessment of the significant potential for use of ground source heat as a source of local renewable heat and hot water. It identifies a priority project in the East End, whilst recognising that further work will be required to take this forward and to examine options for delivery elsewhere in the City.

The MIR proposes a new Key Policy relating to the sustainable use of resources, as outlined below.

KP2 - Energy and Related Developments
New key policy outlining what is/is not likely to be supported - detail in Sustainable Resources Supplementary Guidance. Likely to set out the Councils' approach to promoting renewable energy production and low carbon heating/combined heat and power (see issues 1.2 and 1.3) and lighting (issue 1.6).

The MIR proposes that the key policies of the LDP are supported by Supplementary Guidance ( SG) including SG relating to district heating, as outlined below.

Topic Action
Combined Heat and Power/District Heating New guidance to reflect outcomes of consideration of opportunities for low carbon sources of heat and power (issues 1.3, possibly issue 1.4).

The comments received on the MIR, MS and IER have been analysed and this will inform the development of the Local Development Plan ( LDP) Proposed Plan during 2012-2013. Glasgow City Council will also engage with key agencies and stakeholders to identify and confirm the key policies that will inform the LDP. The LDP is expected to be adopted in 2014.

West Lothian LDP

The Main Issues Report ( MIR) and Environmental Report are scheduled to be developed during 2012, with consultation on the reports taking place during 2012-2013. The publication of formal responses to the MIR is scheduled to take place in May 2013. The LDP is expected to be adopted in 2015.

Table B.1 Planning Assessment - Summary Table

Existing Planning Legislation (Acts and Regulations)

Document Type Document Title Review of Planning Document (Summary) Reference to Energy (√ - X - n/a) Reference to Geothermal (√ - X - n/a) Identification of Required Changes Recommendation of Actions
Act Town and Country Planning Act (Scotland) 1997 The Act outlines planning procedures and does not make reference to energy or geothermal energy. X X Specific reference to geothermal energy. The application of a change to the Act, through a provision inserted into the Act relating to energy and geothermal energy.
Act Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006

Geothermal energy is not referenced within the Act. Energy is referenced within the Act as per below:

Part 2 - Development Plans: 7. 'Form and content of strategic development plan' (4) (d)

Refers to the matters, which might be expected to affect the development of the strategic development plan area, including supply of water and energy.

Part 2 - Development Plans: 15. 'Form and content of local development plans' (5) (d)

Refers to matters, which might be expected to affect the development of the local development plan area, including supply of water and energy.

X The Act refers to the supply of energy in Strategic Development Plan and Local Development Plan areas. A required change to the Act includes specific reference to geothermal energy. The application of a change to the Act, through a provision inserted into the Act, which relates specifically to geothermal energy and the requirement for Strategic Development Planning Authorities and Local Development Planning Authorities to acknowledge the potential for geothermal energy development, when preparing their Plans and considering how development in their area should and could occur.
Act Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 The Act addresses energy efficiency, but does not specifically address geothermal energy. X The Act addresses the promotion of energy efficiency and renewable heat. A required change to the Act includes the specific reference to geothermal energy. The application of a change to the Act, through a provision inserted into the Act relating specifically to geothermal energy.
Regulations The Town and Country Planning (Development Planning) (Scotland) Regulations 2008 Energy or geothermal energy not referenced within the regulations. X X The Regulations put in place the regulatory framework required to allow the development planning provisions of the Planning etc. (Scotland) Act 2006 to be commenced. Energy and geothermal energy are not referenced within the Regulations. It is not within the scope of the regulations to address energy and geothermal energy. No required changes have therefore been identified. No required changes to the Regulations have been identified.
Regulations The Town and Country Planning (Development Management Procedure) (Scotland) Regulations 2008 Energy or geothermal energy not referenced within the regulations. X X The Regulations put in place the regulatory framework required to allow the development management provisions in Part 3 of the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1997 as amended by the Planning etc (Scotland) 2006 Act (the 2006 Act) to be commenced. Energy and geothermal energy are not referenced within the Regulations. It is not within the scope of the regulations to address energy and geothermal energy. No required changes have therefore been identified. No required changes to the Regulations have been identified.

Guidance and Advice

Document Type Document Title Review of Planning Document (Summary) Reference to Energy (√ - X - n/a) Reference to Geothermal (√ - X - n/a) Identification of Required Changes Recommendation of Actions
Circular

Circular 2/2011

The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (Non-Domestic Microgeneration) (Scotland) Amendment Order 2011

The Circular explains the provisions of the Amendment Order and relates to:
  • Ground and water source heat pump pipes
  • Solar photo voltaic and solar thermal panels
  • Biomass boilers and furnaces
  • Anaerobic digestion systems
X

n/a

No Circulars currently relate directly to geothermal energy. No required changes to Circulars have been identified.

n/a

No Circulars currently relate directly to geothermal energy. No required changes to Circulars have been identified.

Planning Advice Note ( PAN) n/a Planning Advice Notes ( PANs) relating to a range of renewable energy topics have been superseded by Specific Advice Sheets relating to:
  • Onshore wind turbines
  • Spatial frameworks for wind farms
  • Hyrdo schemes
  • Woody biomass
  • Landfill gas
  • Energy from waste
  • Photovoltaic arrays
  • Energy storage
  • Microgeneration
  • Deep geothermal
n/a n/a

n/a

Planning Advice Notes ( PANs) relating to a range of renewable energy topics have been superseded by Specific Advice Sheets. The Sheets include one relating specifically to deep geothermal. No required changes to PANs have been identified.

n/a

No required changes to PANs have been identified.

Specific Advice Sheet Deep Geothermal (March 2012) The Advise Sheet on Deep Geothermal outlines key planning considerations in relation to:
  • suggested areas of focus for planning authorities
  • opportunities within planning processes for Planning Authorities
  • technical information for deep geothermal
  • typical planning considerations in determining planning applications for deep geothermal.
The Sheet should provide a basis for planning authorities in Scotland to establish a development planning structure (including Strategic Development Plan and Local Development Plan policy), which relates specifically to geothermal energy; and also establish a development management structure to assist the development of geothermal energy proposals and assess subsequent planning applications.
The Advice Sheet provides thorough advice in relation to the planning and assessing of deep geothermal energy developments. No specific required changes have been identified. Ensure both Strategic Development Planning Authorities ( SDPA) and Local Planning Authorities address in the first instance
  • the suggested areas of focus for planning authorities; and
  • the opportunities within planning processes
This will assist the establishment of geothermal energy within plans and policies. In relation to the emerging Strategic Development Plans ( SDPs) and Local Development Plans ( LDPs), Strategic and Local Planning Authorities should determine if geothermal energy possibilities merit consideration as a main issue in the Main Issues Report ( MIR).

Existing Policy and Plans

Document Type Document Title Review of Planning Document (Summary) Reference to Energy (√ - X - n/a) Reference to Geothermal (√ - X - n/a) Identification of Required Changes Recommendation of Actions
Policy (National) Scottish Planning Policy ( SPP) (2010)

Geothermal energy is not referenced within the Policy. Renewable energy is referenced in the following paragraphs 37 and 43.

Renewable Energy is addressed in depth in paragraphs 182 - 195.

Paragraph 182

The commitment to increase the amount of electricity generated from renewable sources is a vital part of the response to climate change. Renewable energy generation will contribute to more secure and diverse energy supplies and support sustainable economic growth. The current target is for 50% of Scotland's electricity to be generated from renewable sources by 2020 and 11% of heat demand to be met from renewable sources.

Other technologies which may contribute include biomass, solar, energy from waste and landfill gas and offshore wind, wave and tidal power generation. Production of heat and electricity from renewable sources will also make an important contribution both at a domestic scale and through decentralised energy and heat supply systems including district heating and biomass heating plants for businesses, public buildings and community/housing schemes.

Paragraph 184

Planning authorities should support the development of a diverse range of renewable energy technologies, guide development to appropriate locations and provide clarity on the issues that will be taken into account when specific proposals are assessed. Development plans should support all scales of development associated with the generation of energy and heat from renewable sources, ensuring that an area's renewable energy potential is realised and optimised in a way that takes account of relevant economic, social, environmental and transport issues and maximises benefits.

Paragraph 185

Planning authorities should ensure that the development plan or supplementary guidance clearly explain the factors that will be taken into account in decision making on all renewable energy generation developments.

Paragraphs 193-195 outlines 'Other Renewable Energy Sources' and refers to biomass plants, hydro-electric schemes, and energy from waste.

X Scottish Planning Policy ( SPP) makes reference to renewable energy, and a range of technologies which can contribute to renewable energy generation, including biomass, solar, energy from waste etc. A required change to SPP is specific reference to geothermal energy as a renewable energy technology to be supported by local authorities to respond to energy generation requirements and climate change targets. It is recommended that Scottish Planning Policy ( SPP) is amended and updated to include specific reference to geothermal energy. Reference should be included within paragraphs 182-195, which relates to renewable energy. Geothermal energy should be highlighted as a renewable energy technology to be supported by local authorities to respond to energy generation requirements and climate change targets.
Policy (National) National Planning Framework 2 ( NPF2) (2009)

Key challenges relating to energy are outlined in paragraphs 25-26

The European Union has responded by committing to deriving 20% of the energy it uses from renewable sources by 2020. The Scottish Government supports this objective and has in place its own, higher target for electricity generated from renewable sources. It also wants to see continued improvements in energy efficiency; the development of technologies which derive clean energy from fossil fuels; the harnessing of renewable sources of heat; and decentralised energy production, including local heat and power schemes and micro-generation.

Paragraphs 144-165 outlines a range of national energy issues including those relating to renewable energy: Renewable energy

Paragraph 144

While the target of generating 50% of the electricity we use from renewable sources by 2020 is likely to be met, we also need to derive a higher proportion of our energy requirements for heating and transport from renewable sources. In line with EU objectives, the Scottish Government is committed to working towards deriving 20% of total energy use from renewable sources by 2020. It has consulted on a framework for the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies prepared in co-operation with the Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland ( FREDS).

Paragraph 145

The aim of national planning policy is to develop Scotland's renewable energy potential whilst safeguarding the environment and communities.

X National Planning Framework ( NPF) 2 highlights challenges and issues relating to energy and renewable energy. A required change to the Framework is the specific reference to geothermal energy as a source of energy generation. It is recommended that National Planning Framework ( NPF) is amended by means of the emerging NPF3. Geothermal energy should be highlighted within NPF3 as a source of energy generation which can contribute to national energy use from renewable sources targets.
Structure Plan Aberdeen City and Shire Structure Plan The structure plan sets out sustainable development and climate change targets including for the city region's electricity needs to be met from renewable resources by 2020. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. X A required change to the plan is the specific reference to geothermal energy. The plan will be superseded by the Aberdeen City and Shire Strategic Development Plan ( SDP), which is currently being prepared and expected to be published in November 2012 followed by a seven week consultation period. Consideration should be given to geothermal energy during the development of the SDP.
Structure Plan Stirling and Clackmannanshire Structure Plan Renewable energy policy is outlined in Policy ENV14 - Renewable energy and energy-efficient development. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. X A required change to the plan is the specific reference to geothermal energy. The plan will be replaced by the Stirling Local Development Plan ( LDP) and the Clackmannanshire Local Development Plan ( LDP). The Stirling LDP proposed plan is due to be published in October 2012. The Clackmannanshire LDP proposed plan is currently being prepared and a period of consultation will take place following the publication of the document. Consideration should be given to geothermal energy during the development of the LDPs.
Structure Plan Edinburgh and the Lothians Structure Plan Renewable energy policy is outlined in Policy ENV6. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. X A required change to the plan is the specific reference to geothermal energy. The plan will be superseded by the Edinburgh and the Lothians Strategic Development Plan ( SDP), which is expected to be submitted to Scottish Ministers in summer/ autumn 2012. Consideration should be given to geothermal energy during the development of the SDP.
Local Plan Clackmannanshire Local Plan Renewable energy and energy efficiency policies are outlined in Policy INF9 and INF10 as detailed below. A Supplementary Advice Note relating to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency is planned to be prepared by Clackmannanshire Council. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. X A required change to the plan is the specific reference to geothermal energy. The local plan will be replaced by the Clackmannanshire Local Development Plan ( LDP). Consideration should be given to geothermal energy during the development of the LDP.
Local Plan Mid Fife Local Plan

Policy I1 provides guidance in relation to Renewable Energy. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy.

Dunfermline and West Fife Local Plan St. Andrews and East Fife Local Plan

X A required change to the plan is the specific reference to geothermal energy. The local plan will be replaced by the Fife Local Development Plan ( LDP). Consideration should be given to geothermal energy during the development of the LDP.
Local Plan Glasgow City Plan 2 Energy policy is provided by Policy ENV15, which primarily relates to new buildings. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. X A required change to the plan is the specific reference to geothermal energy. The city plan will be replaced by the Glasgow Local Development Plan ( LDP) (City Plan 3). Consideration should be given to geothermal energy during the development of the LDP.
Local Plan West Lothian Local Plan A range of renewable energy policy is outlined in the Local Plan including Policy NWR20. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. X A required change to the plan is the specific reference to geothermal energy. The local plan will be replaced by the West Lothian Local Development Plan ( LDP). Consideration should be given to geothermal energy during the development of the LDP.

Emerging Policy and Plans

Document Type Document Title Review of Planning Document (Summary) Reference to Energy (√ - X - n/a) Reference to Geothermal (√ - X - n/a) Identification of Required Changes Recommendation of Actions
Policy (National) National Planning Framework 3 ( NPF3) NPF3 to be developed by the Scottish Government from autumn 2012. n/a n/a n/a Liaison with NPF3 planning team to ensure the consideration of geothermal energy during the development of the Framework.
Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) TAYplan SDP

The TAYplan SDP outlines a strategy for the region in relation to energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure, and confirms that this infrastructure includes:
- recycling plants
- anaerobic waste digesters
- energy from waste plants
- wind turbines
- biomass plants
- combined heat and power plants
- solar power
- hydro electric power plants
- and similar facilities

The TAYplan SDP's energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure strategy, which includes Policy 6 of the Plan, does not reference geothermal energy or the potential for geothermal energy development.

X Specific reference in the TAYplan SDP's energy and waste/ resource management infrastructure section, including Policy 6, to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development.
Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) Glasgow and the Clyde Valley SDP

The Glasgow and the Clyde Valley SDP outlines a spatial strategy in relation to energy, which includes distributed power plants, based on alternative technologies exploiting opportunities to develop biomass, Combined Heat and Power and other forms of renewable energy.

The SDP also adopts the approach of defining search areas for wind farm development. The SDP outlines a strategy in relation a range of potential energy development, but does not specifically reference geothermal energy.

X Specific reference in the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley SDP's energy and a paradigm shift section to geothermal energy.
Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) SESplan SDP The SESplan SDP is to be submitted to Scottish Ministers in summer/ autumn 2012. The plan does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. X Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the emerging SDP.
Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) Aberdeen City and Shire SDP The Main Issues Report ( MIR) was published in October 2011 and was followed by a consultation period and review of responses. The proposed Strategic Development Plan ( SDP) is being prepared and is expected to be published in November 2012 and followed by a seven week consultation period. X Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the emerging SDP.
Local Development Plan ( LDP) Aberdeen City LDP The Aberdeen LDP addresses a range of renewable energy issues including energy from waste, combined heat and power, low carbon energy and wind energy. The LDP does not specifically reference geothermal energy as part of the renewable energy strategy. X Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the LDP. Supplementary Guidance should be prepared to provide detailed guidance on the topic.
Local Development Plan ( LDP) Highland-wide LDP The Highland-wide LDP outlines energy considerations and policy in relation to wind energy, hydro electric power, biomass, energy from waste, landfill gas and marine renewable. The LDP does not outline guidance and policy specifically in relation to geothermal energy. X Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the LDP. Supplementary Guidance should be prepared to provide detailed guidance on the topic.
Local Development Plan ( LDP) Clackmannanshire LDP The adopted local plan will be replaced by the Clackmannanshire Local Development Plan ( LDP). Chapter 4 of the Main Issues Report ( MIR) outlines a vision and key issues in relation to climate change. The MIR does not make specific reference to geothermal energy. The LDP Proposed Plan is being prepared for public consultation. X X Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the emerging LDP. During the development of the LDP, consideration should be given to geothermal energy development. Supplementary Guidance should be prepared to provide detailed guidance on the topic.
Local Development Plan ( LDP) Fife LDP The adopted local plan will be replaced by the Fife Local Development Plan ( LDP). X X Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the emerging LDP. The potential for geothermal energy development should be highlighted through the Local Development Plan Exchange liaison group. Consideration should be given to geothermal energy development as a Main Issue in the Main Issues Report ( MIR) of the emerging LDP. This should be supported by specific policy and Supplementary Guidance relating to the topic.
Local Development Plan ( LDP) Glasgow LDP The adopted city plan will be replaced by the Glasgow Local Development Plan ( LDP) (City Plan 3). The Main Issues Report ( MIR) outlines issues relating to renewable energy and local heat and power. The MIR proposes a new key policy ' KP2 - Energy and Related Developments', which addresses these issues and may be supported by Supplementary Guidance. The LDP Proposed Plan is being prepared for public consultation. Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the emerging LDP. Consideration of geothermal energy development should be addressed through new key policy KP2 and Supplementary Guidance.
Local Development Plan ( LDP) West Lothian LDP The adopted local plan will be replaced by the West Lothian Local Development Plan ( LDP). X X Specific reference to geothermal energy and the potential for geothermal energy development is required in the emerging LDP. Consideration should be given to geothermal energy development as a Main Issue in the Main Issues Report ( MIR) of the emerging LDP. This should be supported by specific policy and Supplementary Guidance relating to the topic.

Contact