Sheep attacks and harassment: research
Findings from survey research on sheep worrying and wildlife attacks on sheep.
3. See Appendix E for a map of the regions
6. Waters, A. (2017) Helping prevent sheep attacks Veterinary Record 180, 314
7. Tim Price, NFU Mutual quoted here: https://www.scotland.police.uk/whats-happening/news/2019/january/sparc-launches-extended-livestock-worrying-campaign
8. Waters, A. (2017) Helping prevent sheep attacks Veterinary Record 180, 314
9. Phythian, C. J. et al. Validating indicators of sheep welfare through a consensus of expert opinion. 943-952 (2011). doi:10.1017/S1751731110002594
10. Dukti, S. A., Southwood, L. L. & Van Metre, D. C. Survival and factors affecting survival in small ruminants and camelids attacked by dogs : 62 cases ( 1994 ^ 2004 ). 17, 257-261 (2007).
11. Keller-Wood, M., Cudd, T. A., Norman, W., Caldwell, S. M. & Wood, C. E. Sheep Model for Study of Maternal Adrenal Gland Function During Pregnancy. Lab. Anim. Sci. 48, 507-512 (1998).
12. Cockram, M. S. A review of behavioural and physiological responses of sheep to stressors to identify potential behavioural signs of distress. Anim. Welf. 13, 283-291 (2004).
13. Baldock, N. M. & Sibly, R. M. Effects of handling and transportation on the heart rate and behaviour of sheep. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 28, 15-39 (1990)
14. Barrnett, J I and Hemsworth, P. H. The Validity of Physiological and Behavioural Measures of Animal Welfare. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 25, 177-187 (1990).
15. Cockram, M. S. A review of behavioural and physiological responses of sheep to stressors to identify potential behavioural signs of distress. Anim. Welf. 13, 283-291 (2004).
16. Ralph, C.R. & Tilbrook, A.J. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in sheep is attenuated during lactation in response to psychosocial and predator stress. Domestic Animal Edoncrinology 2016 Apr; 55: 66-73
17. Dwyer, C. M. How has the risk predation shaped the behavioural responses of sheep to fear and distress? Anim. Welf. 13, 269-281 (2004).
18. Romeyer, A. & Bouissou, M. F. Assessment of fear reactions in domestic sheep, and influence of breed and rearing conditions. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 34, 93-119 (1992).
19. Dwyer, C. M. How has the risk predation shaped the behavioural responses of sheep to fear and distress? Anim. Welf. 13, 269-281 (2004).
20. Christiansen, F. O., Bakken, M. & Braastad, B. O. Behavioural differences between three breed groups of hunting dogs confronted with domestic sheep. 72, 115-129 (2001).
21. Oxley, J.A, Evans, B. & Montrose, T. (2017) Prevention of Sheep Worrying in the UK: Rethinking the approach: Journal of Veterinary Behaviour 19 (2017), 61-63
22. Waters, A. (2017) Helping prevent sheep attacks Veterinary Record 180, 314
23. Christiansen, F. O., Bakken, M. & Braastad, B. O. Behavioural changes and aversive conditioning in hunting dogs by the second-year confrontation with domestic sheep. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 72, 131-143 (2001).
24. Hansen, I., Bakken, M. & Olai, B. Failure of LiCl-conditioned taste aversion to prevent dogs from attacking sheep. 1591, (1997).
28. Dwyer, C. M. How has the risk predation shaped the behavioural responses of sheep to fear and distress? Anim. Welf. 13, 269-281 (2004).
29. Allen, L. R., Stewart-Moore, N., Byrne, D. & Allen, B. L. Guardian dogs protect sheep by guarding sheep , not by establishing territories and excluding predators. Animal Production Science 57. 1118-1127 (2017).
30. Marquiss, M., Madders, M., Irvine, J. and Carss, D. N. (2002) The Impact of White Tailed Eagles on Sheep Farming in Mull: https://www.gov.scot/resource/doc/47060/0014566.pdf
31. Campbell, S., and Hartley, G., (2004), Investigation into Golden Eagle Predation on Lambs on Benbecula. Scottish Agricultural Science Agency, https://www.sasa.gov.uk/content/investigation-golden-eagle-predation-lambs-benbecula-2003
32. Heydon, M. J. & Reynolds, J. C. Fox (Vulpes vulpes) management in three contrasting regions of Britain, in relation to agricultural and sporting interests. J. Zool. 251, 237-252 (2000).
33. R. Hewson. Scavenging and Predation Upon Sheep and Lambs in West Scotland. J. Appl. Ecol. 21, 843-868 (1984).
34. White, P. C. L., Groves, H. L., Savery J. R., Conington, J. & Hutchings, M. R. Fox predation as a cause of lamb mortality on hill farms. Vet. Rec. 147, 33-37 (2000).
35. Allen, L. R., Stewart-moore, N., Byrne, D. & Allen, B. L. Guardian dogs protect sheep by guarding sheep , not by establishing territories and excluding predators. Animal Production Science 57 1118-1127 (2017).
36. Manning, J. K. et al. A pilot study into the use of global navigation satellite system technology to quantify the behavioural responses of sheep during simulated dog predation events. Animal Production Science. 54 1676-1681 (2014).
37. Llario, F., Sendra, S., Parra, L. & Lloret, J. Detection and protection of the attacks to the sheep and goats using an intelligent wireless sensor network. in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC) 1015-1019 (2013).
38. Panic, N., Leoncini, E., Giulio de, B., Walter, R. & Boccia, S. Evaluation of the Endorsement of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) Statement on the Quality of Published Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. PLoS One (2013). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083138
39. Kysh, L. (University of S. C. What's in a name? The difference between a Systematic Review and a Literature Review and why it matters. doi:10.3906/sag-1704-10
40. In recognition of the different physical and socio-economic characteristics across the regions, the European Union introduced the Less Favoured Area (LFA) designation to support farming where production conditions are difficult. The criteria for LFA designation were first established in European legislation in 1975 (Directive 75/268 EEC and accompanying measures). There are 3 types of LFA's; all in Scotland fall into the category of simple LFA's marked by poor soils and low agricultural income. Scotland's LFA's are defined by: (i) The presence of poor land of poor productivity, which is difficult to cultivate and with a limited potential which cannot be increased except at excessive cost, and which is mainly suitable for extensive livestock farming. (ii) lower than average production, compared to the main indices of economic performance in agriculture. (iii) a low or dwindling population predominantly dependent on agricultural activity, the accelerated decline of which could cause rural depopulation
41. See Appendix E for a map of the regions.
42. See Appendix E for a map of the regions
43. These are the three most rural categories in the Scottish Government 8 fold urban rural classification. There were insufficient farms in the five (more urban) categories to include in the analysis. https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/About/Methodology/UrbanRuralClassification
44. The precise estimate is 7,257 with a lower estimate of 4,421 and an upper estimate of 10,093.
45. The precise estimate is 50,243 with a lower estimate of 44,525 and an upper estimate of 55,962.
46. The questionnaire response option was 'black backed gull' and did not therefore distinguish between the great black backed gull and the lesser black backed gull.
47. Full details of this can be found in table Appendix C
48. To a large extent, the types of sheep affected reflect the overall numbers of each type (rather than vulnerability to attack)
49. Based on the minimum rate for agricultural workers with a qualification at SCQF Level 6/7 or above which was £9.46 per hour at April 2019. https://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-agricultural-wages-board/pages/4/ Total cost to the sector is based on the average cost per incident multiplied by the estimated total number of incidents of 7,257 (see page 22).
50. Total cost to the sector is based on the average cost per incident multiplied by the estimated total number of incidents of 50,243 (see page 23).
51. It should be borne in mind that these are based on estimates respondents gave when they responded to the survey and in some cases will be very rough. They were asked "approximately what was the financial cost, if any, of the incident to you? If you are not sure, please give your best estimate." They were then presented with the categories of costs shown in Figures 7.1 and 7.2 and asked to estimate the cost of each. Estimates of the lost value of sheep and aborted lambs could clearly be calculated in different ways depending on, for example, whether they are based on the saleable value at the time of the incident or the potential future value but, to avoid making provision of the estimate too complicated or time-consuming, respondents were not provided with instructions about how they should calculate these costs. It should also be noted that the costs discussed in this section reflect only the cost to the sheep farmers - other individuals or organisations may also incur costs as a result of attacks (e.g. the police, neighbouring farmers who also take action as a result).
52. Where respondents did receive money, we do not have details of the source
53. The Scottish Police College at Tulliallan
54. There was a correlation between putting the measures in place and having experienced more attacks and more recent attacks. It is therefore not possible to gauge the effectiveness of different measures from rates of attack.
55. Again, as with dog attacks, there was a correlation between putting the measures in place and having experienced more attacks and more recent attacks. It is therefore not possible to gauge the effectiveness of different measures from rates of attack.
56. Though this should be treated with caution as working with a local gamekeeper to control badgers was only reported by 11 respondents.
57. A small number of respondents indicated that they were using a fox control club to help prevent attacks by other species (crows, ravens, badgers and black backed gulls).
58. The precise estimate is 7,257 with a lower estimate of 4,421 and an upper estimate of 10,093.
59. The precise estimate is 50,243 with a lower estimate of 44,525 and an upper estimate of 55,962.
60. Total cost to the sector is based on the average cost per incident multiplied by the estimated total number of incidents of 45,000 (see page 23).
61. The estimated total cost to sheep farmers is based on the average time cost of each attack plus the average financial cost of each attack multiplied by the estimated total number of attacks. The precise estimate for dog attacks £5,425,769 with a lower estimate of £3,305,405 and an upper estimate of £7,546,132. The precise estimate for wildlife attacks £22,252,625 with a lower estimate of £19,720,123 and an upper estimate of £24,785,570
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