1. COP23 was the 2017 UN Climate Change Conference, incorporating the 23rd Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC)
2. Using UK Government estimates of long-term carbon valuations. Discounted to 2018 prices the cost of the cumulative shortfall ranges is estimated at £6 billion
Based on emission data from SEPA, cost per tonne from a CONCAWE review ( https://www.concawe.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/cr202-ccs-2011-04593-01-e.pdf), OFX exchange rate data (April 2018) and adjusted to 2017 prices using ONS quarterly national accounts.
4. Scottish Government analysis using the EU Carbon Leakage List and data from the Scottish Annual Business Statistics 2015 and Export Statistics Scotland 2016.